intervertebral disk

Summary

Summary: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.

Top Publications

  1. Li S, Jia X, Duance V, Blain E. The effects of cyclic tensile strain on the organisation and expression of cytoskeletal elements in bovine intervertebral disc cells: an in vitro study. Eur Cell Mater. 2011;21:508-22 pubmed
    ..Differential mechano-regulation of anabolic and catabolic ECM components in the OAF and NP populations reflects their respective mechanical environments in situ. ..
  2. Hiyama A, Sakai D, Tanaka M, Arai F, Nakajima D, Abe K, et al. The relationship between the Wnt/?-catenin and TGF-?/BMP signals in the intervertebral disc cell. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1139-48 pubmed publisher
  3. Kepler C, Markova D, Dibra F, Yadla S, Vaccaro A, Risbud M, et al. Expression and relationship of proinflammatory chemokine RANTES/CCL5 and cytokine IL-1? in painful human intervertebral discs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory study...
  4. Freeman A, Buttermann G, Beaubien B, Rochefort W. Compressive properties of fibrous repair tissue compared to nucleus and annulus. J Biomech. 2013;46:1714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibrous tissue would not be a substitute for native tissue within the disc space but if adjacent to a disc prosthesis may impart some degree of intersegmental stability during acute loading activities...
  5. Paul C, Schoorl T, Zuiderbaan H, Zandieh Doulabi B, van der Veen A, van de Ven P, et al. Dynamic and static overloading induce early degenerative processes in caprine lumbar intervertebral discs. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62411 pubmed publisher
    ..The described cascades provide leads for the development of new pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies to halt the progression of DDD...
  6. Fu W, Xiang Z. [Regeneration strategies of intervertebral disc]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013;27:227-32 pubmed
    ..To review the research progress of the seed cells, scaffolds, growth factors, and the prospects for clinical application of the intervertebral disc regeneration...
  7. Purmessur D, Walter B, Roughley P, Laudier D, Hecht A, Iatridis J. A role for TNF? in intervertebral disc degeneration: a non-recoverable catabolic shift. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results therefore suggest that successful treatments must promote anabolism and cell proliferation in addition to limiting inflammation...
  8. Albert H, Lambert P, Rollason J, Sorensen J, Worthington T, Pedersen M, et al. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?. Eur Spine J. 2013;22:690-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Local inflammation in the adjacent bone may be a secondary effect due to cytokine and propionic acid production...
  9. Chan S, Bürki A, Bonel H, Benneker L, Gantenbein Ritter B. Papain-induced in vitro disc degeneration model for the study of injectable nucleus pulposus therapy. Spine J. 2013;13:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteolytic enzyme digestion of the intervertebral disc (IVD) offers a method to simulate a condition of disc degeneration for the study of cell-scaffold constructs in the degenerated disc...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Tian Y, Yuan W, Fujita N, Wang J, Wang H, Shapiro I, et al. Inflammatory cytokines associated with degenerative disc disease control aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS-4) expression in nucleus pulposus cells through MAPK and NF-?B. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:2310-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study to show nonredundant contribution of both ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 to aggrecan degradation in human NP cells in vitro...
  2. Wang H, Tian Y, Wang J, Phillips K, Binch A, Dunn S, et al. Inflammatory cytokines induce NOTCH signaling in nucleus pulposus cells: implications in intervertebral disc degeneration. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:16761-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, controlling IL-1? and TNF-? activities during disc disease may restore NOTCH signaling and nucleus pulposus cell function...
  3. Tran C, Shapiro I, Risbud M. Molecular regulation of CCN2 in the intervertebral disc: lessons learned from other connective tissues. Matrix Biol. 2013;32:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of CCN2 in this tissue may reveal valuable targets for the biological therapy of disc degeneration...
  4. van Dijk B, Potier E, Ito K. Long-term culture of bovine nucleus pulposus explants in a native environment. Spine J. 2013;13:454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Regenerative therapies for disc repair are promising treatments, but they need to be tested in physiological models...
