cartilage

Summary

Summary: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.

Top Publications

  1. Montaseri A, Büsch F, Mobasheri A, Buhrmann C, Aldinger C, Rad J, et al. IGF-1 and PDGF-bb suppress IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation through down-regulation of NF-κB signaling: involvement of Src/PI-3K/AKT pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28663 pubmed publisher
    ..and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation and cartilage degradation (COX-2, MMPs) and apoptosis (caspase-3)...
  2. Lu C, Yeh T, Yeh C, Fang Y, Sung L, Lin S, et al. Regenerating cartilages by engineered ASCs: prolonged TGF-?3/BMP-6 expression improved articular cartilage formation and restored zonal structure. Mol Ther. 2014;22:186-95 pubmed publisher
    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) hold promise for cartilage regeneration but their chondrogenesis potential is inferior...
  3. Bekkers J, Tsuchida A, Van Rijen M, Vonk L, Dhert W, Creemers L, et al. Single-stage cell-based cartilage regeneration using a combination of chondrons and mesenchymal stromal cells: comparison with microfracture. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:2158-66 pubmed publisher
    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is traditionally a 2-step procedure used to repair focal articular cartilage lesions...
  4. Naderi Meshkin H, Andreas K, Matin M, Sittinger M, Bidkhori H, Ahmadiankia N, et al. Chitosan-based injectable hydrogel as a promising in situ forming scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Cell Biol Int. 2014;38:72-84 pubmed publisher
    ..mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be included in the CH-GP-HEC, and injected into the site of injury to fill the cartilage tissue defects with minimal invasion and pain...
  5. Sharma A, Jagga S, Lee S, Nam J. Interplay between cartilage and subchondral bone contributing to pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:19805-30 pubmed publisher
    ..During OA, functional units of joints comprising cartilage and subchondral bone undergo uncontrolled catabolic and anabolic remodeling processes to adapt to local ..
  6. Ciechomska M, Wilson C, Floudas A, Hui W, Rowan A, van Eden W, et al. Antigen-specific B lymphocytes acquire proteoglycan aggrecan from cartilage extracellular matrix resulting in antigen presentation and CD4+ T-cell activation. Immunology. 2014;141:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular we demonstrate that B cells specific for aggrecan, an integral component of cartilage ECM, acquire this rheumatoid arthritis candidate autoantigen in both a B-cell-receptor-dependent and a contact-..
  7. Sun P, Liu Y, Deng X, Yu C, Dai N, Yuan X, et al. An inhibitor of cathepsin K, icariin suppresses cartilage and bone degradation in mice of collagen-induced arthritis. Phytomedicine. 2013;20:975-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum concentrations of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptide (CTX-I) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and urinary concentrations of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured, and ..
  8. Chan C, Lindau P, Jiang W, Chen J, Zhang L, Chen C, et al. Clonal precursor of bone, cartilage, and hematopoietic niche stromal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a lineage-restricted, self-renewing common skeletal progenitor (bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor; BCSP) isolated from limb bones and bone marrow tissue of fetal, neonatal, and adult mice...
  9. Baptista L, Silva K, Pedrosa C, Amaral R, Belizário J, Borojevic R, et al. Bioengineered cartilage in a scaffold-free method by human cartilage-derived progenitor cells: a comparison with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Artif Organs. 2013;37:1068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), using as a positive control a human source of cartilage-derived progenitor cells (PCs)...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Honda K, Kawamoto T, Ueda H, Nakashima A, Ueshima T, Yamada R, et al. Different circadian expression of major matrix-related genes in various types of cartilage: modulation by light-dark conditions. J Biochem. 2013;154:373-81 pubmed publisher
    We screened circadian-regulated genes in rat cartilage by using a DNA microarray analysis...
  2. Rai M, Schmidt E, McAlinden A, Cheverud J, Sandell L. Molecular insight into the association between cartilage regeneration and ear wound healing in genetic mouse models: targeting new genes in regeneration. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:1881-91 pubmed publisher
    ..nonhealer) intercross, we have previously shown a positive genetic correlation between ear wound healing, knee cartilage regeneration, and protection from osteoarthritis...
