pathologic bone demineralization


Summary: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)

Top Publications

  1. Karacan I, Aydin T, Ozaras N. Bone loss in the contralateral asymptomatic hand in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22:44-7 pubmed
    ..The bone loss in the asymptomatic contralateral hand could be explained by the loss of sympathetic tone in CRPS1 and contralateral sympathetic innervation. ..
  2. Dubost J, Soubrier M, Ristori J, Guillemot C, Bussiere J, Sauvezie B. Late-onset spondyloarthropathy mimicking reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Joint Bone Spine. 2003;70:226-9 pubmed
    ..In older patients, edema of the foot with severe demineralization and the laboratory evidence of inflammation should suggest a spondyloarthropathy. ..
  3. Zerath E. The G-factor as a tool to learn more about bone structure and function. J Gravit Physiol. 1999;6:P77-80 pubmed
  4. Zywiec J, Grzeszczak W, Pierzchała K. [Bone complications in diabetic subjects with good metabolic control and without any long-term complications--certain problems. Part III: The influence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus co-incidence of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium met. Przegl Lek. 2001;58:778-81 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences between diabetic patients with and without hypertension as far as calcium, phosphorus or magnesium metabolism were concerned. ..
  5. Jain P, Iyer E, Banerjee P, Baboo N. Effects of periodic weight support in a simulated weightless environment in preventing bone demineralisation. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;47:81-6 pubmed
    ..Calcium content of tibia in 4 HRWS remained 15.2% less as compared to CON. These findings indicate that 4 h WS is partially successful in preventing the demineralisation effects of S-W on weight bearing bone tibia. ..
  6. Egrise D, Holy X, Hinsenkamp M, Begot L, Schoutens A, Bergmann P, et al. Protracted systemic changes in bone biology after segmented unloading in the rat. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73:56-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, as yet, unidentified systemic factors probably superimpose on the local factors that control bone volume. ..
  7. Wedig K, Kogan J, Schorry E, Whitsett J. Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. J Perinatol. 2006;26:371-4 pubmed
    ..Early recognition and treatment may minimize complications related to osteopenia caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. ..
  8. Priemel M, von Domarus C, Klatte T, Kessler S, Schlie J, Meier S, et al. Bone mineralization defects and vitamin D deficiency: histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 675 patients. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:305-12 pubmed publisher
  9. Hawkey A. The physical price of a ticket into space. J Br Interplanet Soc. 2003;56:152-9 pubmed
    ..The development of other countermeasures will therefore be necessary for longer duration missions, such as the human exploration of Mars...

More Information


  1. Dubinsky M. New patients: should children be treated differently?. Colorectal Dis. 2006;8 Suppl 1:15-9 pubmed
    ..A recent case report, involving a 15-year old boy presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea, illustrates the difficulty in correctly diagnosing IBD in children and the need for optimizing therapy to achieve treatment success. ..
  2. Tobias J, Sasi M, Greenwood R, Probert C. Rapid hip bone loss in active Crohn's disease patients receiving short-term corticosteroid therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;20:951-7 pubmed
    ..This rapid bone loss may represent a risk factor for fracture and justify bone protective therapy. ..
  3. Gordon L, McCarten K, Giobbie Hurder A, Machan J, Campbell S, Berns S, et al. Disease progression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: impact on growth and development. Pediatrics. 2007;120:824-33 pubmed
    ..The presence of decreased and linear weight gain, maintained in all of the patients after the age of 2 years, provides the ideal parameter on which altered disease status can be assessed in clinical trials. ..
  4. Ciechomska A, Andrysiak R, Serafin Krol M, Tłustochowicz W, Cholewa M. [The assessment of the value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing hand joint arthritis]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2001;11:144-7 pubmed
    ..Both methods detect synovitis and tenosynovitis. Inflammatory changes shown using the MRI and US are more intensive in RA than in patients suffering from another etiology arthritis. ..
  5. Cavanagh P, Licata A, Rice A. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2005;18:39-58 pubmed
    ..Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space. ..
  6. Berry C. The medical legacy of Gemini. Life Sci Space Res. 1968;6:1-19 pubmed
    ..Although much remains to be learned, it does appear from an overview of this medical legacy that if man is properly supported and evaluated his limitations will not be a barrier to the exploration of the universe. ..