  5. Risbud M, Shapiro I. Role of cytokines in intervertebral disc degeneration: pain and disc content. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014;10:44-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, the role of key inflammatory cytokines during each of the individual phases of degenerative disc disease, as well as the outcomes of major clinical studies aimed at blocking cytokine function, are discussed. ..
  6. Li Z, Shen J, Wu W, Yu X, Liang J, Qiu G, et al. The role of leptin on the organization and expression of cytoskeleton elements in nucleus pulposus cells. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:847-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptin also induced vimentin expression but had no effect on ?-tubulin in NP cells. These findings provide novel evidence supporting the possible involvement of leptin in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration...
  7. Driscoll T, Nakasone R, Szczesny S, Elliott D, Mauck R. Biaxial mechanics and inter-lamellar shearing of stem-cell seeded electrospun angle-ply laminates for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:864-70 pubmed publisher
    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disk plays a critical role in vertebral load transmission that is heavily dependent on the microscale structure and composition of the tissue...
  8. Hudson K, Alimi M, Grunert P, Hartl R, Bonassar L. Recent advances in biological therapies for disc degeneration: tissue engineering of the annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus and whole intervertebral discs. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2013;24:872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The few in vivo studies show promise in retaining disc height and MRI T2 signal intensity, the gold standard in determining disc health...
  9. Smolders L, Meij B, Riemers F, Licht R, Wubbolts R, Heuvel D, et al. Canonical Wnt signaling in the notochordal cell is upregulated in early intervertebral disk degeneration. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:950-7 pubmed publisher
    ..notochordal cell (NC) of the nucleus pulposus (NP) is considered a potential NP progenitor cell, and early intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration involves replacement of NCs by chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs)...
  10. Risbud M, Shapiro I. Notochordal cells in the adult intervertebral disc: new perspective on an old question. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2011;21:29-41 pubmed
    ..In turn, this would lead to decrements in function and enhancement of the effect of agents that are known to promote disc degeneration. ..
  11. Bergknut N, Rutges J, Kranenburg H, Smolders L, Hagman R, Smidt H, et al. The dog as an animal model for intervertebral disc degeneration?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..late onset of IVDD, respectively) to develop an optimal canine model of human IVDD. ..
  12. Skubutyte R, Markova D, Freeman T, Anderson D, Dion A, Williams C, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulation of ANK expression in nucleus pulposus cells: possible implications in controlling dystrophic mineralization in the intervertebral disc. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:2707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Both HIF-1 and HIF-2 serve as negative regulators of ANK expression in the disc. We propose that baseline expression of ANK in the disc serves to prevent mineral formation under physiologic conditions. ..
  13. Smith L, Nerurkar N, Choi K, Harfe B, Elliott D. Degeneration and regeneration of the intervertebral disc: lessons from development. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the current status of biological therapeutic strategies that promote disc regeneration and repair, and how lessons from development might provide clues for their refinement. ..
  14. Korecki C, Taboas J, Tuan R, Iatridis J. Notochordal cell conditioned medium stimulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a young nucleus pulposus phenotype. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2010;1:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, results suggest NCCM stimulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a potentially NP-like phenotype with some characteristics of the developing IVD. ..
  15. Dahia C, Mahoney E, Wylie C. Shh signaling from the nucleus pulposus is required for the postnatal growth and differentiation of the mouse intervertebral disc. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35944 pubmed publisher
  16. Miyamoto T, Muneta T, Tabuchi T, Matsumoto K, Saito H, Tsuji K, et al. Intradiscal transplantation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells prevents intervertebral disc degeneration through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-related genes in nucleus pulposus cells in rabbits. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R206 pubmed publisher
  17. Kang J. Does a needle puncture into the annulus fibrosus cause disc degeneration?. Spine J. 2010;10:1106-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Michalek AJ, Buckley MR, Bonassar LJ, et al. The effects of needle puncture injury on microscale shear strain in the intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus. Spine J 2010:10:1098-105 (in this issue). ..
