intervertebral disc degeneration


Summary: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.

Top Publications

  1. Erwin W, Fehlings M. Intervertebral disc degeneration: genes hold the key. World Neurosurg. 2013;80:e131-3 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhang B, Xu L, Zhuo N, Shen J. Resveratrol protects against mitochondrial dysfunction through autophagy activation in human nucleus pulposus cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:373-381 pubmed publisher
    b>Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is closely related with aging, whereas mitochondrial damage is a common feature of aging that results in cell apoptosis...
  3. Phillips K, Chiverton N, Michael A, Cole A, Breakwell L, Haddock G, et al. The cytokine and chemokine expression profile of nucleus pulposus cells: implications for degeneration and regeneration of the intervertebral disc. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R213 pubmed
    ..These findings may be important for the correct assessment of the ‘degenerate niche’ prior to autologous or allogeneic cell transplantation for biological therapy of the degenerate IVD. ..
  4. Kong L, Tian W, Cao P, Wang H, Zhang B, Shen Y. Predictive factors associated with neck pain in patients with cervical disc degeneration: A cross-sectional study focusing on Modic changes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8447 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the view that MCs can lead to a long duration of neck pain...
  5. Sun Y, Zhang W, Qie S, Zhang N, Ding W, Shen Y. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7471 pubmed publisher
  6. Mayer H, Korge A. Microsurgical decompression of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:1989-1990 pubmed publisher
  7. Perera R, Dissanayake P, Senarath U, Wijayaratne L, Karunanayake A, Dissanayake V. Variants of ACAN are associated with severity of lumbar disc herniation in patients with chronic low back pain. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181580 pubmed publisher
    ..SNVs of ACAN and their haplotypes are associated with the severity of lumbar disc herniation. Functional genetic studies are necessary to identify the role of these significant SNVs in the pathogenesis of disc herniation. ..
  8. Lin H, Ma X, Wang B, Zhao L, Liu J, Pu F, et al. Edaravone ameliorates compression-induced damage in rat nucleus pulposus cells. Life Sci. 2017;189:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly indicate that edaravone ameliorates compression-induced damage in rat nucleus pulposus cells. Edaravone could be a potential new drug for treatment of IDD. ..
  9. Williams F, Popham M, Livshits G, Sambrook P, Spector T, MacGregor A. A response to Videman et al., "challenging the cumulative injury model: positive effects of greater body mass on disc degeneration". Spine J. 2010;10:571-2; author reply 572 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Feng C, Yang M, Lan M, Liu C, Zhang Y, Huang B, et al. ROS: Crucial Intermediators in the Pathogenesis of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:5601593 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations based on in vivo and clinical studies will be required to develop effective antioxidative therapies for IDD. ..
  2. Jamjoom B, Patel S, Bommireddy R, Klezl Z. Impact of the quantity of intradiscal cement leak on the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2017;99:529-533 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions Our findings indicate that the quantity of cement leaking into the disc space significantly influences the rate of progression of disc degeneration. ..
  3. Canal S, Contiero B, Balducci F, Calò P, Bernardini M. Risk factors for diskospondylitis in dogs after spinal decompression surgery for intervertebral disk herniation. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016;248:1383-90 pubmed publisher
  4. Shi W, Tian D, Liu D, Yin J, Huang Y. The comparison of measurement between ultrasound and computed tomography for abnormal degenerative facet joints: A STROBE-compliant article. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7680 pubmed publisher
    ..It is precise and feasible to assess facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound. This study has important significance for the diagnosis of lumbar facet joint degeneration. ..
  5. Chou P, Lin H, An H, Liu K, Su W, Lin C. Could the Topping-Off Technique Be the Preventive Strategy against Adjacent Segment Disease after Pedicle Screw-Based Fusion in Lumbar Degenerative Diseases? A Systematic Review. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4385620 pubmed publisher
    ..However, higher quality prospective randomized trials are required prior to wide clinical application. ..
  6. Donk R, Verbeek A, Verhagen W, Groenewoud H, Hosman A, Bartels R. What's the best surgical treatment for patients with cervical radiculopathy due to single-level degenerative disease? A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183603 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the small study sample size, this statement should be considered as inconclusive so far. ISRCTN41681847. ..
  7. Vergari C, Chan D, Clarke A, Mansfield J, Meakin J, Winlove P. Bovine and degenerated human annulus fibrosus: a microstructural and micromechanical comparison. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2017;16:1475-1484 pubmed publisher
    ..This work gives an insight into the complex structure and mechanical function of the annulus fibrosus, which should be accounted for in disc numerical modelling. ..
  8. Wang H, Ma L, Yang D, Yang S, Ding W. Incidence and Risk Factors of Postoperative Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Anterior Decompression and Instrumented Fusion for Degenerative Disorders of the Cervical Spine. World Neurosurg. 2017;105:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine who receive 2-level cervical fusion and with upper instrumented vertebra at C5 are at high potential risk of ASD. ..
  9. Georgy M, Stern M, Murphy K. What Is the Role of the Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in Type 1 Modic Changes? A Review of the Literature. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2017;68:419-424 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude with a brief discussion of the difficulties involved in this research and the significance of the findings...
  10. Guo L, Fan W. The Effect of Single-Level Disc Degeneration on Dynamic Response of the Whole Lumbar Spine to Vertical Vibration. World Neurosurg. 2017;105:510-518 pubmed publisher
  11. Abbas J, Slon V, Stein D, Peled N, Hershkovitz I, Hamoud K. In the quest for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis etiology: the Schmorl's nodes model. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:164 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that SNs prevalence is significantly greater in the DLSS group compared to the control. Furthermore, SNs are strongly associated with DLSS. ..
  12. Asher A, Devin C, Archer K, Chotai S, Parker S, Bydon M, et al. An analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database, Part 2. Predictive model for return to work after elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;27:370-381 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence-based decision support will result in better communication between patients and clinicians and improve postoperative recovery expectations, which will ultimately increase the likelihood of a positive RTW trajectory. ..
  13. Liu Z, Li C, Meng X, Bai Y, Qi J, Wang J, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-l? mediates aggrecan and collagen ? expression via NOTCH1 signaling in nucleus pulposus cells during intervertebral disc degeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;488:554-561 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our study shows that HIF-1? regulates collagen ? and aggrecan expression through NOTCH1 signaling and implicate NOTCH1 as a potential therapeutic target in disc degeneration. ..
  14. Tawa N, Rhoda A, Diener I. Accuracy of clinical neurological examination in diagnosing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy: a systematic literature review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether these tests are able to detect the presence of disc herniation and subsequent nerve root compression or hyper-sensitivity of the sacral and femoral plexus due to mechanical irritation still remains debatable. ..
  15. Xie Z, Chen L, Wang F, Liu L, Zhang C, Wang K, et al. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Involved in Nucleus Pulposus Degeneration and Attenuates Low pH-Induced Apoptosis of Rat Nucleus Pulposus Cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:627-637 pubmed publisher
    ..4-PBA was used to alleviate ER stress, and it promoted acid-induced apoptosis of NPCs. ER stress is involved in NP natural degeneration and attenuates low-pH-induced apoptosis of NPCs. ..
  16. Liang L, Li X, Li D, Jiang W, Wang H, Chen J, et al. The characteristics of stem cells in human degenerative intervertebral disc. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7178 pubmed publisher
    ..Both differentiation and RT-PCR tests demonstrated that AFSCs had the best stem-cell-like characteristics in the human degenerative intervertebral disc. ..
  17. Liu W, Xia P, Feng J, Kang L, Huang M, Wang K, et al. MicroRNA-132 upregulation promotes matrix degradation in intervertebral disc degeneration. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:39-49 pubmed publisher
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). This experiment was designed to study the expression and role of the miRNA, miR-132, in IDD...
  18. Zeng Z, Wu P, Song Y, Zhang J, Tang H, Ji J. [Unilateral pedicle screw fixation combined with contralateral percutaneous translaminar facet screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lower lumbar diseases: an analysis of complications]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2016;29:232-41 pubmed
    ..5 months on average (ranged, 8 months to 30 years). Among these patients, lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration was found in 49 patients, recurred lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion in 17 patients, massive ..
  19. Teichtahl A, Urquhart D, Wang Y, Wluka A, Heritier S, Cicuttini F. Response to: 'A dose-response relationship between severity of disc degeneration and intervertebral disc height in the lumbosacral spine'-authors' reply. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:45 pubmed publisher
  20. Hua W, Wu X, Zhang Y, Song Y, Tu J, Kang L, et al. Dysregulated miR-127-5p contributes to type II collagen degradation by targeting matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human intervertebral disc degeneration. Biochimie. 2017;139:74-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a chronic disease associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 is a major enzyme that mediates the degradation of ECM components...
  21. Wang Y, Owoc J, Boyd S, Videman T, Battie M. Occupational loading may not affect the association between vertebral trabecular bone and intervertebral disc narrowing. Bone. 2013;57:375-6 pubmed publisher
  22. Wang Y, Yi X, Li C. Role of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in the pathogenesis of lumbar disc degeneration. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7516 pubmed publisher
    ..The evident information obtained from the investigation could lead the way for new therapeutic approaches regarding LDD treatment. ..
  23. Chen J, Jia Y, Liu G, Sun Q, Zhang F, Ma S, et al. Role of LncRNA TUG1 in intervertebral disc degeneration and nucleus pulposus cells via regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:668-674 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of TUG1 in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and human nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) via regulating Wnt/?-catenin pathway...
  24. Yuan Y, Zhou Z, Jiao Y, Li C, Zheng Y, Lin Y, et al. Histological Identification of Propionibacterium acnes in Nonpyogenic Degenerated Intervertebral Discs. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6192935 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting these bacteria may be a promising therapy method for some disc diseases. ..
  25. Wadhwa R, Ohya J, Vogel T, Carreon L, Asher A, Knightly J, et al. Risk factors for 30-day reoperation and 3-month readmission: analysis from the Quality and Outcomes Database lumbar spine registry. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;27:131-136 pubmed publisher
    ..Medicare patients < 65 years of age were more likely to undergo reoperation within 30 days and to be readmitted within 90 days after their index surgery. ..
  26. Lang G, Navarro Ramirez R, Gandevia L, Hussain I, Nakhla J, Zubkov M, et al. Elimination of Subsidence with 26-mm-Wide Cages in Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion. World Neurosurg. 2017;104:644-652 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with 18-mm-wide and 22-mm-wide cages, 26-mm-wide cages significantly reduced cage subsidence in ELIF at midterm follow-up. A 26-mm-wide cage should be used in ELIF to achieve sustained indirect decompression. ..
  27. Beierfuß A, Dietrich H, Kremser C, Hunjadi M, Ritsch A, Rülicke T, et al. Knockout of Apolipoprotein E in rabbit promotes premature intervertebral disc degeneration: A new in vivo model for therapeutic approaches of spinal disc disorders. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187564 pubmed publisher
    ..Their parallel use in therapeutic approaches of IVD disorders and atherosclerosis could reduce the number of research animals to be used and contribute to the principles of 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). ..
  28. Johnson Z, Doolittle A, Snuggs J, Shapiro I, Le Maitre C, Risbud M. TNF-α promotes nuclear enrichment of the transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5 to selectively control inflammatory but not osmoregulatory responses in nucleus pulposus cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17561-17575 pubmed publisher
    b>Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) causes chronic back pain and is linked to production of proinflammatory molecules by nucleus pulposus (NP) and other disc cells...
  29. Hu Y, Ou Y, Hu Y, Yu B. [Effects of intervertebral disc degeneration on biomechanics behavior characteristics of L4-L5 under the vertical load]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2015;32:55-8, 66 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the contacted area of facet joint was influenced by the degree of intervertebral disc degeneration level, which influenced the mises stress on joint isthmus...
  30. Zhang B, Huang W, Xia H, Feng X. Kinematic characteristics of lumbar spinous processes during axial rotation in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease lateral lumbar interbody fusion and intervention. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:141 pubmed publisher
    ..This data provides new insights for the evaluation of function before and after surgical treatment in patients with LSP disease. ..
  31. Wu T, Wang B, Meng Y, Ding C, Yang Y, Lou J, et al. Multilevel cervical disc replacement versus multilevel anterior discectomy and fusion: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6503 pubmed publisher
    ..Future long-term, multicenter, randomized, and controlled studies are needed to validate the safety and efficacy of multilevel CDR. ..
  32. Sasso R, Anderson P, Riew K, Heller J. Results of cervical arthroplasty compared with anterior discectomy and fusion: four-year clinical outcomes in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Orthopedics. 2011;34:889 pubmed publisher
  33. Rastogi A, Kim H, Twomey J, Hsieh A. MMP-2 mediates local degradation and remodeling of collagen by annulus fibrosus cells of the intervertebral disc. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R57 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that MMP-2 may have a functionally significant role in the etiology of degenerative disc disease and could be a potential therapeutic target. ..
  34. Gvozdyev B, Carreon L, Graves C, Riley S, McGraw K, Head R, et al. Patient-reported outcome scores underestimate the impact of major complications in patients undergoing spine surgery for degenerative conditions. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;27:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PRO scores are a key metric, they fail to adequately reflect the potential long-term impact of major perioperative complications. ..
  35. Shen Q, Zhang L, Chai B, Ma X. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem-like cells from human nucleus pulposus tissue. Sci China Life Sci. 2015;58:509-11 pubmed publisher
  36. Liu H, Xu Y, Yang S, Wang T, Wang H, Liu F, et al. Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw fixation with posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar degenerative diseases: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6882 pubmed publisher
  37. Zhou Z, Xiong W, Li L, Li F. Adjacent segmental degeneration following Wallis interspinous stabilization implantation: Biomechanical explanations and the value of magnetic resonance imaging. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7056 pubmed publisher
    ..015).ASD of the facet joint in the cranial segment occurred after Wallis system implantation, suggesting that the Wallis system cannot prevent ASD of the facet joint, but could have some other benefits for the discs. ..
  38. Zhu F, Bao H, Yan P, Liu S, Bao M, Zhu Z, et al. Do the disc degeneration and osteophyte contribute to the curve rigidity of degenerative scoliosis?. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:128 pubmed publisher
    ..627 (P < 0.001). Both disc degeneration and osteophytes formation correlated with curve rigidity. The pre-operative evaluation of both features may aid in the surgical decision-making in degenerative scoliosis patients. ..
  39. Rong X, Liu Z, Wang B, Pan X, Liu H. Relationship between facet tropism and facet joint degeneration in the sub-axial cervical spine. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:86 pubmed publisher
    ..Facet degeneration were more common at C2-C3 level. Older age and facet tropism with respect to the sagittal plane were associated with the facet degeneration. ..
  40. Zhao K, Zhang Y, Kang L, Song Y, Wang K, Li S, et al. Epigenetic silencing of miRNA-143 regulates apoptosis by targeting BCL2 in human intervertebral disc degeneration. Gene. 2017;628:259-266 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells plays an important role in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether microRNA-143 (miRNA-143) is involved in the ..
  41. Obata S, Akeda K, Imanishi T, Masuda K, BAE W, Morimoto R, et al. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma-releasate on intervertebral disc degeneration in the rabbit anular puncture model: a preclinical study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R241 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that the use of autologous PRP-releasate is safe and can lead to a clinical application for IVD degeneration. ..
  42. Nakayama E, Matsumoto T, Kazama T, Kano K, Tokuhashi Y. Transplantation of dedifferentiation fat cells promotes intervertebral disc regeneration in a rat intervertebral disc degeneration model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1004-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..whether DFAT cell transplantation could contribute to intervertebral disc regeneration using a rat intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) model...
  43. Yan J, Yang S, Sun H, Guo D, Wu B, Ji F, et al. Effects of releasing recombinant human growth and differentiation factor-5 from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres for repair of the rat degenerated intervertebral disc. J Biomater Appl. 2014;29:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that injection of rhGDF-5 loaded in PLGA microspheres into rat tail discs may be as a promising therapy strategy to regenerate or repair the degenerative disc. ..
  44. Gawri R, Rosenzweig D, Krock E, Ouellet J, Stone L, Quinn T, et al. High mechanical strain of primary intervertebral disc cells promotes secretion of inflammatory factors associated with disc degeneration and pain. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence for a direct link between cellular strain, secretory factors, neoinnervation and potential degeneration and discogenic pain in vivo. ..
  45. Pinson H, Hallaert G, Herregodts P, Everaert K, Couvreur T, Caemaert J, et al. Outcome of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Retrospective Study of Clinical and Radiologic Parameters. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:772-779 pubmed publisher
    ..045 and 0.033). Overall, 89% of patients would reconsider the surgical intervention. The ALIF technique is a durable treatment option for patients with DDD. This study suggests different predictive parameters for treatment outcome. ..
  46. Walter B, Mageswaran P, Mo X, Boulter D, Mashaly H, Nguyen X, et al. MR Elastography-derived Stiffness: A Biomarker for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. Radiology. 2017;285:167-175 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MR elastography-derived shear stiffness may provide an objective biomarker of the IVD degeneration process. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article. ..
  47. Gorth D, Mauck R, Chiaro J, Mohanraj B, Hebela N, Dodge G, et al. IL-1ra delivered from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres attenuates IL-1?-mediated degradation of nucleus pulposus in vitro. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R179 pubmed publisher
    Inflammation plays a key role in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration, a condition strongly implicated as a cause of lower back pain...
  48. Quero L, Klawitter M, Schmaus A, Rothley M, Sleeman J, Tiaden A, et al. Hyaluronic acid fragments enhance the inflammatory and catabolic response in human intervertebral disc cells through modulation of toll-like receptor 2 signalling pathways. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that fHAs may have the potential to mediate IVD degeneration and discogenic back pain through activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway in resident IVD cells. ..
  49. Wang F, Wang P, Miao D, Du W, Shen Y. Different surgical approaches for the treatment of adjacent segment diseases after anterior cervical fusion: A retrospective study of 49 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7042 pubmed publisher
    ..In ACDF with the Zero-profile device surgery, there was no need to remove the previous internal fixation, shorten the operation time, and reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. ..
  50. Binch A, Cole A, Breakwell L, Michael A, Chiverton N, Cross A, et al. Expression and regulation of neurotrophic and angiogenic factors during human intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:416 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that IL-1? is a key regulatory cytokine, involved in the up regulation of factors involved in innervation and vascularisation of tissues. ..
  51. Erbulut D, Kiapour A, Oktenoglu T, Ozer A, Goel V. A computational biomechanical investigation of posterior dynamic instrumentation: combination of dynamic rod and hinged (dynamic) screw. J Biomech Eng. 2014;136:051007 pubmed publisher
    ..A dynamic construct consisting of a dynamic rod and a dynamic screw did protect the adjacent level from excessive motion. ..
  52. Holak P, Głodek J, Mieszkowska M, Jałyński M, Zhalniarovich Y, Adamiak Z. Pathological findings in low-field magnetic resonance imaging of the canine spine - a study of 112 patients. Pol J Vet Sci. 2017;20:285-291 pubmed publisher
    ..4% of patients and syringomyelia was diagnosed in 9.82% of the examined animals. The proposed sequences revealed the presence of above abnormalities. ..
  53. Wang S, Rui Y, Tan Q, Wang C. Enhancing intervertebral disc repair and regeneration through biology: platelet-rich plasma as an alternative strategy. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:220 pubmed
    b>Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a common orthopedic disease associated with mechanical changes that may result in significant pain...
  54. Grad S, Peroglio M, Li Z, Alini M. Endogenous cell homing for intervertebral disk regeneration. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015;23:264-6 pubmed publisher
  55. Tryfonidou M, Schumann S, Armeanu S, Harichandan A, Sivasubramaniyan K, Mollenhauer J, et al. Update on canine MSC markers. Cytometry A. 2014;85:379-81 pubmed publisher
  56. Mari L, Behr S, Shea A, Domínguez E, Johnson P, Ekiri A, et al. Outcome comparison in dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of thoracolumbar fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy and acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion. Vet Rec. 2017;181:293 pubmed publisher
    ..5 per cent).Distinguishing between MRI patterns of presumptive ANNPE or FCEM in dogs with peracute non-progressive T3-L3 myelopathy may help predict the risk of developing faecal incontinence. ..
  57. Schoepflin Z, Silagi E, Shapiro I, Risbud M. PHD3 is a transcriptional coactivator of HIF-1? in nucleus pulposus cells independent of the PKM2-JMJD5 axis. FASEB J. 2017;31:3831-3847 pubmed publisher
    ..PHD3-/- mice (12.5 mo old) showed increased incidence of intervertebral disc degeneration with a concomitant decrease in expression of the HIF-1? targets VEGF-A, glucose transporter-1, and ..
  58. Liu S, Liang H, Lee S, Li Z, Zhang J, Fei Q. Isolation and identification of stem cells from degenerated human intervertebral discs and their migration characteristics. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017;49:101-109 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also found that the expression of CXCR4 was higher in CEP-MSCs than in the other two, suggesting that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis may play significant roles in the migration of these cells. ..
  59. Paul C, de Graaf M, Bisschop A, Holewijn R, van de Ven P, Van Royen B, et al. Static axial overloading primes lumbar caprine intervertebral discs for posterior herniation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174278 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could have implications for working conditions, in particular of sedentary occupations, and the design of interventions aimed at prevention and treatment of early intervertebral disc degeneration.
  60. CHAKRAVARTHY K, Chen Y, He C, Christo P. Stem Cell Therapy for Chronic Pain Management: Review of Uses, Advances, and Adverse Effects. Pain Physician. 2017;20:293-305 pubmed
    ..However, we hope that this narrative review will help guide pain physicians in making informed decisions for their patients about the potential of cell-based therapy for treating chronic pain conditions. ..
  61. Storheim K, Berg L, Hellum C, Gjertsen Ø, Neckelmann G, Espeland A, et al. Fat in the lumbar multifidus muscles - predictive value and change following disc prosthesis surgery and multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative disc: 2-year follow-up of a randomized trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:145 pubmed publisher
    ..The rehabilitation group maintained their muscular morphology and were unaffected by pre-treatment multifidus muscle fat. NCT 00394732 (retrospectively registered October 31, 2006). ..
  62. Wu Q, Huang J. Ectopic expression of Smurf2 and acceleration of age-related intervertebral disc degeneration in a mouse model. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;27:116-126 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration, an age-related process, is a major cause of low-back pain...
  63. Wang K, Liu W, Song Y, Wu X, Zhang Y, Li S, et al. The role of angiopoietin-2 in nucleus pulposus cells during human intervertebral disc degeneration. Lab Invest. 2017;97:971-982 pubmed publisher
    Although evidence shows that intervertebral disc degeneration is generally characterized by angiogenesis, the role of angiopoietin has not been investigated...
  64. McGirt M, Parker S, Chotai S, Pfortmiller D, Sorenson J, Foley K, et al. Predictors of extended length of stay, discharge to inpatient rehab, and hospital readmission following elective lumbar spine surgery: introduction of the Carolina-Semmes Grading Scale. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;27:382-390 pubmed publisher
    ..This grading scale may be helpful in identifying patients who may require additional resource utilization within a global period after surgery. ..
  65. Phan K, Davies S, Rao P, Mobbs R. Worker's Compensation Status and Outcomes Following Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Prospective Observational Study. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:680-685 pubmed publisher
  66. Emanuel K, Kingma I, Helder M, Smit T. Response to: 'A dose-response relationship between severity of disc degeneration and intervertebral disc height in the lumbosacral spine'. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:41 pubmed publisher
  67. Wu T, Wang B, Deng M, Hong Y, Rong X, Chen H, et al. A comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion combined with cervical disc arthroplasty and cervical disc arthroplasty for the treatment of skip-level cervical degenerative disc disease: A retrospective study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8112 pubmed publisher
    ..Both HS and CDA might be considered safe and effective surgical strategies for the treatment of skip-level CDDD. Although the clinical outcomes were similar in the 2 groups, CDA altered the ROM of the IS to a lesser degree...