intervertebral disc displacement


Summary: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the NUCLEUS PULPOSUS has protruded through surrounding ANNULUS FIBROSUS. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.

Top Publications

  1. Deyo R, Loeser J, Bigos S. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:598-603 pubmed
  2. Lee J, Lee S. Clinical Efficacy and Its Prognostic Factor of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Annuloplasty and Nucleoplasty for the Treatment of Patients with Discogenic Low Back Pain. World Neurosurg. 2017;105:832-840 pubmed publisher
    ..PELAN provided favorable outcomes in patients with DLBP who were refractory to conservative treatments. Flexion pain was good prognostic, and Modic change was a poor prognostic variable. ..
  3. Ruiz Sánchez M, Rodríguez González Herrero M, Ruiz Sará J. Optic disc pit maculopathy after prone positioning spine surgery. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2017;27:e144-e146 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a case of optic disc pit maculopathy after spine surgery performed in the prone position...
  4. Ahmad Z, Rai A, Donell S, Crawford R. Letter to the editor concerning: "Antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and vertebral bone edema (Modic type 1 changes): a double-blind randomized controlled trial of efficacy" by Albert HB et al. Eur Spine J (2013) 22. Eur Spine J. 2013;22:2344-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Baeesa S, Maghrabi Y, Msaddi A, Assaker R. Quality of Spine Surgery Research from the Arab Countries: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7560236 pubmed publisher
    ..We, herein, emphasize the need for spine surgeons in the Arab countries to conduct studies of higher LOE. ..
  6. Koszela K, Krukowska S, Woldanska Okonska M. [The assessment of the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2017;42:201-204 pubmed
    ..An important element of a conservative treatment is an effective rehabilitation, which is of vital economic importance, because a therapy including surgery usually requires subsequent rehabilitation and is much more expensive. ..
  7. Wang T, Ma L, Yang D, Wang H, Zhang D, Zhang Y, et al. Radiological analysis for thoracolumbar disc herniation in spinopelvic sagittal alignment: A retrospective study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6593 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) of type III lordosis than other groups.This study implied that patients with TLD have higher LL, lower TK, TK/LL, and TK+LL+PI than LLD patients. We inferred that high LL combined with low TK may be the prospective factors of TLD...
  8. Tawa N, Rhoda A, Diener I. Accuracy of clinical neurological examination in diagnosing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy: a systematic literature review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether these tests are able to detect the presence of disc herniation and subsequent nerve root compression or hyper-sensitivity of the sacral and femoral plexus due to mechanical irritation still remains debatable. ..
  9. Hakozaki T, Iwata M, Kanno N, Harada Y, Yogo T, Tagawa M, et al. Cervical intervertebral disk herniation in chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs: 187 cases (1993-2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015;247:1408-11 pubmed publisher
    ..0 days) than in Beagles (16.5 ± 17.1 days), Shih Tzus (17.8 ± 14.5 days), or Chihuahuas (12.2 ± 7. 2 days). Results suggested that there may be breed-specific differences in the characteristics of cervical IVDH in small-breed dogs. ..

More Information


  1. Zheng Y, Wang J, Yuan C, Zheng W, Li C, Zhang Z, et al. [Effect of intravenous mannitol or dexamethasone on low back and leg pain after lumbar fusion surgery]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2014;28:544-8 pubmed
    ..05), and than that in the mannitol group at 3, 24, and 48 hours after operation (P < 0.05). Intravenous 20% mannitol may has no effect on postoperative low back and leg pain, while DM can markedly relieve leg pain after MI-TLIF. ..
  2. Quan G, Wilde P. Re: Spine surgery outcomes in a workers' compensation cohort. ANZ J Surg. 2013;83:96 pubmed publisher
  3. An H, Masuda K, Cs Szabo G, Zhang Y, Chee A, Andersson G, et al. Biologic repair and regeneration of the intervertebral disk. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19:450-2 pubmed
  4. de Tribolet N, Porchet F, Lutz T, Gratzl O, Brotchi J, van Alphen H, et al. Clinical assessment of a novel antiadhesion barrier gel: prospective, randomized, multicenter, clinical trial of ADCON-L to inhibit postoperative peridural fibrosis and related symptoms after lumbar discectomy. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 1998;27:111-20 pubmed
    ..024 on the operative side and P = 0.015 on the nonoperative side), and ADCON-L reduced low back pain when it was most severe (P = 0.047) and at the end of the day (P = 0.044). ..