  18. Gregory D, Callaghan J. A comparison of uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosus: a porcine model. J Biomech Eng. 2011;133:024503 pubmed publisher
    The annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disk experiences multidirectional tension in vivo, yet the majority of mechanical property testing has been uniaxial...
  19. Gloria A, De Santis R, Ambrosio L, Causa F, Tanner K. A multi-component fiber-reinforced PHEMA-based hydrogel/HAPEX™ device for customized intervertebral disc prosthesis. J Biomater Appl. 2011;25:795-810 pubmed publisher
    ..Static and dynamic-mechanical characterization show appropriate mechanical behavior. An example of engineering of a suitable pilot-scale device production process is also proposed in order to manufacture custom made implants...
  20. Moss I, Gordon L, Woodhouse K, Whyne C, Yee A. A novel thiol-modified hyaluronan and elastin-like polypetide composite material for tissue engineering of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:1022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TM-HA-based hydrogels provide a hospitable environment for human IVD cells and have material characteristics, particularly when supplemented with ELPs that are attractive for potential application as an injectable NP supplement. ..
  21. Sinclair S, Shamji M, Chen J, Jing L, Richardson W, Brown C, et al. Attenuation of inflammatory events in human intervertebral disc cells with a tumor necrosis factor antagonist. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:1190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest this sTNFR to be a potent TNF antagonist with potential to attenuate inflammation in IVD pathology. ..
  22. Recuerda M, Coté S, Villemure I, Périé D. Influence of experimental protocols on the mechanical properties of the intervertebral disc in unconfined compression. J Biomech Eng. 2011;133:071006 pubmed publisher
    ..7 kPa. The protocol with semi confined swelling and a 5% strain ramp is the most relevant protocol for the nucleus pulposus and provides a permeability of 10.7 ± 3.1 e(-14)m(4)/N[middle dot]s and a Young's modulus of 6.0 ± 2.5 kPa. ..
  23. Orita S, Ohtori S, Nagata M, Horii M, Yamashita M, Yamauchi K, et al. Inhibiting nerve growth factor or its receptors downregulates calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia innervating injured intervertebral discs. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:1614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Direct intradiscal application of antibody to NGF or its receptors suppressed CGRP expression, and p75(NTR) antagonism induced the most profound suppression...
  24. Kingsley M, D Silva L, Jennings C, Humphries B, Dalbo V, Scanlan A. Moderate-intensity running causes intervertebral disc compression in young adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:2199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that future studies evaluating the influence of various loading activities and recovery techniques on IVD structure should consider thoracic as well as lumbar regions of the spine. ..
  25. Rodriguez A, Slichter C, Acosta F, Rodriguez Soto A, Burghardt A, Majumdar S, et al. Human disc nucleus properties and vertebral endplate permeability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Because permeability and porosity increase with age and degeneration, this implies that cell dysfunction, rather than physical barriers to transport, accelerates disc disease. ..
  26. Hristova G, Jarzem P, Ouellet J, Roughley P, Epure L, Antoniou J, et al. Calcification in human intervertebral disc degeneration and scoliosis. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:1888-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that disc degeneration in adults is associated with ongoing mineral deposition and that mineralization in AIS discs might reflect a premature degenerative process. ..
  27. Bergknut N, Meij B, Hagman R, de Nies K, Rutges J, Smolders L, et al. Intervertebral disc disease in dogs - part 1: a new histological grading scheme for classification of intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs. Vet J. 2013;195:156-63 pubmed publisher
  28. Neidlinger Wilke C, Mietsch A, Rinkler C, Wilke H, Ignatius A, Urban J. Interactions of environmental conditions and mechanical loads have influence on matrix turnover by nucleus pulposus cells. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..For ongoing in vitro studies, interactions between mechanical stimuli and factors in the physicochemical environment should not be ignored as these could markedly influence results. ..
  29. Walter B, Korecki C, Purmessur D, Roughley P, Michalek A, Iatridis J. Complex loading affects intervertebral disc mechanics and biology. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19:1011-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Melrose J, Shu C, Young C, Ho R, Smith M, Young A, et al. Mechanical destabilization induced by controlled annular incision of the intervertebral disc dysregulates metalloproteinase expression and induces disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of aggrecan from the NP was not attributable to increased proteolysis in the interglobular domain by MMPs or ADAMTS...
