femur head necrosis

Summary

Summary: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.

Top Publications

  1. Min B, Song K, Cho C, Lee S, Lee K. Untreated asymptomatic hips in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1087-92 pubmed publisher
    ..With combined factors, only extent of large necrotic lesion (hazard ratio, 4.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-12.77) and location of Type C2 necrotic lesion (hazard ratio, 6.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-34.11) predicted collapse. ..
  2. Kang J, Moon K, Kwon D, Shin B, Woo M. The natural history of asymptomatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Int Orthop. 2013;37:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To observe the natural history of asymptomatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and to analyse the associations between the subsequent development of symptoms, epidemiological risk factors and the character of the lesions...
  3. Rajpura A, Wright A, Board T. Medical management of osteonecrosis of the hip: a review. Hip Int. 2011;21:385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..There may be a reduction in symptoms and evidence of prevention of disease progression following some non-surgical treatments. Further studies are needed, including trials comparing medical management with surgical intervention...
  4. Lieberman J, Engstrom S, Meneghini R, SooHoo N. Which factors influence preservation of the osteonecrotic femoral head?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Although surgeons use many procedures to preserve the femoral head in patients with hip osteonecrosis, there is no consensus regarding the best procedure...
  5. Mwale F, Wang H, Johnson A, Mont M, Antoniou J. Abnormal vascular endothelial growth factor expression in mesenchymal stem cells from both osteonecrotic and osteoarthritic hips. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2011;69 Suppl 1:S56-61 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that ON and OA are associated with aberrant VEGF-D expression...
  6. Hang D, Wang Q, Guo C, Chen Z, Yan Z. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head with VEGF165 transgenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in mongrel dogs. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;195:495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with non-transgenic BMSCs, this approach could provide advanced benefits in the treatment of ONFH...
  7. Malizos K, Papasoulis E, Dailiana Z, Papatheodorou L, Varitimidis S. Early results of a novel technique using multiple small tantalum pegs for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a case series involving 26 hips. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94:173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In more than two-thirds of the surviving hips a satisfactory clinical outcome was achieved with promising radiological findings. The estimated mean implant survival was 60 months (95% confidence interval 53.7 to 66.3)...
  8. Civinini R, De Biase P, Carulli C, Matassi F, Nistri L, Capanna R, et al. The use of an injectable calcium sulphate/calcium phosphate bioceramic in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Int Orthop. 2012;36:1583-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Lee G, Steinberg M. Are we evaluating osteonecrosis adequately?. Int Orthop. 2012;36:2433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with ONFH are being evaluated adequately in studies published during the past 25 years and to see if any trends can be identified...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Moriya M, Uchiyama K, Takahira N, Fukushima K, Yamamoto T, Hoshi K, et al. Evaluation of bipolar hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Int Orthop. 2012;36:2041-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic findings after BHA for the treatment of steroid -induced ONFH...
  2. Aimaiti A, Wufuer M, Wang Y, Saiyiti M, Cui L, Yusufu A. Can bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) administration prevent steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in the early stage?. Med Hypotheses. 2011;77:282-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we hypothesized that BADGE administration may be an appropriate novel method for the prevention of early stage steroid-induced ONFH...
  3. Luo H, Chen C. [Treatment of adult early femur head necrosis with the tantalum screw]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2011;24:482-5 pubmed
    To investigate a new method for the treatment adult early femur head necrosis in order to avoid further collapse and necrosis and improve the clinical symptoms.
  4. Zeng Y, He S, Feng W, Li F, Li J, Jian L, et al. Vascularised greater trochanter bone graft, combined free iliac flap and impaction bone grafting for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Int Orthop. 2013;37:391-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Sen R, Tripathy S, Aggarwal S, Marwaha N, Sharma R, Khandelwal N. Early results of core decompression and autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells instillation in femoral head osteonecrosis: a randomized control study. J Arthroplasty. 2012;27:679-86 pubmed publisher
  6. Okazaki S, Nagoya S, Tateda K, Katada R, Mizuo K, Watanabe S, et al. Weight bearing does not contribute to the development of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Int J Exp Pathol. 2012;93:458-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed that non-traumatic ONFH developed in NWB rats, suggesting that weight bearing does not contribute to the development of non-traumatic ONFH in rats...