  3. Zheng R, Duan H, Xue J, Liu Y, Feng B, Zhao S, et al. The influence of Gelatin/PCL ratio and 3-D construct shape of electrospun membranes on cartilage regeneration. Biomaterials. 2014;35:152-64 pubmed publisher
    Scaffolds play an important role in directing three-dimensional (3-D) cartilage regeneration. Our recent study reported the potential advantages of electrospun gelatin/polycaprolactone (GT/PCL) membranes in regenerating 3-D cartilage...
  4. Breu A, Rosenmeier K, Kujat R, Angele P, Zink W. The cytotoxicity of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine on human chondrocytes and cartilage. Anesth Analg. 2013;117:514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that specific cytotoxic potencies directly correlate with analgesic potencies, and that cytotoxic effects in intact cartilage are different than in osteoarthritic tissue.
  5. Kütük N, Bas B, Soylu E, Gonen Z, Yilmaz C, Balcioğlu E, et al. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on fibrocartilage, cartilage, and bone repair in temporomandibular joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential use of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) in the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA)...
  6. Guo F, Xiong Z, Lu X, Ye M, Han X, Jiang R. ATF6 upregulates XBP1S and inhibits ER stress-mediated apoptosis in osteoarthritis cartilage. Cell Signal. 2014;26:332-42 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress-mediated apoptosis in osteoarthritis (OA); (2) whether ATF6 regulates IRE1/XBP1 signal pathway in OA cartilage; (3) what are the associated molecules affecting apoptosis in osteoarthritis and the molecular events underlying ..
  7. He X, Fu W, Feng B, Wang H, Liu Z, Yin M, et al. Electrospun collagen-poly(L-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) membranes for cartilage tissue engineering. Regen Med. 2013;8:425-36 pubmed publisher
    To study the feasibility of electrospun collagen-poly(L-lactic acid-co-?-caprolactone) (collagen-PLCL) membranes for cartilage tissue engineering.
  8. Tasman A. Advances in nasal dorsal augmentation with diced cartilage. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;21:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the use of autologous tissues, diced cartilage in particular.
  9. Yamashita A, Liu S, Woltjen K, Thomas B, Meng G, Hotta A, et al. Cartilage tissue engineering identifies abnormal human induced pluripotent stem cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1978 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that in vitro cartilage tissue engineering is an excellent tool for screening human iPSC lines for tumorigenic potential...
  10. Cavallo C, Filardo G, Mariani E, Kon E, Marcacci M, Pereira Ruiz M, et al. Comparison of platelet-rich plasma formulations for cartilage healing: an in vitro study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:423-9 pubmed publisher
    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been advocated as one treatment for cartilage tissue regeneration...
  11. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Chen D, Chen Y. Enhanced BMP signaling prevents degeneration and leads to endochondral ossification of Meckel's cartilage in mice. Dev Biol. 2013;381:301-11 pubmed publisher
    Meckel's cartilage is a transient supporting tissue of the embryonic mandible in mammals, and disappears by taking different ultimate cell fate along the distal-proximal axis, with the majority (middle portion) undergoing degeneration ..
  12. Zhao Y, Yang Q, Xia Q, Peng J, Lu S, Guo Q, et al. In vitro cartilage production using an extracellular matrix-derived scaffold and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:3130-7 pubmed
    b>Cartilage repair is a challenging research area because of the limited healing capacity of adult articular cartilage...
  13. McAlinden A, Varghese N, Wirthlin L, Chang L. Differentially expressed microRNAs in chondrocytes from distinct regions of developing human cartilage. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75012 pubmed publisher
    ..To attempt to bridge this knowledge gap, we have investigated miRNA expression patterns in human embryonic cartilage tissue...
  14. Levett P, Melchels F, Schrobback K, Hutmacher D, Malda J, Klein T. A biomimetic extracellular matrix for cartilage tissue engineering centered on photocurable gelatin, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Acta Biomater. 2014;10:214-23 pubmed publisher
    The development of hydrogels tailored for cartilage tissue engineering has been a research and clinical goal for over a decade...