  31. Calderon L, Collin E, Velasco Bayon D, Murphy M, O Halloran D, Pandit A. Type II collagen-hyaluronan hydrogel--a step towards a scaffold for intervertebral disc tissue engineering. Eur Cell Mater. 2010;20:134-48 pubmed
    ..Further investigations should be conducted to determine its potential as scaffold for nucleus pulposus regeneration/repair. ..
  32. Li Z, Shen J, Wu W, Yu X, Liang J, Qiu G, et al. Leptin induces cyclin D1 expression and proliferation of human nucleus pulposus cells via JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53176 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may provide a novel molecular mechanism that explains the association between obesity and intervertebral disc degeneration. ..
  33. Sakai D, Nakamura Y, Nakai T, Mishima T, Kato S, Grad S, et al. Exhaustion of nucleus pulposus progenitor cells with ageing and degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1264 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, angiopoietin-1, a ligand of Tie2, is crucial for the survival of nucleus pulposus cells. Our results offer insights for regenerative therapy and a new diagnostic standard. ..
  34. Barbir A, Godburn K, Michalek A, Lai A, Monsey R, Iatridis J. Effects of torsion on intervertebral disc gene expression and biomechanics, using a rat tail model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Torsional loading can cause injury to the disc at excessive amplitudes that are detectable biologically before they are biomechanically. ..
  35. Blanco J, Graciani I, Sanchez Guijo F, Muntion S, Hernandez Campo P, Santamaria C, et al. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells from human degenerated nucleus pulposus: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells from the same subjects. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:2259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that we may treat intervertebral disc degeneration by cell therapy (MSC from BM) and by stimulating endogenous MSC from NP. ..
  36. Chiang C, Cheng C, Sun J, Liao C, Wang Y, Tsuang Y. The effect of a new anular repair after discectomy in intervertebral disc degeneration: an experimental study using a porcine spine model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct repair of anular incision by this suturing method does significantly slow down degenerative process within discs after discectomy. ..
  37. Delamarter R, Zigler J, Balderston R, Cammisa F, Goldstein J, Spivak J. Prospective, randomized, multicenter Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study of the ProDisc-L total disc replacement compared with circumferential arthrodesis for the treatment of two-level lumbar degenerative disc disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93:705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine the risks for implant wear and/or degenerative segment changes. ..
  38. Kranenburg H, Grinwis G, Bergknut N, Gahrmann N, Voorhout G, Hazewinkel H, et al. Intervertebral disc disease in dogs - part 2: comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and histological findings in 74 surgically treated dogs. Vet J. 2013;195:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the MRI grading system reflected the severity of IVD degenerative changes as confirmed by histopathology, it appeared less useful in predicting the clinical implications. ..
  39. Burkus J, Haid R, Traynelis V, Mummaneni P. Long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of cervical disc replacement with the Prestige disc: results from a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;13:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..376). Some of the second surgeries involved both index and adjacent levels. The Prestige disc maintains improved clinical outcomes and segmental motion after implantation at 5-year follow-up. ..
  40. Gogate S, Nasser R, Shapiro I, Risbud M. Hypoxic regulation of ?-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1 expression in nucleus pulposus cells of the rat intervertebral disc: role of hypoxia-inducible factor proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1950-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) proteins regulate expression of ?-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1 (GlcAT-1), a key enzyme in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in nucleus pulposus cells...
  41. Gruber H, Hoelscher G, Ingram J, Bethea S, Zinchenko N, Hanley E. Variations in aggrecan localization and gene expression patterns characterize increasing stages of human intervertebral disk degeneration. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;91:534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such information may have application as we work towards biologic therapies to improve the aging/degenerating disk matrix...
  42. Strassburg S, Richardson S, Freemont A, Hoyland J. Co-culture induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and modulation of the degenerate human nucleus pulposus cell phenotype. Regen Med. 2010;5:701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the differences in interaction between human MSCs and NP cells from both nondegenerate and degenerate discs during in vitro co-culture with direct cell-cell contact...