  5. Beatty R, McGuire P, Moroney J, Holladay F. Continuous intraoperative electromyographic recording during spinal surgery. J Neurosurg. 1995;82:401-5 pubmed
    ..This study concludes that continuous electromyograph monitoring can be accomplished easily and yields valuable information that indicates when the nerve root is adequately decompressed or when undue retraction is exerted on the root. ..
  6. O Dowd J, Casey A. Antibiotics a cure for back pain, a false dawn or a new era?. Eur Spine J. 2013;22:1694-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Shin B, Kim S, Lee M. Comparison between the effects of Chuna manipulation therapy and cervical traction treatment on pain in patients with herniated cervical disc: a randomized clinical pilot trial. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:923-5 pubmed
  8. Liu W, Fan J, Bai J, Tang P, Chen J, Luo Y, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging: A possible alternative to a standing lateral radiograph for evaluating cervical sagittal alignment in patients with cervical disc herniation?. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8194 pubmed publisher
    ..MRI could be used to evaluate the sagittal balance of the cervical spine with great reliability. ..
  9. Boden S, Davis D, Dina T, Patronas N, Wiesel S. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72:403-8 pubmed
    ..In view of these findings in asymptomatic subjects, we concluded that abnormalities on magnetic resonance images must be strictly correlated with age and any clinical signs and symptoms before operative treatment is contemplated. ..
  10. Schonauer C, Stienen M, Gautschi O, Schaller K, Tessitore E. Endoscope-Assisted Extreme-Lateral Interbody Fusion: Preliminary Experience and Technical Note. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:869-875.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..The EA-XLIF technique is safe and may be considered as an adjunct procedure, offering improved visualization to guide the surgeon in key steps of the XLIF procedure. ..
  11. Andersson G, Brown M, Dvorak J, Herzog R, Kambin P, Malter A, et al. Consensus summary of the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:75S-78S pubmed
    ..Point of service decisions vs population based decisions are obviously different. Each patient presents to the treating practitioner on a given day, at a given time, and it is this picture upon which a plan of care is formulated. ..
  12. Oertel J, Burkhardt B. Endoscopic Intralaminar Approach for the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:410-418 pubmed publisher
    ..Careful procedural planning is recommended to protect soft tissue and osseous structures and to achieve excellent clinical outcome. ..
  13. Kang K, Kim T, Koh J, Oh H, Mun J, Seo M, et al. Effect of transforaminal epidural polydeoxyribonucleotide injections on lumbosacral radiculopathy: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7174 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was followed up for more than 6 months and demonstrated good improvement in lumbosacral radiculopathy without any complications. This is the first successful report on epidural injection of PDRN. ..
  14. Benzon H, Huntoon M, Rathmell J. Improving the safety of epidural steroid injections. JAMA. 2015;313:1713-4 pubmed publisher
  15. de Rooij J, Gadjradj P, Soria Van Hoeve J, Harhangi B. Anterior cervical discectomy without fusion for a symptomatic cervical disk herniation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017;159:1283-1287 pubmed publisher
    ..Anterior cervical discectomy without fusion is a safe and effective treatment for cervical disk herniation. ..
  16. Manchikanti L, Pampati V, Benyamin R, Hirsch J. Cost Utility Analysis of Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation, Central Spinal Stenosis, and Axial or Discogenic Low Back Pain. Pain Physician. 2017;20:219-228 pubmed
    ..58 for direct costs with a total cost of $3,301 per QALY. ..
  17. Berjano P, Garbossa D, Damilano M, Pejrona M, Bassani R, Doria C. Transthoracic lateral retropleural minimally invasive microdiscectomy for T9-T10 disc herniation. Eur Spine J. 2014;23:1376-8 pubmed publisher
  18. Choi K, Lee D, Park C. A Novel Combination of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Epiduroscopic Laser Neural Decompression for Down-migrated Disc Herniation. Pain Physician. 2017;20:E605-E609 pubmed
    ..Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complete removal of the ruptured disc fragment. A combination of PELD and ELND may be an option of treatments for down-migrated disc herniation. ..
  19. Robertson J, Johnson S. Anterior cervical discectomy without fusion: long-term results. Clin Neurosurg. 1980;27:440-9 pubmed
    ..When there is a doubt about the diagnosis, e.g., when a tumor is suspected or a multiple root defect associated with atypical findings on myelography, the posterior approach is preferred. ..
  20. Nakamura J, Yoshihara K. Initial Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Full-Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Using an Interlaminar Approach at the L4-L5. Pain Physician. 2017;20:E507-E512 pubmed
    ..A small sample size and a short follow-up period. The clinical outcomes of PED-IL at L4-L5 were equal to those at L5-S1. Therefore, PED-IL is suitable to be a standard method for any type of intracanalicular disc herniation. ..