  15. Kuss P, Kraft K, Stumm J, Ibrahim D, Vallecillo García P, Mundlos S, et al. Regulation of cell polarity in the cartilage growth plate and perichondrium of metacarpal elements by HOXD13 and WNT5A. Dev Biol. 2014;385:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a so far unrecognized link between HOX proteins and cell polarity in the perichondrium and the growth plate, a failure of which leads to transformation of metacarpals to carpal-like structures. ..
  16. Staines K, Pollard A, McGonnell I, Farquharson C, Pitsillides A. Cartilage to bone transitions in health and disease. J Endocrinol. 2013;219:R1-R12 pubmed publisher
    ..and postnatal longitudinal growth has been reported in some diseases in what is otherwise inherently 'stable' cartilage. Lessons may be learnt from the molecular mechanisms underpinning transient chondrocyte differentiation and ..
  17. Holmes B, Castro N, Li J, Keidar M, Zhang L. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions in novel 3D cartilage scaffolds with hydrogen treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology. 2013;24:365102 pubmed publisher
    b>Cartilage tissue is a nanostructured tissue which is notoriously hard to regenerate due to its extremely poor inherent regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture...
  18. Ho Fung V, Jaramillo D. Cartilage imaging in children: current indications, magnetic resonance imaging techniques, and imaging findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 2013;51:689-702 pubmed publisher
    Evaluation of hyaline cartilage in pediatric patients requires in-depth understanding of normal physiologic changes in the developing skeleton...
  19. Cao H, Shi F, Xu F, Yu J. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of pepsin-solubilized type II collagen from the chick sternal cartilage. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17:1427-37 pubmed
    ..However, the molecular properties of CII could be changed during the preparation process. In the present study, we isolated CII from chick sternal cartilage and studied the structural characteristics of purified CII.
  20. Knowles H, Moskovsky L, Thompson M, Grunhen J, Cheng X, Kashima T, et al. Chondroclasts are mature osteoclasts which are capable of cartilage matrix resorption. Virchows Arch. 2012;461:205-10 pubmed publisher
    Multinucleated cells termed chondroclasts have been observed on the deep surface of resorbed hyaline cartilage but the relationship of these cells to macrophages and osteoclasts and their role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other ..
  21. Liu T, Guo X, Tan H, Hui J, Lim B, Lee E. Zinc-finger protein 145, acting as an upstream regulator of SOX9, improves the differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage regeneration and repair. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:2711-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of the most promising stem cell therapies for traumatic injury and age-related degenerative diseases involving cartilage. However, few genetic factors regulating chondrogenesis of MSCs have been identified...
  22. Zhang E, Yan X, Zhang M, Chang X, Bai Z, He Y, et al. Aggrecanases in the human synovial fluid at different stages of osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2013;32:797-803 pubmed publisher
    In vivo and in vitro aggrecanases degrade proteoglycan aggrecan in articular cartilage. However, the expression of aggrecanases in patients in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) has not been investigated...
  23. Masago Y, Hosoya A, Kawasaki K, Kawano S, Nasu A, Toguchida J, et al. The molecular chaperone Hsp47 is essential for cartilage and endochondral bone formation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the function of Hsp47 in cartilage formation and endochondral ossification, we conditionally inactivated the Hsp47 gene in chondrocytes using Hsp47 ..
  24. Shahin K, Doran P. Strategies for enhancing the accumulation and retention of extracellular matrix in tissue-engineered cartilage cultured in bioreactors. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23119 pubmed publisher
    Production of tissue-engineered cartilage involves the synthesis and accumulation of key constituents such as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II to form insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM)...
  25. Oh H, Chun C, Chun J. Dkk-1 expression in chondrocytes inhibits experimental osteoarthritic cartilage destruction in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to explore the roles of Dkk-1 and Dkk-2 in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage destruction in mice...
  26. Wuelling M, Vortkamp A. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Endocr Dev. 2011;21:1-11 pubmed publisher
    The skeletal elements of the axial and appendicular skeleton are preformed as cartilage templates by a mechanism called endochondral ossification...
  27. Suzuki S, Muneta T, Tsuji K, Ichinose S, Makino H, Umezawa A, et al. Properties and usefulness of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells as a source for cartilage regeneration. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R136 pubmed publisher
    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovium is a promising therapy for cartilage regeneration...