  7. Zhao D, Cui D, Wang B, Tian F, Guo L, Yang L, et al. Treatment of early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head with autologous implantation of bone marrow-derived and cultured mesenchymal stem cells. Bone. 2012;50:325-30 pubmed publisher
  8. Okazaki S, Nagoya S, Yamamoto M, Tateda K, Takahashi H, Yamashita T, et al. High risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in autoimmune disease patients showing no immediate increase in hepatic enzyme under steroid therapy. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important insights into the pathogenesis of steroid-induced ONF and may facilitate the development of prevention strategies in patients with AID...
  9. Tateda K, Okazaki S, Nagoya S, Katada R, Mizuo K, Watanabe S, et al. The suppression of TRIM21 and the accumulation of IFN-? play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Lab Invest. 2012;92:1318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the suppression of TRIM21 resulting from altered NF-?B and IRF homeostasis accelerates the ONFH in rats treated with corticosteroids following LPS administration...
  10. Helbig L, Simank H, Kroeber M, Schmidmaier G, Grützner P, Guehring T. Core decompression combined with implantation of a demineralised bone matrix for non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012;132:1095-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated patients after core decompression combined with an augmentation by a demineralised bone matrix, and particularly aimed to report long-term conversion rates to total hip replacement (THR)...
  11. Yuan P, He X, Zhou H, Wang G, Wang D, Li H. Experimental study on gufusheng in treatment of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of femoral head in rabbits. J Tradit Chin Med. 2005;25:300-3 pubmed
    ..01). Compound Gufusheng can prevent SINFH and promote repair of the tissue of necrosis of femoral head possibly via decreasing the TNF-alpha and increasing IGF-1 level. ..
  12. Kim T, Hong J, Kim H, Park E, Kim S. Lack of association of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with the risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in a Korean population. Mol Cells. 2010;29:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis stratified by etiology also showed no association. These results suggest that MTHFR polymorphisms play no significant role in susceptibility to ONFH in the Korean population. ..
  13. Kerachian M, Harvey E, Cournoyer D, Chow T, Séguin C. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head: vascular hypotheses. Endothelium. 2006;13:237-44 pubmed
    ..Molecular gene analysis of regional endothelial cells could also help to determine potential pathways important in the pathogenesis of ANFH. ..
  14. Mont M, Seyler T, Marker D, Marulanda G, Delanois R. Use of metal-on-metal total hip resurfacing for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88 Suppl 3:90-7 pubmed
    ..We await long-term results to see if these early results are maintained. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors on jbjs.org for a complete description of levels of evidence. ..
  15. Tang T, Lu B, Yue B, Xie X, Xie Y, Dai K, et al. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head with hBMP-2-gene-modified tissue-engineered bone in goats. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89:127-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that porous beta-TCP loaded with BMP-2-gene-transduced BMSCs are capable of repairing early-stage, experimentally-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head and of restoring its mechanical function. ..
  16. Seguin C, Kassis J, Busque L, Bestawros A, Theodoropoulos J, Alonso M, et al. Non-traumatic necrosis of bone (osteonecrosis) is associated with endothelial cell activation but not thrombophilia. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:1151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the underlying mechanism could lead to potential preventive and therapeutic strategies of this devastating disease. ..
  17. Leunig M, Slongo T, Kleinschmidt M, Ganz R. Subcapital correction osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis by means of surgical hip dislocation. Oper Orthop Traumatol. 2007;19:389-410 pubmed
    ..This result can be achieved by open subcapital reorientation of the epiphysis or by a wedge osteotomy of the femoral neck. Other procedures have, so far, not gained optimal control over the risk of avascular necrosis...
  18. Kim T, Hong J, Lee J, Oh B, Park E, Lee C, et al. Promoter polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene is associated with an osteonecrosis of the femoral head in the Korean population. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16:287-91 pubmed
    ..Our study is, to our knowledge, the first report that shows the -634G>C polymorphism in the VEGF promoter was associated with an increased susceptibility of ONFH in the Korean population. ..
  19. Marciniak D, Furey C, Shaffer J. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head. A study of 101 hips treated with vascularized fibular grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:742-7 pubmed
    ..Vascularized fibular grafting may provide a chance for normal hip function in the intermediate or long term in carefully selected patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. ..
  20. Yin S, Zhang C, Jin D, Chen S, Sun Y, Sheng J. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in lymphoma patients by free vascularised fibular grafting. Int Orthop. 2011;35:1125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical data demonstrated that free vascularised fibular grafting can slow or even halt progression of necrosis, and improve the function of the hip and quality of life in lymphoma patients. ..