  21. Takano M, Hikata T, Nishimura S, Kamata M. Discography aids definitive diagnosis of posterior epidural migration of lumbar disc fragments: case report and literature review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:151 pubmed publisher
    ..PEMDLF is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Discography is useful for the definitive diagnosis of PEMDLF prior to surgery. ..
  22. Maki Y, Takayama M, Hayashi H, Yokoyama Y, Agawa Y. Cauda Equina Syndrome Due To Dural Sac Shift with Engorgement of the Epidural Venous Plexus: Rare Complication After Lumbar Microdiscectomy. World Neurosurg. 2017;104:1048.e15-1048.e18 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose laminoplasty as an option to treat dural sac shift with engorgement of the epidural venous plexus. ..
  23. Patel N, Bajekal R. A simple minimally invasive technique of removing lumbar disc debris following discectomy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2012;94:277 pubmed publisher
  24. Koszela K, Krukowska S, Woldanska Okonska M. [The assessment of the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2017;42:252-255 pubmed
    ..The study showed the high efficacy of specialized rehabilitation in patients with FBSS. The rehabilitation in patients with FBSS has a significant analgesic effect. Rehabilitation should be a gold standard in patients with FBSS. ..
  25. Cloward R. The anterior approach for removal of ruptured cervical disks. J Neurosurg. 1958;15:602-17 pubmed
  26. O Donnell J, Anderson J, Haas A, Percy R, Woods S, Ahn U, et al. Treatment of Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation With or Without Fusion in Workers' Compensation Subjects. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017;42:E864-E870 pubmed publisher
    ..We are unable to conclude what treatment method is best, but rather we provide a baseline for future studies. 3. ..
  27. Aoki Y, Nakajima A, Ohtori S, Takahashi H, Watanabe F, Sonobe M, et al. Response to 'Increase of nerve growth factor levels in the human herniated intervertebral disc: can annular rupture trigger discogenic back pain?' - authors' reply. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:96 pubmed publisher
  28. Zdrodowska B, Leszczyńska Filus M, Leszczyński R, Błaszczyk J. [The influence of laser therapy on selected functional parameters of patients with spondyloarthrosis of the lower section of the spine]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2014;36:101-5 pubmed
    ..A vast improvement in global spine mobility and lumbosacral flexion and extension could be observed, too. The study showed a slight analgesic effect and a substantial increase in spine mobility through laser biostimulation. ..
  29. Lee S, Erken H, Bae J. Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Results of Mean 46-Month Follow-Up. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:3731983 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, radiological results including disc space subsidence make the stand-alone application of the expandable spacer debatable. ..
  30. Zhang J, Wang Z, Wan L. Cervical epidural analgesia complicated by epidural abscess: A case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7789 pubmed publisher
    ..Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon complication in clinical practice. If the abscess is large enough, the patient will rapidly develop neurologic signs of spinal injury, and urgent neurosurgical intervention may be required...
  31. Deyo R. Real help and red herrings in spinal imaging. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1056-8 pubmed publisher
  32. Rienmüller A, Buchmann N, Kirschke J, Meyer E, Gempt J, Lehmberg J, et al. Accuracy of CT-navigated pedicle screw positioning in the cervical and upper thoracic region with and without prior anterior surgery and ventral plating. Bone Joint J. 2017;99-B:1373-1380 pubmed publisher
  33. Löbner M, Stein J, Luppa M, Konnopka A, Meisel H, Günther L, et al. Choosing the right rehabilitation setting after herniated disc surgery: Motives, motivations and expectations from the patients' perspective. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183698 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking motivational and expectation-related aspects into account may help to improve allocation procedures for different rehabilitation settings and may improve rehabilitation success. ..
  34. Brouwer P, Brand R, van den Akker van Marle M, Jacobs W, Schenk B, van den Berg Huijsmans A, et al. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional microdiscectomy for patients with sciatica: Two-year results of a randomised controlled trial. Interv Neuroradiol. 2017;23:313-324 pubmed publisher
    ..Percutaneous laser disc decompression, as a non-surgical method, could have a place in the treatment arsenal of sciatica caused by contained herniated discs. ..