  28. Nakamura Y, He X, Kato H, Wakitani S, Kobayashi T, Watanabe S, et al. Sox9 is upstream of microRNA-140 in cartilage. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;166:64-71 pubmed publisher
    MicroRNA-140 (miR-140) is specifically expressed in developing cartilage tissues...
  29. Kohn A, Dong Y, Mirando A, Jesse A, Honjo T, Zuscik M, et al. Cartilage-specific RBPj?-dependent and -independent Notch signals regulate cartilage and bone development. Development. 2012;139:1198-212 pubmed publisher
    ..of Notch signaling specifically within developing and committed chondrocytes, or a determination of whether cartilage and bone formation are regulated via RBPj?-dependent or -independent Notch signaling mechanisms...
  30. Troeberg L, Nagase H. Proteases involved in cartilage matrix degradation in osteoarthritis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation of the cartilage extracellular matrix is a central feature of the disease and is widely thought to be mediated by proteinases ..
  31. Macsai C, Georgiou K, Foster B, Zannettino A, Xian C. Microarray expression analysis of genes and pathways involved in growth plate cartilage injury responses and bony repair. Bone. 2012;50:1081-91 pubmed publisher
    The injured growth plate cartilage is often repaired by a bone bridge which causes bone growth deformities...
  32. Jeng L, Hsu H, Spector M. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:2267-74 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the ..
  33. Morawski M, Bruckner G, Arendt T, Matthews R. Aggrecan: Beyond cartilage and into the brain. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:690-3 pubmed publisher
    Aggrecan is well-studied in cartilage but its expression and function in the central nervous system has only recently begun to be appreciated...
  34. Ishii R, Kami D, Toyoda M, Makino H, Gojo S, Ishii T, et al. Placenta to cartilage: direct conversion of human placenta to chondrocytes with transformation by defined factors. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The cells generated expressed multiple cartilage-specific genes, such as Collagen type II ?1, LINK PROTEIN-1, and AGGRECAN, and exhibited characteristics of ..
  35. Studer D, Millan C, Öztürk E, Maniura Weber K, Zenobi Wong M. Molecular and biophysical mechanisms regulating hypertrophic differentiation in chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Eur Cell Mater. 2012;24:118-35; discussion 135 pubmed
    ..Control of hypertrophic differentiation can be exploited both for cartilage repair, where a stable phenotype is desired, but also in bone regeneration, where hypertrophic cartilage could ..
  36. Funck Brentano T, Lin H, Hay E, Ah Kioon M, Schiltz C, Hannouche D, et al. Targeting bone alleviates osteoarthritis in osteopenic mice and modulates cartilage catabolism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33543 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of bone resorption might impact cartilage remodeling...
  37. Siebuhr A, Wang J, Karsdal M, Bay Jensen A, Y J, Q Z. Matrix metalloproteinase-dependent turnover of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue is elevated in rats with collagen induced arthritis. J Transl Med. 2012;10:195 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the altered tissue balance of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats.
  38. Ruscica M, Steffani L, Magni P. Adiponectin interactions in bone and cartilage biology and disease. Vitam Horm. 2012;90:321-39 pubmed publisher
    ..to its metabolic effects, adiponectin is an important local and systemic modulator of bone remodeling and cartilage biology, involving direct and indirect mechanisms and a large set of downstream molecular signals...
  39. Zhang Q, Huang M, Wang X, Xu X, Ni M, Wang Y. Negative effects of ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 on endplate cartilage differentiation. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 appear to be potent negative regulators of endplate cartilage development.
  40. Foldynova Trantirkova S, Wilcox W, Krejci P. Sixteen years and counting: the current understanding of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling in skeletal dysplasias. Hum Mutat. 2012;33:29-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias are caused by growth attenuation of the cartilage, chondrocytes appear to be unique in their response to FGFR3 activation...
  41. Seo S, Yang H, Lim K, Jeon Y, Choi Y, Cho S, et al. Changes in serum levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein after estrogen and alendronate therapy in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2012;74:143-50 pubmed
    b>Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a biomarker for joint destruction and its serum levels are used for assessing therapeutic efficacy...