  43. Gruber H, Watts J, Hoelscher G, Bethea S, Ingram J, Zinchenko N, et al. Mitochondrial gene expression in the human annulus: in vivo data from annulus cells and selectively harvested senescent annulus cells. Spine J. 2011;11:782-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in the degenerating and senescent annulus cells. The objective of the present study was to analyze gene expression profiles related to mitochondrial function in vivo...
  44. Blumenkrantz G, Zuo J, Li X, Kornak J, Link T, Majumdar S. In vivo 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance T1rho and T2 relaxation mapping in subjects with intervertebral disc degeneration and clinical symptoms. Magn Reson Med. 2010;63:1193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that T(1rho) may be sensitive to early degenerative changes (corroborating previous studies) and clinical symptoms in intervertebral disc degeneration...
  45. van den Eerenbeemt K, Ostelo R, Van Royen B, Peul W, van Tulder M. Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:1262-80 pubmed publisher
    ..High quality randomized controlled trials with relevant control group and long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TDR...
  46. Gabr M, Jing L, Helbling A, Sinclair S, Allen K, Shamji M, et al. Interleukin-17 synergizes with IFN? or TNF? to promote inflammatory mediator release and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in human intervertebral disc cells. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-17 may be an important regulator of inflammation in the IVD pathologies...
  47. Jing L, So S, Lim S, Richardson W, Fitch R, Setton L, et al. Differential expression of galectin-1 and its interactions with cells and laminins in the intervertebral disc. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This MACS protocol may be useful for selecting pure IVD cells from mixed cells of pathological tissue...
  48. Gruber H, Hoelscher G, Ingram J, Hanley E. Genome-wide analysis of pain-, nerve- and neurotrophin -related gene expression in the degenerating human annulus. Mol Pain. 2012;8:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Control, non-herniated clinical, and herniated clinical specimens of human annulus tissue were studied following Institutional Review Board approval...
  49. Liu L, Huang B, Li C, Zhuang Y, Wang J, Zhou Y. Characteristics of stem cells derived from the degenerated human intervertebral disc cartilage endplate. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26285 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may improve our understanding of intervertebral disc (IVD) pathophysiology and the degeneration process, and could provide cell candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering...
  50. Collin E, Grad S, Zeugolis D, Vinatier C, Clouet J, Guicheux J, et al. An injectable vehicle for nucleus pulposus cell-based therapy. Biomaterials. 2011;32:2862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The optimally stabilised and functionalised type II collagen/HA hydrogel system developed in this study shows promise as an injectable reservoir system for intervertebral disc regeneration...
  51. Zuo J, Joseph G, Li X, Link T, Hu S, Berven S, et al. In vivo intervertebral disc characterization using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T1? imaging: association with discography and Oswestry Disability Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An in vivo study of intervertebral disc degeneration by using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
  52. Jeong J, Lee J, Jin E, Min J, Jeon S, Choi K. Regeneration of intervertebral discs in a rat disc degeneration model by implanted adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:1771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the potential of ADSC implantation to restore disc in a rat IVD model...
  53. O Connell G, Vresilovic E, Elliott D. Human intervertebral disc internal strain in compression: the effect of disc region, loading position, and degeneration. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:547-55 pubmed publisher
  54. Feng G, Li L, Liu H, Song Y, Huang F, Tu C, et al. Hypoxia differentially regulates human nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cell extracellular matrix production in 3D scaffolds. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we aimed to determine the transcriptional response and extracellular matrix (ECM) production of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) cells to different oxygen tension...
  55. Paul C, Zuiderbaan H, Zandieh Doulabi B, van der Veen A, van de Ven P, Smit T, et al. Simulated-physiological loading conditions preserve biological and mechanical properties of caprine lumbar intervertebral discs in ex vivo culture. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33147 pubmed publisher
    ..The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future...
  56. Kepler C, Anderson D, Tannoury C, Ponnappan R. Intervertebral disk degeneration and emerging biologic treatments. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19:543-53 pubmed
    Although understanding of the biologic basis of intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is rapidly advancing, the unique IVD environment presents challenges to the development and delivery of biologic treatments...
  57. Wang J, Markova D, Anderson D, Zheng Z, Shapiro I, Risbud M. TNF-? and IL-1? promote a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motif-5-mediated aggrecan degradation through syndecan-4 in intervertebral disc. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39738-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in nucleus pulposus, TNF-? and IL-1? regulate SDC4 expression, which plays a key role in pathogenesis of degenerative disc disease by promoting aggrecan degradation by ADAMTS-5...
  58. Guterl C, See E, Blanquer S, Pandit A, Ferguson S, Benneker L, et al. Challenges and strategies in the repair of ruptured annulus fibrosus. Eur Cell Mater. 2013;25:1-21 pubmed
    ..This will benefit from a close collaboration between research groups with expertise in all areas addressed in this review...
  59. Smolders L, Bergknut N, Grinwis G, Hagman R, Lagerstedt A, Hazewinkel H, et al. Intervertebral disc degeneration in the dog. Part 2: chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic breeds. Vet J. 2013;195:292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This second part describes the similarities and differences in the histopathological and biochemical characteristics of IVD degeneration in CD and NCD canine breeds and discusses relevant aetiological factors of IVD degeneration...
  60. Hancock M, Battie M, Videman T, Gibbons L. The role of back injury or trauma in lumbar disc degeneration: an exposure-discordant twin study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1925-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure discordant twin study...
  61. Bergknut N, Auriemma E, Wijsman S, Voorhout G, Hagman R, Lagerstedt A, et al. Evaluation of intervertebral disk degeneration in chondrodystrophic and nonchondrodystrophic dogs by use of Pfirrmann grading of images obtained with low-field magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:893-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess whether the Pfirrmann system for grading lumbar intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration in humans can also be used in dogs.
  62. Sowa G, Coelho J, Bell K, Zorn A, Vo N, Smolinski P, et al. Alterations in gene expression in response to compression of nucleus pulposus cells. Spine J. 2011;11:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that nucleus pulposus cells would respond to compressive stress with different thresholds for alterations in catabolic and anabolic gene expression...
  63. Risbud M, Schaer T, Shapiro I. Toward an understanding of the role of notochordal cells in the adult intervertebral disc: from discord to accord. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the most critical choice for a suitable animal model should relate more to the anatomical and mechanical characteristics of the motion segment than concerns of cell loss and replacement by non-notochordal cells...
  64. Abbott R, Howe A, Langevin H, Iatridis J. Live free or die: stretch-induced apoptosis occurs when adaptive reorientation of annulus fibrosus cells is restricted. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;421:361-6 pubmed publisher
  65. Gilbert H, Hoyland J, Freemont A, Millward Sadler S. The involvement of interleukin-1 and interleukin-4 in the response of human annulus fibrosus cells to cyclic tensile strain: an altered mechanotransduction pathway with degeneration. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R8 pubmed publisher
  66. Liebscher T, Haefeli M, Wuertz K, Nerlich A, Boos N. Age-related variation in cell density of human lumbar intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in cell density of endplate (EP), nucleus pulposus (NP), and anulus fibrosus (AF) during ageing were systematically investigated in defined regions of interest in complete human motion segments...
  67. Périé D, Curnier D. Effect of pathology type and severity on the distribution of MRI signal intensities within the degenerated nucleus pulposus: application to idiopathic scoliosis and spondylolisthesis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:189 pubmed publisher
  68. Park S, Gil E, Cho H, Mandal B, Tien L, Min B, et al. Intervertebral disk tissue engineering using biphasic silk composite scaffolds. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:447-58 pubmed publisher
    Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function...
  69. Gloria A, Borzacchiello A, Causa F, Ambrosio L. Rheological characterization of hyaluronic acid derivatives as injectable materials toward nucleus pulposus regeneration. J Biomater Appl. 2012;26:745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Both HA derivatives showed a 'gel-like' rheological behavior similar to the native NP tissue and this behavior was not altered by injection...