  35. Pearson A, Lurie J. Surgical versus nonoperative treatment: how do we choose the right approach to lumbar disk herniation?. Pain Manag. 2014;4:247-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Freeman P, Jeffery N. Re-opening the window on fenestration as a treatment for acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2017;58:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article we re-examine and discuss earlier published data on recovery associated with the various therapies, focusing on evidence suggesting that decompressive surgery and fenestration may be equally efficacious. ..
  37. Chou P, Lin H, An H, Liu K, Su W, Lin C. Could the Topping-Off Technique Be the Preventive Strategy against Adjacent Segment Disease after Pedicle Screw-Based Fusion in Lumbar Degenerative Diseases? A Systematic Review. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4385620 pubmed publisher
    ..However, higher quality prospective randomized trials are required prior to wide clinical application. ..
  38. Xu B, Xu H, Destandau J, Ma X, He J, Xia Q, et al. Anatomic investigation of lumbar transforaminal fenestration approach and its clinical application in far lateral disc herniation. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7542 pubmed publisher
    ..The TFF approach can provide sufficient exposure to the lumbar intervertebal foramina with preservation of stability and can be used effectively with MED to treat lumbar FLDH. ..
  39. van den Akker van Marle M, Brouwer P, Brand R, Koes B, Van Den Hout W, van Buchem M, et al. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus microdiscectomy for sciatica: Cost utility analysis alongside a randomized controlled trial. Interv Neuroradiol. 2017;23:538-545 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions From a healthcare perspective PLDD, followed by surgery when needed, results in significantly lower 1-year costs than conventional surgery. From a societal perspective PLDD appears to be an economically neutral innovation. ..
  40. Korse N, Veldman A, Peul W, Vleggeert Lankamp C. The long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function after spinal surgery for cauda equina syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175987 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented figures enable clinicians to inform their CES patients more realistically about long term postoperative outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function after surgical intervention. ..
  41. Harari J, Marks S. Surgical treatments for intervertebral disc disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1992;22:899-915 pubmed
    ..Future treatments for animals may include chemonucleolysis or various discectomy procedures currently performed in humans with symptomatic disc disease. ..
  42. Zeng Z, Wu P, Song Y, Zhang J, Tang H, Ji J. [Unilateral pedicle screw fixation combined with contralateral percutaneous translaminar facet screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lower lumbar diseases: an analysis of complications]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2016;29:232-41 pubmed
    ..Abundant surgeon's surgical experience, careful operation, and rational use of imaging technique can effectively reduce the incidence of complications. ..
  43. Liao Z, Chen W, Wang C. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic surgery for far lateral lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. Orthopedics. 2014;37:e717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..However, as demand for this type of surgery increases, the possibility of intraoperative aggravated leg pain and compression injury of the ganglion must be considered. ..
  44. Hirsch C, Wickbom I, LIDSTROEM A, Rosengren K. CERVICAL-DISC RESECTION. A FOLLOW-UP OF MYELOGRAPHIC AND SURGICAL PROCEDURE. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964;46:1811-21 pubmed
  45. Nouri A, Martin A, Nater A, Witiw C, Kato S, Tetreault L, et al. Influence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features on Surgical Decision-Making in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Results from a Global Survey of AOSpine International Members. World Neurosurg. 2017;105:864-874 pubmed publisher
    ..They will be helpful in defining future areas of investigation in an effort to provide individualized surgical strategies and optimize patient outcomes. ..
  46. Giurazza F, Guarnieri G, Murphy K, Muto M. Intradiscal O2O3: Rationale, Injection Technique, Short- and Long-term Outcomes for the Treatment of Low Back Pain Due to Disc Herniation. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2017;68:171-177 pubmed publisher
    ..We aim to review the principles of action of O2O3 and report the injection techniques, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes. ..
  47. Fan G, Wang C, Gu X, Zhang H, He S. Trajectory Planning and Guided Punctures with Isocentric Navigation in Posterolateral Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:899-905.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Isocentric navigation is feasible in planning the trajectory and guiding the punctures in PELD and could be considered as a potential practical tool to facilitate surgery. ..
  48. Agilli M, Ekinci S. Response to 'increase of nerve growth factor levels in the human herniated intervertebral disc: can annular rupture trigger discogenic back pain?'. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:106 pubmed publisher
  49. Sun Y, Zhang W, Qie S, Zhang N, Ding W, Shen Y. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7471 pubmed publisher
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  51. Berjano P, Pejrona M, Damilano M. Microdiscectomy for recurrent L5-S1 disc herniation. Eur Spine J. 2013;22:2915-7 pubmed publisher
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  53. Korse N, Kruit M, Peul W, Vleggeert Lankamp C. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186148 pubmed publisher