  42. Lyu S, Kuo Y, Ku H, Hsieh W. Cryopreserved chondrocytes in porous biomaterials with surface elastin and poly-L-lysine for cartilage regeneration. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;103:304-9 pubmed publisher
    The ability of cryopreserved chondrocytes to revitalize and propagate is a key biotechnology in cartilage regeneration...
  43. Vinardell T, Sheehy E, Buckley C, Kelly D. A comparison of the functionality and in vivo phenotypic stability of cartilaginous tissues engineered from different stem cell sources. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1161-70 pubmed publisher
    Joint-derived stem cells are a promising alternative cell source for cartilage repair therapies that may overcome many of the problems associated with the use of primary chondrocytes (CCs)...
  44. McAlindon T, LaValley M, Schneider E, Nuite M, Lee J, Price L, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on progression of knee pain and cartilage volume loss in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013;309:155-62 pubmed publisher
    Knee osteoarthritis (OA), a disorder of cartilage and periarticular bone, is a public health problem without effective medical treatments. Some studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect against structural progression.
  45. Beane O, Darling E. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of stem cells for cartilage regeneration. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012;40:2079-97 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cartilage, in particular, may benefit from the use of stem cells since the tissue has low cellularity and cannot ..
  46. Musumeci G, Loreto C, Carnazza M, Coppolino F, Cardile V, Leonardi R. Lubricin is expressed in chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate scaffold. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55:e31 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized by degenerative changes within joints that involved quantitative and/or qualitative alterations of cartilage and synovial fluid lubricin, a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes...
  47. Michigami T. Regulatory mechanisms for the development of growth plate cartilage. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:4213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..review provides an overview of our current understanding of the regulators for the development of growth plate cartilage and their molecular mechanisms of action...
  48. Potter H, Jain S, Ma Y, Black B, Fung S, Lyman S. Cartilage injury after acute, isolated anterior cruciate ligament tear: immediate and longitudinal effect with clinical/MRI follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have been implicated in the development of osteoarthritis. Limited data exist on longitudinal follow-up of isolated ACL injury...
  49. Lee H, Park S, Park Y, Bae S, Suh H. Yeast hydrolysate protects cartilage via stimulation of type II collagen synthesis and suppression of MMP-13 production. Phytother Res. 2013;27:1414-8 pubmed publisher
    Type II collagen (COL II) is one of the primary components of hyaline cartilage and plays a key role in maintaining chondrocyte function...
  50. Lau T, Lee L, Vo B, Su K, Wang D. Inducing ossification in an engineered 3D scaffold-free living cartilage template. Biomaterials. 2012;33:8406-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it is demonstrated that LhCG, as a cartilage template, could serve as a dynamic platform to support osteogenesis and its intrinsic phenotypic flexibility may ..
  51. Moreira Teixeira L, Leijten J, Sobral J, Jin R, van Apeldoorn A, Feijen J, et al. High throughput generated micro-aggregates of chondrocytes stimulate cartilage formation in vitro and in vivo. Eur Cell Mater. 2012;23:387-99 pubmed
    Cell-based cartilage repair strategies such as matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) could be improved by enhancing cell performance...
  52. Redler L, Caldwell J, Schulz B, Levine W. Management of articular cartilage defects of the knee. Phys Sportsmed. 2012;40:20-35 pubmed publisher
    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee present a difficult clinical dilemma and their treatment is controversial...
  53. Börjesson A, Lagerquist M, Windahl S, Ohlsson C. The role of estrogen receptor ? in the regulation of bone and growth plate cartilage. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:4023-37 pubmed publisher
    ..the recent cell-specific ER?-deleted mouse models lacking ER? specifically in neuronal cells or growth plate cartilage. The newly characterized signaling pathways of estrogen, described in this review, provide a better ..
  54. Santo V, Gomes M, Mano J, Reis R. Controlled release strategies for bone, cartilage, and osteochondral engineering--Part I: recapitulation of native tissue healing and variables for the design of delivery systems. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2013;19:308-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the healing cascades for bone, cartilage, and osteochondral interface, highlighting the role of specific growth factors for triggering the reactions ..