  21. Huffman K, Bowers J, Dailiana Z, Huebner J, Urbaniak J, Kraus V. Synovial fluid metabolites in osteonecrosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:523-8 pubmed
    ..Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is associated with alterations in synovial fluid glucose and lactate, reflecting anaerobic metabolism. These metabolites may serve as useful tools for monitoring response to revascularization therapies. ..
  22. Wang C, Wang F, Huang C, Yang K, Weng L, Huang H. Treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head: comparison of extracorporeal shock waves with core decompression and bone-grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:2380-7 pubmed
    ..Long-term results are needed to determine whether the effect of this novel method of treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head endures. ..
  23. Neumayr L, Aguilar C, Earles A, Jergesen H, Haberkern C, Kammen B, et al. Physical therapy alone compared with core decompression and physical therapy for femoral head osteonecrosis in sickle cell disease. Results of a multicenter study at a mean of three years after treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:2573-82 pubmed
  24. Xiao Z, Jiang H, Zhan X, Wu Z, Zhang X. Treatment of osteonecrosis of femoral head with BMSCs-seeded bio-derived bone materials combined with rhBMP-2 in rabbits. Chin J Traumatol. 2008;11:165-70 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate a superior choice of repairing the experimental defect of ONFH with BMSCs- seeded BBM combined with rhBMP-2. ..
  25. Wang B, Sun W, Shi Z, Zhang N, Yue D, Guo W, et al. Treatment of nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head with the implantation of core decompression and concentrated autologous bone marrow containing mononuclear cells. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010;130:859-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it may be the treatment of choice particularly in stages I-II nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. ..
  26. Nagoya S, Nagao M, Takada J, Kuwabara H, Wada T, Kukita Y, et al. Predictive factors for vascularized iliac bone graft for nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Orthop Sci. 2004;9:566-70 pubmed
  27. Magnussen R, Guilak F, Vail T. Articular cartilage degeneration in post-collapse osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Radiographic staging, macroscopic grading, and histologic changes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1272-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that articular cartilage that appears macroscopically normal may remain mechanically functional even in patients with large osteonecrotic lesions or a late radiographic stage of the disease. ..
  28. Shuler M, Rooks M, Roberson J. Porous tantalum implant in early osteonecrosis of the hip: preliminary report on operative, survival, and outcomes results. J Arthroplasty. 2007;22:26-31 pubmed
    ..21). Early outcomes demonstrate that porous tantalum implants are a safe option for femoral head salvage. Continued follow-up is necessary to determine the long-term success...
  29. Wen Q, Ma L, Chen Y, Yang L, Luo W, Wang X. A rabbit model of hormone-induced early avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Biomed Environ Sci. 2008;21:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental rabbit model of early stage ANFH caused by corticosteroid can be successfully established and provide the foundation for developing effective methods to treat early stage ANFH. ..
  30. Yilmaz C, Golpinar A, Yilmaz N, Aktas S, Ayan I. Comparison of bony healing and cartilage degeneration following strut grafting and trapdoor procedures in an ovine model. Orthopedics. 2008;31:656 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate elevating the osteochondral flap during the trapdoor procedure injures the cartilage and may cause degeneration. ..
  31. Jawish R, Chamseddine A, Abou Sleiman P. [The core decompression of the femoral head for stage I idiopathic osteonecrosis]. J Med Liban. 2008;56:144-52 pubmed
  32. Nöth U, Reichert J, Reppenhagen S, Steinert A, Rackwitz L, Eulert J, et al. [Cell based therapy for the treatment of femoral head necrosis]. Orthopade. 2007;36:466-71 pubmed
    ..in combination with a beta-TCP matrix. ..
  33. Glueck C, Freiberg R, Wang P. Heritable thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1034-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest inherited thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis are risk factors for both idiopathic and secondary osteonecrosis of the head of the femur. ..
  34. Seyler T, Marker D, Ulrich S, Fatscher T, Mont M. Nonvascularized bone grafting defers joint arthroplasty in hip osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..With the addition of ancillary growth factors, these procedures effectively reduce donor site morbidity and may defer joint arthroplasty in selected patients...
  35. Zustin J, Sauter G, Morlock M, Ruther W, Amling M. Association of osteonecrosis and failure of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:756-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed smaller regions of superficial ON in the majority of the remaining femoral remnants with periprosthetic fractures and in hips that failed for reasons other than fracture. ..