  70. Studer R, Vo N, Sowa G, Ondeck C, Kang J. Human nucleus pulposus cells react to IL-6: independent actions and amplification of response to IL-1 and TNF-?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:593-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION.: The results suggest maneuvers to diminish IL-6 production in the disc could provide some protection against the adverse effects of IL-1 and TNF-?, thus, helping preserve disc composition, structure, and function...
  71. Gilchrist C, Darling E, Chen J, Setton L. Extracellular matrix ligand and stiffness modulate immature nucleus pulposus cell-cell interactions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27170 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that NP cell organization and phenotype may be highly sensitive to their surrounding extracellular matrix environment...
  72. Malandrino A, Noailly J, Lacroix D. The effect of sustained compression on oxygen metabolic transport in the intervertebral disc decreases with degenerative changes. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1002112 pubmed publisher
    ..Such relation, relevant to the maintenance of the tissue functional composition, would therefore link disc function with disc nutrition...
  73. Showalter B, Beckstein J, Martin J, Beattie E, Espinoza Orías A, Schaer T, et al. Comparison of animal discs used in disc research to human lumbar disc: torsion mechanics and collagen content. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E900-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these with the human disc...
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    ..The goal of the present study was to use T2 mapping to quantify intervertebral disk water content according to the Pfirrmann classification.
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    ..Additional studies to optimize NC culture conditions are required to determine if NC conditioned medium can be made with the capacity to enhance NP cell proliferation and metabolism...
  76. Milani A, Freemont A, Hoyland J, Adlam D, Saunders B. Injectable doubly cross-linked microgels for improving the mechanical properties of degenerated intervertebral discs. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:2793-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study imply that injectable DX microgels have good potential as a future regenerative medicine strategy for restoring the mechanical properties of degenerated load-bearing soft tissue, such as IVDs...
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    ..In vitro study of the biological response of the intervertebral disc (IVD) to cyclic torsion by using bovine caudal IVDs...
  78. Scholz B, Kinzelmann C, Benz K, Mollenhauer J, Wurst H, Schlosshauer B. Suppression of adverse angiogenesis in an albumin-based hydrogel for articular cartilage and intervertebral disc regeneration. Eur Cell Mater. 2010;20:24-36; discussion 36-7 pubmed
    ..In summary, aiming at articular cartilage and IVD regeneration the albumin gel promises to be a beneficial implant matrix for chondrocytes simultaneously exhibiting non-permissive properties for adverse endothelial cells...
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    ..A possible interaction of glucose supply and hydrostatic pressure (HP) with gene expression by NP cells has not been investigated...
  80. Karwacki Z, Witkowska M, Łasińska Kowara M, Słoniewski P, Wojciechowski J. Iliac artery injury during lumbar microdiscectomy. Anestezjol Intens Ter. 2010;42:24-6 pubmed
    ..Accidental laceration of major abdominal vessels during lumbar disc surgery is a relatively rare complication that requires rapid diagnosis and management...
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    ..It is advised that ozone discolysis, nucleoplasty, and targeted disc decompression should only be performed as part of a study protocol. Future studies should include more strict inclusion criteria...
  82. Keorochana G, Johnson J, Taghavi C, Liao J, Lee K, Yoo J, et al. The effect of needle size inducing degeneration in the rat caudal disc: evaluation using radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Spine J. 2010;10:1014-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the reproducibility and standardization are essential to facilitate the investigations of biologic therapeutics at different stages of degeneration...
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    ..Particular attention is given to the capacity of each structure to generate low back pain...
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    ..A cross-sectional autopsy study...
  85. Gruber H, Hoelscher G, Bethea S, Hanley E. Interleukin 1-beta upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 and neuropilin 2 gene expression and NGF production in annulus cells. Biotech Histochem. 2012;87:506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results have direct translational relevance, because they address the primary clinical issue of low back pain and open the possibility of novel analgesic therapies using specific small-molecular antagonists to neurotrophins...