  55. Wang Y, Guo X, Zhang Z, Wang M, Wang S. [Expression of Caspase-8 and Bcl-2 in the cartilage loose bodies in patients with Kashin-Beck disease]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2011;31:1314-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of Caspase-8 and Bcl-2 in the formation of loose bodies in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD)...
  56. Deneweth J, Newman K, Sylvia S, McLean S, Arruda E. Heterogeneity of tibial plateau cartilage in response to a physiological compressive strain rate. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:370-5 pubmed publisher
    Knowledge of the extent to which tibial plateau cartilage displays non-uniform mechanical topography under physiologically relevant loading conditions is critical to evaluating the role of biomechanics in knee osteoarthritis...
  57. Bhardwaj N, Kundu S. Chondrogenic differentiation of rat MSCs on porous scaffolds of silk fibroin/chitosan blends. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2848-57 pubmed publisher
    ..undifferentiated, multipotential cells and have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages like bone, cartilage or fat...
  58. Duval E, Bauge C, Andriamanalijaona R, Benateau H, Leclercq S, Dutoit S, et al. Molecular mechanism of hypoxia-induced chondrogenesis and its application in in vivo cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2012;33:6042-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Cartilage engineering is one of the most challenging issue in regenerative medicine, due to its limited self-ability to repair...
  59. Ukai T, Sato M, Akutsu H, Umezawa A, Mochida J. MicroRNA-199a-3p, microRNA-193b, and microRNA-320c are correlated to aging and regulate human cartilage metabolism. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1915-22 pubmed publisher
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs of ?22 base pairs that regulate gene expression. We harvested cartilage tissue from patients with polydactylism, anterior cruciate ligament injury, and osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty ..
  60. Liu J, Lv F, Sun W, Tao C, Ding G, Karaplis A, et al. The abnormal phenotypes of cartilage and bone in calcium-sensing receptor deficient mice are dependent on the actions of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002294 pubmed publisher
  61. Kanazawa S, Fujihara Y, Sakamoto T, Asawa Y, Komura M, Nagata S, et al. Tissue responses against tissue-engineered cartilage consisting of chondrocytes encapsulated within non-absorbable hydrogel. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2013;7:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of foreign body responses raised against a non-absorbable hydrogel consisting of tissue-engineered cartilage, we embedded human/canine chondrocytes within agarose and transplanted them into subcutaneous pockets in nude ..
  62. Ryu J, Shin Y, Huh Y, Yang S, Chun C, Chun J. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2? regulates Fas-mediated chondrocyte apoptosis during osteoarthritic cartilage destruction. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2?, encoded by Epas1, causes OA cartilage destruction by regulating the expression of various matrix-degrading enzymes...
  63. David V, Izvernariu D, Popoiu C, Puiu M, Boia E. Morphologic, morphometrical and histochemical proprieties of the costal cartilage in children with pectus excavatum. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2011;52:625-9 pubmed
    ..It is believed that the cause for PE is an intrinsic costal cartilage abnormality leading to an overgrowth of the cartilage, which pushes the sternum backward...
  64. Mafi P, Hindocha S, Mafi R, Khan W. Evaluation of biological protein-based collagen scaffolds in cartilage and musculoskeletal tissue engineering--a systematic review of the literature. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;7:302-9 pubmed
    ..material in order to repair, replace or regenerate biological tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons and cartilage. The major human applications of tissue engineering are: skin, bone, cartilage, corneas, blood vessels, left ..
  65. Solorio L, Vieregge E, Dhami C, Dang P, Alsberg E. Engineered cartilage via self-assembled hMSC sheets with incorporated biodegradable gelatin microspheres releasing transforming growth factor-?1. J Control Release. 2012;158:224-32 pubmed publisher
    Self-assembling cell sheets have shown great potential for use in cartilage tissue engineering applications, as they provide an advantageous environment for the chondrogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
  66. Wang M, Shen J, Jin H, Im H, Sandy J, Chen D. Recent progress in understanding molecular mechanisms of cartilage degeneration during osteoarthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1240:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on molecular mechanisms of OA development related to recent findings...