  7. Radowicki S, Skórzewska K, Matuszkiewicz Rowinska J. [Changes in bone density in hemodialysed women treated with transdermal hormone replacement therapy]. Ginekol Pol. 2003;74:997-1001 pubmed
    ..Transdermal hormonal replacement therapy in hemodialysed women with secondary amenorrhea revealed the efficacy of the treatment and prevention from osteoporosis. ..
  8. Jagielska G, Wolanczyk T, Komender J, Tomaszewicz Libudzic C, Przedlacki J, Ostrowski K. Bone mineral density in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa--a cross-sectional study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;11:57-62 pubmed
    ..A step-wise linear regression analysis revealed that age of menarche was the most important factor related to BMD in this group. ..
  9. Fong K. The next small step. BMJ. 2004;329:1441-4 pubmed
  10. Brouwers J, Lambers F, Gasser J, van Rietbergen B, Huiskes R. Bone degeneration and recovery after early and late bisphosphonate treatment of ovariectomized wistar rats assessed by in vivo micro-computed tomography. Calcif Tissue Int. 2008;82:202-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Early ZOL treatment resulted in a significantly better microstructure than late treatment. However, late treatment was still significantly better than no treatment. ..
  11. Lee S, Kim M, Kim B, Kim S, Chun S, Ryu J, et al. Homocysteine-lowering therapy or antioxidant therapy for bone loss in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..442 +/- 0.024 ng/mL) than control group (0.628 +/- 0.039 ng/mL) (P = 0.159). This small trial suggests that Hcy-lowering therapy may prevent bone loss in PD patients taking levodopa. ..
  12. Hawkey A. The importance of exercising in space. Interdiscip Sci Rev. 2003;28:130-8 pubmed
    ..The development of other countermeasures will be necessary for missions of longer duration, for example for human exploration of Mars...
  13. Graebe A, Schuck E, Lensing P, Putcha L, Derendorf H. Physiological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic changes in space. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;44:837-53 pubmed
    ..These changes may be expected to have severe implications on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drug substances. ..
  14. Jennett R, Tarby T. Disuse osteoporosis as evidence of brachial plexus palsy due to intrauterine fetal maladaptation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:236-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of clear-cut evidence of disuse osteoporosis during the early neonatal period is compelling evidence of an intrauterine onset of brachial plexus palsy...
  15. Pang M, Eng J. Muscle strength is a determinant of bone mineral content in the hemiparetic upper extremity: implications for stroke rehabilitation. Bone. 2005;37:103-11 pubmed
    ..822, P<0.001) of lean mass in the paretic arm. These results highlight the potential of muscle strengthening to promote bone health of the paretic arm in individuals with chronic stroke...
  16. Sun B, Cao X, Zhang L, Liu C, Ni H, Cheng J, et al. Daily 4-h head-up tilt is effective in preventing muscle but not bone atrophy due to simulated microgravity. J Gravit Physiol. 2003;10:29-38 pubmed
    ..Daily 4-h HUT, as 4-h STD, is also ineffective in attenuating adverse changes in bone mass, but seems partially effective in preventing declines in mechanical properties due to simulated microgravity...
  17. Fenton T, Eliasziw M, Lyon A, Tough S, Hanley D. Meta-analysis of the quantity of calcium excretion associated with the net acid excretion of the modern diet under the acid-ash diet hypothesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:1159-66 pubmed
    ..However, this finding is not evidence that the source of the excreted calcium is bone or that this calciuria contributes to the development of osteoporosis. ..
  18. Capriles V, Martini L, Arêas J. Metabolic osteopathy in celiac disease: importance of a gluten-free diet. Nutr Rev. 2009;67:599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..A GFD improves, but rarely normalizes, BMD in patients diagnosed with CD in adulthood. In some cases, nutritional supplementation may be necessary. More information on therapeutic alternatives is needed. ..
  19. Park S, Jeong K, Moon J, Lee S, Ihm C, Rhee S, et al. The relationship between circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone metabolism factors in Korean hemodialysis patients. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that FGF-23 may have no direct effect on bone mineralization, and further studies are warranted to examine the effects of FGF-23 on vitamin D metabolism. ..
  20. Oganov V. Modern analysis of bone loss mechanisms in microgravity. J Gravit Physiol. 2004;11:P143-6 pubmed
  21. Serafinowicz E, Wasikowa R, Iwanicka Z, Jedrzejuk D. [Bone metabolism in adolescent girls with short course of anorexia nervosa]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw. 2003;9:67-71 pubmed
    ..Reduction of bone mineral density is present in girls with short course of AN. Nutritional status is the most important predictor of BMD. Bone metabolism is decreased in the early stages of the disease. ..
  22. Seo H, Itoh T, Murata Y, Ohmori S, Kambe F, Mohri M, et al. Changes in urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links during Spacelab-J. Biol Sci Space. 1997;11:321-6 pubmed
    ..Increased urinary excretion of calcium during the last 4 mission days were also observed. These results suggest that increase in bone resorption could occur during relatively short stay in microgravity...
  23. Tauchmanova L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino M, Camera L, et al. Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1779-84 pubmed
    ..e. Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome...
  24. Vehmanen L, Saarto T, Elomaa I, Makela P, Valimaki M, Blomqvist C. Long-term impact of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure on bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal breast cancer patients. The effect of adjuvant clodronate treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:2373-8 pubmed
    ..Adjuvant clodronate treatment significantly reduced this bone loss. Two years after the termination of treatment, the bone loss was still significantly less in the clodronate group compared with the control group...
  25. Therbo M, Petersen M, Nielsen P, Lund B. Loss of bone mineral of the hip and proximal tibia following rupture of the Achilles tendon. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13:194-9 pubmed
  26. Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y, Koike Y, Kawamata R, Uehara R, et al. Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged maternal administration of MgSO(4) may induce bone demineralization in the neonate. However, the effects of MgSO(4) on serum biochemistry related to bone metabolism in neonates remain unclear...
  27. Milbury P, Vaughan M, Farley S, Matula G, Convertino V, Matson W. A comparative bear model for immobility-induced osteopenia. Ursus. 1998;10:507-20 pubmed
    ..This research could lead to new pharmaceuticals or dietary interventions for the treatment of immobility osteopenia...
  28. Mellanby R, Herrtage M. What is your diagnosis? Osteodystrophy secondary to hyperparathyroidism. J Small Anim Pract. 2004;45:1, 32-4 pubmed
  29. Iwase S, Takada H, Watanabe Y, Ishida K, Akima H, Katayama K, et al. Effect of centrifuge-induced artificial gravity and ergometric exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning, myatrophy, and osteoporosis induced by a -6 degrees head-down bedrest. J Gravit Physiol. 2004;11:P243-4 pubmed
    ..The combination of high/low G-load with low/high intensity exercise will determine the optimal protocol for prevention of cardiovascular deconditioning, myatrophy, and osteoporosis...
  30. Trombetti A, Richert L, Rizzoli R. [Anorexia nervosa and its consequences on bone: a therapeutic challenge]. Rev Med Suisse. 2007;3:1502-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, bone loss is a major clinical concern in anorexia nervosa patients, justifying systematic evaluation. However, evidence-based therapeutic options are limited...
  31. Lester S. What is your diagnosis? Metaphyseal osteopathy. J Small Anim Pract. 2002;43:285, 323 pubmed
  32. Prie D, Beck L, Friedlander G, Silve C. Sodium-phosphate cotransporters, nephrolithiasis and bone demineralization. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2004;13:675-81 pubmed
    ..We discuss how recent findings obtained in disorders of phosphate metabolism in humans and in animal models have provided insights into the pathogenesis of renal stone formation and bone demineralization...
  33. Rusińska A. [Current views on the etiopathogenesis of idiopathic osteoporosis and osteopenia in the developmental period]. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2004;8:801-13 pubmed
    ..In this way they affect the state of dynamic balance between the process of bone formation and resorption, and thus the mineralization of the skeleton...
  34. Holick M. Perspective on the consequences of short- and long-duration space flight on human physiology. Life Support Biosph Sci. 1999;6:19-27 pubmed
    ..Engineering some gravitational force as a component of long-duration space vehicles should be given a high priority...
  35. Gold M, Bachrach L. Contraceptive use in teens: a threat to bone health?. J Adolesc Health. 2004;35:427-9 pubmed
  36. Schweiger U, Weber B, Deuschle M, Heuser I. Lumbar bone mineral density in patients with major depression: evidence of increased bone loss at follow-up. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:118-20 pubmed
    ..This study investigated whether an increase in the loss of bone mineral density occurs with major depression...
  37. Sermet Gaudelus I, Nove Josserand R, Loeille G, Dacremont G, Souberbielle J, Fritsch J, et al. [Recommendations for the management of bone demineralization in cystic fibrosis]. Arch Pediatr. 2008;15:301-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Recommendations for screening and for calcium, vitamin D and K supplementation are given. Further work is needed to define indications for treatment with biphosphonates and anabolic agents...
  38. Jokihaara J, Porsti I, Kööbi P, Jolma P, Mustonen J, Saha H, et al. Treatment of experimental renal osteodystrophy with pamidronate. Kidney Int. 2008;74:319-27 pubmed publisher
  39. Sadideen H, Covic A, Goldsmith D. Mineral and bone disorder after renal transplantation: a review. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40:171-84 pubmed
  40. Levi M, Breusegem S, Bruesegem S. Renal phosphate-transporter regulatory proteins and nephrolithiasis. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1171-3 pubmed publisher
  41. Szymańska U, Jagielska G, Tomaszewicz Libudzic C, Przedlacki J. [Bone metabolism disturbances in anorexia nervosa]. Wiad Lek. 2007;60:68-72 pubmed
    ..Decreased BMD persist in adult patients with a history of AN in the adolescence. There are no guidelines concerning treatment of osteoporosis in AN. The authors present review of the literature concerning bone metabolism in AN...
  42. Tringali S, Pouget J, Bertholon P, Dubreuil C, Martin C. Value of temporal bone density measurements in otosclerosis patients with normal-appearing computed tomographic scan. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:195-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss the value of temporal bone density measurements in patients with otosclerosis who have a normal-appearing computed tomographic (CT) scan...
  43. Jagielska G, Wolanczyk T, Komender J, Tomaszewicz Libudzic C, Przedlacki J, Ostrowski K. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa--a longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104:131-7 pubmed
  44. Veillette C, McKee M. Growth factors--BMPs, DBMs, and buffy coat products: are there any proven differences amongst them?. Injury. 2007;38 Suppl 1:S38-48 pubmed
    ..In particular, the differences amongst osteoinductive factors synthesized by recombinant gene technology, or derived from demineralized bone matrix or platelet rich plasma requires clarification...
  45. Sbaihi M, Kacem A, Aroua S, Baloche S, Rousseau K, Lopez E, et al. Thyroid hormone-induced demineralisation of the vertebral skeleton of the eel, Anguilla anguilla. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;151:98-107 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the stimulatory action of TH on bone resorption may be an ancient regulatory mechanism in vertebrates...
  46. Bostrom M, Yang X, Kennan M, Sandhu H, DiCarlo E, Lane J. An unexpected outcome during testing of commercially available demineralized bone graft materials: how safe are the nonallograft components?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:1425-8 pubmed
    ..Radiographic and histologic analyses of commercially available bone graft materials were performed...
  47. Saparin P, Thomsen J, Prohaska S, Zaikin A, Kurths J, Hege H, et al. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity. Acta Astronaut. 2005;56:820-30 pubmed
    ..The proposed technique is able to quantify the structural loss of the bone tissue and may help to diagnose and to monitor changes in bone structure of patients on Earth as well as of the space-flying personnel...
  48. Yates K. Inferred functions of "novel" genes identified in fibroblasts chondroinduced by demineralized bone. DNA Cell Biol. 2004;23:15-24 pubmed
    ..The cellular functions of the DBP-regulated genes described in this study fall into similar categories as those previously identified. These results provide new details on the cellular response of hDFs exposed to DBP...
  49. O REILLY R, Fitzpatrick P, Leen G, Elnazir B, Greally P. Severe bone demineralisation is associated with higher mortality in children with cystic fibrosis. Ir Med J. 2009;102:47-9 pubmed
    ..Bone demineralization was strongly associated with increasing age (p=0.03), diminished lung function (p=0.027), reduced body mass index (p=0.001) and treatment with oral corticosteroids (p=0.02)...
  50. Bolotin H. Spaceflight, weightlessness, and bone loss--what are we measuring?. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:2271-2; author reply 2273 pubmed
  51. Skulan J, Bullen T, Anbar A, Puzas J, Shackelford L, LeBlanc A, et al. Natural calcium isotopic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance. Clin Chem. 2007;53:1155-8 pubmed
    ..If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques...
  52. Albalate M, de la Piedra C, Fernandez C, Lefort M, Santana H, Hernando P, et al. Association between phosphate removal and markers of bone turnover in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:1626-32 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated the relationship between these variables and phosphate removal by HD...
  53. Haugeberg G, Vetvik K, Stallemo A, Bitter H, Mikkelsen B, Stokkeland M. Bone density reduction in patients with Crohn disease and associations with demographic and disease variables: cross-sectional data from a population-based study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:759-65 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine bone mineral density (BMD) and factors associated with reduced BMD in a representative population of patients with Crohn disease aged between 20 and 70 years...
  54. Mishra O, Meena S, Singh S, Prasad R, Mishra R. Bone mineral density in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76:1237-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To observe the influence of prednisolone treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome...
  55. Barreto F, Barreto D, Liabeuf S, Drueke T, Massy Z. Effects of uremic toxins on vascular and bone remodeling. Semin Dial. 2009;22:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the role of uremic toxins in the cross-talk between bone and vessel, and emphasize their potential contribution to the development of both vascular and bone remodeling disorders in patients with CKD...
  56. Scacchi M, Danesi L, Cattaneo A, Valassi E, Pecori Giraldi F, Argento C, et al. Bone demineralization in adult thalassaemic patients: contribution of GH and IGF-I at different skeletal sites. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the high prevalence of GHD recently observed by our group among adult thalassaemic patients, we elected to study the possible role of GH-IGF-I abnormalities in the pathogenesis of the osteopenia/osteoporosis of this disease...
  57. Adehossi E, Landais C, Souna B, Guida S, Gbaguidi F, Toure A, et al. [First documented cases of rheumatoid arthritis in Niger]. Sante. 2010;20:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report the first eight documented cases of rheumatoid arthritis in Niger, all diagnosed during one year at the National Lamordé Hospital of Niamey. Systemic manifestations were rare...
  58. Jensen T, Karppinen J, Sorensen J, Niinimaki J, Leboeuf Yde C. Vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic change): a systematic literature review of prevalence and association with non-specific low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2008;17:1407-22 pubmed publisher
    ..0 to 19.9. This systematic review shows that VESC is a common MRI-finding in patients with non-specific LBP and is associated with pain. However, it should be noted that VESC may be present in individuals without LBP...
  59. Wooltorton E. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) and bone mineral density loss. CMAJ. 2005;172:746 pubmed
  60. Fusaro M. [Fractures and chronic renal insufficiency]. G Ital Nefrol. 2008;25:369; author reply 369-70 pubmed
  61. Gorczynski R, Gorczynski C, Gorczynski L, Hu J, Lu J, Manuel J, et al. Neutral buoyancy and sleep-deprived serum factors alter expression of cytokines regulating osteogenesis. Acta Astronaut. 2005;56:890-9 pubmed
    ..However, using stromal cells from IL-1 and TNFx cytokine(r) KO mice, we concluded that the increased bone loss under microgravity conditions was not primarily cytokine mediated...
  62. Elliott J. Possible methods for the prevention of bone loss in persons with epilepsy. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:797-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Consensus guidelines are needed for the prevention, screening and treatment of BMD loss in epilepsy...
  63. Khoury D, Szalay E. Bone mineral density correlation with fractures in nonambulatory pediatric patients. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27:562-6 pubmed
    ..This relationship is independent of the child's chronological age and Z-score. This information may be helpful prognostically to define a treatment algorithm for low bone density on a case-by-case basis...
  64. Böttcher J, Pfeil A, Rosholm A, Soros P, Petrovitch A, Schaefer M, et al. Computerized quantification of joint space narrowing and periarticular demineralization in patients with rheumatoid arthritis based on digital x-ray radiogrammetry. Invest Radiol. 2006;41:36-44 pubmed
  65. Mol A, Dunn S. Effect of bone chip orientation on quantitative estimates of changes in bone mass using digital subtraction radiography. J Periodontal Res. 2003;38:296-302 pubmed
    ..To assess the effect of the orientation of arbitrarily shaped bone chips on the correlation between radiographic estimates of bone loss and true mineral loss using digital subtraction radiography...
  66. Cromer B, Stager M, Bonny A, Lazebnik R, Rome E, Ziegler J, et al. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral contraceptives and bone mineral density in a cohort of adolescent girls. J Adolesc Health. 2004;35:434-41 pubmed
  67. Hartl W, Jauch K, Parhofer K, Rittler P. Complications and monitoring - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 11. Ger Med Sci. 2009;7:Doc17 pubmed publisher
    ..Monitoring metabolic determinants of bone metabolism is particularly important in patients receiving long-term PN. Markers of intermediary, electrolyte and trace element metabolism require regular checks...
  68. Liu Y, Huang W, Li L, Zhong C, Dong R, Sun H. [Preventive effects of exercise training on bone loss during 21 d -6 degrees head down bed-rest]. Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2003;16:96-9 pubmed
    ..To observe the protective effects of exercise training during 21 d -6 degrees head down bed rest (HDBR) on bone loss...
  69. Ramsden R, Rotteveel L, Proops D, Saeed S, Van Olphen A, Mylanus E. Cochlear implantation in otosclerotic deafness. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;65:328-34 pubmed
    ..The most common rogue electrodes were in the proximity of the geniculate ganglion. These could usually be successfully programmed out of the MAP...
  70. Brik A, Brik V, Atamanenko O, Litovka I, Kalmykova N. New approaches for study of mechanisms of bone demineralization due to microgravity. J Gravit Physiol. 2001;8:P81-2 pubmed
  71. Sakamoto M, Kitahara N. Spontaneous external auditory canal cholesteatoma complicated by rheumatoid arthritis--case report and review of the literature. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2002;29:191-4 pubmed
    ..The condition was diagnosed as external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). The existence of EACC might suggest complications of bone disease, aging cerumen gland, or a low migratory rate of the epithelium...
  72. Deschenes G, Maisin A. [Bone disease following renal transplantation]. Arch Pediatr. 2007;14:555-6 pubmed
  73. Payne M, Williams D, Trudel G. Space flight rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86:583-91 pubmed
    ..Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment...
  74. Kurzrock E. Pediatric enterocystoplasty: long-term complications and controversies. World J Urol. 2009;27:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A better awareness and understanding of these complications will lead to improved prevention, surveillance and treatment...
  75. Mentzel H, John U, Boettcher J, Malich A, Pfeil A, Vollandt R, et al. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:489-94 pubmed
    ..Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids...
  76. Lado F, Spiegel R, Masur J, Boro A, Haut S. Value of routine screening for bone demineralization in an urban population of patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2008;78:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We set out to characterize the prevalence of abnormal BMD in an urban population of patients with epilepsy with the intent to determine the value of routine BMD screening...
  77. Ledsome J. Summary of final report: Space Life Sciences Planning Workshop (SLSPW). June 5-7, 2000 Mont Tremblant, Quebec. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001;79:741-3 pubmed
    ..The conclusions reached by the workshop participants have been presented to the Canadian Space Agency. This report is a summary of those conclusions...
  78. Lewiecki E. Clinical applications of bone density testing for osteoporosis. Minerva Med. 2005;96:317-30 pubmed
    ..Clinical applications of BMD testing are presented in this review...
  79. Brik A, Oganov V, Rozenfeld L, Atamanenko O, Kalinichenko A, Ovsyannikova L, et al. Bone demineralization mechanisms at level of free radicals and nanoscale subsystems of bone tissue. J Gravit Physiol. 2004;11:P155-6 pubmed
    ..It is shown that the EPR method open possibilities to receive the unique information about bone demineralization processes at level of free radicals and nanoscale subsystems of bone tissue...
  80. Seitz S, Barvencik F, Gebauer M, Albers J, Schulze J, Streichert T, et al. Preproenkephalin (Penk) is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts, and its deletion in Hyp mice partially rescues their bone mineralization defect. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010;86:282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide the first in vivo analysis concerning the role of Penk in osteoblasts...
  81. Zywiec J, Grzeszczak W, Pierzchała K. [Bone complication in diabetic subjects with good metabolic control and without any late complications: selected problems. Part I: calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism]. Przegl Lek. 2001;58:426-30 pubmed
    ..Correlations between mineral metabolism and type of diabetes, duration time of diabetes, daily insulin dose, body mass index and sex are observed. Kind of hypoglycaemic treatment has only slight influence on the mineral metabolism...
  82. Modarresi R, Xiang Z, Yin M, Laurence J. WNT/beta-catenin signaling is involved in regulation of osteoclast differentiation by human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir: relationship to human immunodeficiency virus-linked bone mineral loss. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:123-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The reversal of these ritonavir-mediated changes by interferon-gamma provides a model for possible intervention in this metabolic complication of HIV therapy...
  83. Vlychou M, Papadaki P, Zavras G, Vasiou K, Kelekis N, Malizos K, et al. Paraplegia-related alterations of bone density in forearm and hip in Greek patients after spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2003;25:324-30 pubmed