  36. Wensaas A, Svenningsen S. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis treated with a specially designed screw]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005;125:2788-90 pubmed
    ..No further slippage, avascular necrosis or chondrolysis occurred. Radiographs showed that the screw allows continued growth of the neck of femur. Most of the patients had decreased internal rotation, but few had symptoms at follow up. ..
  37. Wang C, Ko J, Chan Y, Lee M, Chen J, Wang F, et al. Extracorporeal shockwave for hip necrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2009;18:1082-6 pubmed publisher
    ..86 vs. 0.89; P = 0.467) and function scores (89% vs. 91%; P = 0.194) between patients with SLE and controls. SLE response to ESWT for ONFH is comparable with ONFH in patients without SLE. ..
  38. Gill H, Campbell P, Murray D, De Smet K. Reduction of the potential for thermal damage during hip resurfacing. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89:16-20 pubmed
    ..014). We recommend the modified technique since it significantly reduces temperatures at the cement-bone interface...
  39. Kong F, Liang Y, Qin S, Li J, Li X. [Clinical application of extracorporeal shock wave to repair and reconstruct osseous tissue framework in the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH)]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2010;23:12-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the application value of extracorporeal shock wave to repair and reconstruct osseous tissue for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH)...
  40. Seyler T, Cui Q, Mihalko W, Mont M, Saleh K. Advances in hip arthroplasty in the treatment of osteonecrosis. Instr Course Lect. 2007;56:221-33 pubmed
  41. Mont M, Marulanda G, Seyler T, Plate J, Delanois R. Core decompression and nonvascularized bone grafting for the treatment of early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Instr Course Lect. 2007;56:213-20 pubmed
    ..In the future, these procedures may be used with various other biologic adjunctive growth and differentiation factors, which may lead to higher rates of successful treatment...
  42. Yoshioka T, Mishima H, Akaogi H, Sakai S, Li M, Ochiai N. Concentrated autologous bone marrow aspirate transplantation treatment for corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus. Int Orthop. 2011;35:823-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, one hip required total hip arthroplasty 45 months after the operation. CABMAT using our centrifugation technique is an effective, safe and low-cost procedure of therapeutic osteogenesis for corticosteroid-induced ONFH in SLE...
  43. Koo K, Lee J, Lee Y, Kim K, Yoo J, Kim H. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in patients with nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:1722-8 pubmed
  44. McGrory B, York S, Iorio R, Macaulay W, Pelker R, Parsley B, et al. Current practices of AAHKS members in the treatment of adult osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:1194-204 pubmed
    ..We sought to understand current treatment practices of a group of surgeons who commonly treat this disease to determine if there was agreement on some aspects of care...
  45. Wada M, Kumagai K, Murata M, S Yamashita Y, Shindo H. Warfarin reduces the incidence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Orthop Sci. 2004;9:585-90 pubmed
    ..Results of immunohistochemistry revealed that endothelial cells in the femoral head were positive for eNOS in WKY but not in SHR. Our results indicated that warfarin reduced the incidence of femoral head necrosis in SHR...
  46. Wang Y, Yin L, Li Y, Liu P, Cui Q. Preventive effects of puerarin on alcohol-induced osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1059-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest puerarin can inhibit adipogenic differentiation by bone marrow stromal cells both in vitro and in vivo and prevents alcohol-induced osteonecrosis in this model...
  47. Wang B, Sun W, Shi Z, Lou J, Zhang N, Shi S, et al. Decreased proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells in corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head. Orthopedics. 2008;31:444 pubmed
    ..The altered function of mesenchymal stem cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis and progression of osteonecrosis...
  48. Mont M, Jones L, Seyler T, Marulanda G, Saleh K, Delanois R. New treatment approaches for osteonecrosis of the femoral head: an overview. Instr Course Lect. 2007;56:197-212 pubmed
    ..It is important to review new treatment opportunities that are currently available or on the horizon...
  49. Akimau P, Bhosale A, Harrison P, Roberts S, McCall I, Richardson J, et al. Autologous chondrocyte implantation with bone grafting for osteochondral defect due to posttraumatic osteonecrosis of the hip--a case report. Acta Orthop. 2006;77:333-6 pubmed
  50. Sun Y, Feng Y, Zhang C. The effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells on vascularization and bone regeneration in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Joint Bone Spine. 2009;76:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether implantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) can augment neovascularization and bone regeneration in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head...
  51. Rabquer B, Tan G, Shaheen P, Haines G, Urquhart A, Koch A. Synovial inflammation in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Transl Sci. 2009;2:273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the presence of a previously unrecognized population of ON patients without a diagnosed inflammatory co-morbidity and a highly inflammed synovium consisting primarily of a macrophage and CD4(+) T-cell infiltrate...
  52. Nam K, Kim Y, Yoo J, Koo K, Yoon K, Kim H. Fate of untreated asymptomatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that a lesion smaller than a certain size would not progress to symptomatic disease...
  53. Gao Y, Zhang C. Cytotherapy of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a mini review. Int Orthop. 2010;34:779-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the aetiology of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, animal experiments and clinical applications of cytotherapy are summarized and analysed. Current problems and future challenges are discussed...
  54. Li H, Zhang C, Zeng B. [Changes in bone micro-architecture and bone mineral density following experimental osteonecrosis of femoral head by local injection of ethanol in canines]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:281-9 pubmed
  55. Kim Y, Choi Y, Kim J. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in patients younger than 45 years with femoral-head osteonecrosis. Int Orthop. 2010;34:1123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1-year follow-up in this series of young patients with femoral-head osteonecrosis...
  56. Wen Q, Ma L, Chen Y, Yang L, Luo W, Wang X. Treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by hepatocyte growth factor-transgenic bone marrow stromal stem cells. Gene Ther. 2008;15:1523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides experimental data that motivate possible clinical use of this therapeutic strategy...
  57. Liu Y, Chen W, Lin Y, Yang R, Lin M, Li L, et al. Type II collagen gene variants and inherited osteonecrosis of the femoral head. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2294-301 pubmed
    ..Most cases of ANFH are sporadic, but we identified three families in which there was autosomal dominant inheritance of the disease and mapped the chromosomal position of the gene to 12q13...
  58. Wang C, Wang F, Yang K, Huang C, Lee M, Chan Y, et al. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the hip: comparison of extracorporeal shockwave with shockwave and alendronate. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008;128:901-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that joint effects of ESWT and alendronate may produce superior results. This prospective study compared the results of ESWT and alendronate with that of ESWT without alendronate in early ONFH...
  59. Jarrett S, Lachiewicz P. Precoated femoral component with proximal and distal centralizers: results at 5 to 12 years. J Arthroplasty. 2005;20:309-15 pubmed
    ..The rate of radiographic failure and revision of this component implanted with conventional polyethylene and cobalt chrome heads is similar to that reported with other "modern" femoral components...
  60. Feng Y, Yang S, Xiao B, Xu W, Ye S, Xia T, et al. Decreased in the number and function of circulation endothelial progenitor cells in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Bone. 2010;46:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether abnormalities in EPCs levels and functions are present in ANFH patients...
  61. Aldridge J, Urbaniak J. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head: role of vascularized bone grafts. Orthop Clin North Am. 2007;38:13-22, v pubmed
    ..The results from this vast experience are summarized and certain pearls and pitfalls regarding the treatment of femoral head ON using the free vascularized fibular graft are highlighted...
  62. Wang C, Wang F, Ko J, Huang H, Chen C, Sun Y, et al. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows regeneration in hip necrosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of shockwave in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regeneration effects of shockwave in ONFH...
  63. Conroy J, Whitehouse S, Graves S, Pratt N, Ryan P, Crawford R. Risk factors for revision for early dislocation in total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23:867-72 pubmed publisher
    ..59; P < .01). There is a significantly increasing risk of revision for dislocation as head size decreases (P < .001). Cementless acetabula, particularly with smaller heads, have a higher rate of revision for dislocation...
  64. Murata M, Kumagai K, Miyata N, Osaki M, Shindo H. Osteonecrosis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: effect of glucocorticoid. J Orthop Sci. 2007;12:289-95 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated the effects of a steroid hormone on the incidence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats/Nagasaki (SHRSP/Ngsks)...
  65. Fan M, Peng J, Qin L, Lu S. Experimental animal models of osteonecrosis. Rheumatol Int. 2011;31:983-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Advantages and disadvantages of such models are also discussed as reference for future research in battle against this important medical condition...
  66. Troy K, Lundberg H, Conzemius M, Brown T. Habitual hip joint activity level of the penned EMU (Dromaius novaehollandie). Iowa Orthop J. 2007;27:17-23 pubmed
    ..On average, the emus spent 4:05 hours per day idly standing, 2:12 hours squatting/sitting, and 10:44 hours recumbent; they underwent an average of 37 transitions per day between the respective posture/activity states...
  67. Ullmark G, Sundgren K, Milbrink J, Nilsson O, Sorensen J. Osteonecrosis following resurfacing arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. 2009;80:670-4 pubmed publisher
  68. Kawate K, Yajima H, Ohgushi H, Kotobuki N, Sugimoto K, Ohmura T, et al. Tissue-engineered approach for the treatment of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head: transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells cultured with beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics and free vascularized fibula. Artif Organs. 2006;30:960-2 pubmed
    ..This tissue-engineered approach has potentials for the treatment of osteonecrosis. However, our results suggested that the present procedure could not be used for cases with severe preoperative collapse...
  69. Mont M, Zywiel M, Marker D, McGrath M, Delanois R. The natural history of untreated asymptomatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a systematic literature review. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:2165-70 pubmed publisher
  70. Sun Y, Feng Y, Zhang C, Cheng X, Chen S, Ai Z, et al. Beneficial effect of autologous transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells on steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in rabbits. Cell Transplant. 2011;20:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Local implantation of EPCs may provide a novel and effective therapeutic option for early corticosteroid-induced ON...
  71. Okazaki S, Nishitani Y, Nagoya S, Kaya M, Yamashita T, Matsumoto H. Femoral head osteonecrosis can be caused by disruption of the systemic immune response via the toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We established a rat model with femoral head osteonecrosis by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and steroid, and assessed the consequences of this on femoral head histology, the systemic immune response and lipid synthesis...
  72. Goetz J, Pedersen D, Robinson D, Conzemius M, Baer T, Brown T. The apparent critical isotherm for cryoinsult-induced osteonecrotic lesions in emu femoral heads. J Biomech. 2008;41:2197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Series-wide, a critical isotherm of 3.5 degrees C best corresponded to the boundary of the osteonecrotic lesions...
  73. Ullmark G, Sundgren K, Milbrink J, Nilsson O. Femoral head viability following resurfacing arthroplasty. A clinical positron emission tomography study. Hip Int. 2011;21:66-70 pubmed
    ..This was seen following both posterior and antero lateral approaches. Fluoride PET is a sensitive and useful method for evaluating bone metabolism following HR...
  74. Lin P, Wang C, Yang K, Wang F, Ko J, Huang C. Extracorporeal shockwave treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosis. J Arthroplasty. 2006;21:911-5 pubmed
    ..It appeared that ESWT might have the potential to curtail the progression of the disease and to delay the need for total hip arthroplasty in the very young patients contracted with SLE...
  75. Guan X, Han D. Role of hypercoagulability in steroid-induced femoral head necrosis in rabbits. J Orthop Sci. 2010;15:365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied blood coagulability and histopathological characteristics of the femoral head and liver...
  76. Davidovitch R, Jordan C, Egol K, Vrahas M. Challenges in the treatment of femoral neck fractures in the nonelderly adult. J Trauma. 2010;68:236-42 pubmed publisher
  77. Malizos K, Karantanas A, Varitimidis S, Dailiana Z, Bargiotas K, Maris T. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head: etiology, imaging and treatment. Eur J Radiol. 2007;63:16-28 pubmed
    ..Replacement of the hip joint is the last resort for pain relief and function, although non-desirable because of the young age of the affected population...
  78. Rijnen W, Lameijn N, Schreurs B, Gardeniers J. Total hip arthroplasty after failed treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Orthop Clin North Am. 2009;40:291-8 pubmed publisher
  79. Sotereanos N, DeMeo P, Hughes T, Bargiotas K, Wohlrab D. Autogenous osteochondral transfer in the femoral head after osteonecrosis. Orthopedics. 2008;31:177 pubmed
    ..Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a major problem, especially in younger patients. Most of them need a total hip replacement. This article presents a case of a successful autologous osteochondral transfer...
  80. Baksi D, Pal A, Baksi D. Long-term results of decompression and muscle-pedicle bone grafting for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Int Orthop. 2009;33:41-7 pubmed
    ..4% in stage III, with a survivorship of 91% in Stage II and 82% in Stage III cases. The patients having an HSS score below 20 (non-survival) were recommended for total hip replacement (THR) therapy...
  81. Disch A, Matziolis G, Perka C. The management of necrosis-associated and idiopathic bone-marrow oedema of the proximal femur by intravenous iloprost. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:560-4 pubmed
    ..In both groups, we were able to show a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in these observations during the period of follow-up indicating that iloprost will produce clinical improvement in both circumstances...