  67. Bay Jensen A, Wichuk S, Byrjalsen I, Leeming D, Morency N, Christiansen C, et al. Circulating protein fragments of cartilage and connective tissue degradation are diagnostic and prognostic markers of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54504 pubmed publisher
    ..Type II collagen is the primary structural protein of cartilage and type III collagen of connective tissues, and obvious targets for the collagenalytic, which increase during ..
  68. Song J, Lee M, Kim D, Han J, Chun C, Jin E. MicroRNA-181b regulates articular chondrocytes differentiation and cartilage integrity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:210-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the precise identities and functions of the miRNAs involved in cartilage development are not yet well understood...
  69. Yang J, Kim J, Lim D, Oh K. Effect of combined sex hormone replacement on bone/cartilage turnover in a murine model of osteoarthritis. Clin Orthop Surg. 2012;4:234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, progesterone is known to have a weak anabolic action on bone formation This study evaluates the effects of estrogen and progesterone hormone on bone/cartilage turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
  70. St Pierre J, Gan L, Wang J, Pilliar R, Grynpas M, Kandel R. The incorporation of a zone of calcified cartilage improves the interfacial shear strength between in vitro-formed cartilage and the underlying substrate. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:1603-15 pubmed publisher
    A major challenge for cartilage tissue engineering remains the proper integration of constructs with surrounding tissues in the joint...
  71. Xu T, Binder K, Albanna M, Dice D, Zhao W, Yoo J, et al. Hybrid printing of mechanically and biologically improved constructs for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Biofabrication. 2013;5:015001 pubmed publisher
    ..use in vivo, thus limiting their development for use in load-bearing tissue engineering applications, such as cartilage. Fabrication of viable constructs using a novel multi-head deposition system provides the ability to combine ..
  72. Sashinami H, Asano K, Yoshimura S, Mori F, Wakabayashi K, Nakane A. Salmon proteoglycan suppresses progression of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via regulation of Th17 and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Life Sci. 2012;91:1263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage in progression of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
  73. Nishimura R, Wakabayashi M, Hata K, Matsubara T, Honma S, Wakisaka S, et al. Osterix regulates calcification and degradation of chondrogenic matrices through matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) expression in association with transcription factor Runx2 during endochondral ossification. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33179-90 pubmed
    ..The global and conditional Osterix-deficient mice studied here exhibited a defect of cartilage-matrix ossification and matrix vesicle formation...
  74. Yu S, Xing X, Dong G, Weng X, Wang M. Excess genistein suppresses the synthesis of extracellular matrix in female rat mandibular condylar cartilage. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:918-23 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of excess genistein on the extracellular matrix in mandibular condylar cartilage of female rats in vivo.
  75. Schmal H, Niemeyer P, Sudkamp N, Gerlach U, Dovi Akue D, Mehlhorn A. Pain perception in knees with circumscribed cartilage lesions is associated with intra-articular IGF-1 expression. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1989-96 pubmed publisher
    Circumscribed cartilage defects are considered as prearthritic lesions and lead to differential intra-articular cytokine expression...
  76. Sun L, Wang X, Kaplan D. A 3D cartilage - inflammatory cell culture system for the modeling of human osteoarthritis. Biomaterials. 2011;32:5581-9 pubmed publisher
    Inflammation plays a major role in the destruction of cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA), with the interaction of multiple mediators, immune cells, fibroblasts and chondrocytes...
  77. Keeney M, Lai J, Yang F. Recent progress in cartilage tissue engineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011;22:734-40 pubmed publisher
    Despite over two decades of research on cartilage tissue engineering, very few products have moved from bench to bedside and effective therapy remains lacking...
  78. Hirata M, Kugimiya F, Fukai A, Saito T, Yano F, Ikeda T, et al. C/EBP? and RUNX2 cooperate to degrade cartilage with MMP-13 as the target and HIF-2? as the inducer in chondrocytes. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..compound knockout of Cebpb and Runx2 in mice caused growth retardation and resistance to OA with decreases in cartilage degradation and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (Mmp-13) expression...
  79. Aoyama K, Yamane A, Suga T, Suzuki E, Fukui T, Nakamura Y. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:44 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast...