osteitis fibrosa cystica


Summary: A fibrous degeneration, cyst formation, and the presence of fibrous nodules in bone, usually due to HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.

Top Publications

  1. Agarwal G, Mishra S, Kar D, Singh A, Arya V, Gupta S, et al. Recovery pattern of patients with osteitis fibrosa cystica in primary hyperparathyroidism after successful parathyroidectomy. Surgery. 2002;132:1075-83; discussion 1083-5 pubmed
    After parathyroidectomy, recovery of osteitis fibrosa cystica, which continues to dominate presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism in India has not been documented objectively.
  2. Reséndiz Colosia J, Rodriguez Cuevas S, Flores Díaz R, Juan M, Gallegos Hernández J, Barroso Bravo S, et al. Evolution of maxillofacial brown tumors after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Head Neck. 2008;30:1497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Brown tumor occasionally affects the facial bones. Clinically, these lesions can be mistaken for a neoplasm. Opinions are divided on the course of management of the bony lesions once parathyroidectomy has been carried out...
  3. Kemp A, Bukvic M, Sturgis C. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of osteitis fibrosa cystica (brown tumor of bone): a case report. Acta Cytol. 2008;52:471-4 pubmed
    ..It is therefore incumbent upon cytopathologists to formulate a complete differential diagnosis of osseous lesions...
  4. Hsieh M, Ko J, Eng H. Pathologic fracture of the distal femur in osteitis fibrosa cystica simulating metastatic disease. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2004;124:498-501 pubmed
    ..fracture, and the pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism with osteitis fibrosa cystica. We report this rare case here because it may be mistaken for neoplastic metastatic disease on ..
  5. Suarez Cunqueiro M, Schoen R, Kersten A, Klisch J, Schmelzeisen R. Brown tumor of the mandible as first manifestation of atypical parathyroid adenoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:1024-8 pubmed
  6. Tunali S, Celik H, Uslu S, Aldur M. Scanning electron microscopic observation of the brown tumor of the head of mandible. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:856-8 pubmed
    ..They generally resolve after surgical treatment of the parathyroid adenoma. Here, we report a case of brown tumor of the mandible of a cadaver with its scanning electron microscopic observation and review of literature...
  7. Walsh M, Chan K, Travers S, McIntyre R. Destructive maxillomandibular brown tumor in severe hyperparathyroidism. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;201:315 pubmed
  8. Triantafillidou K, Zouloumis L, Karakinaris G, Kalimeras E, Iordanidis F. Brown tumors of the jaws associated with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. A clinical study and review of the literature. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006;27:281-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this article is to present the development of brown tumors in the jaws as a definite feature of hyperparathyroidism (HPT), whether primary or secondary...
  9. Khalil P, Heining S, Huss R, Ihrler S, Siebeck M, Hallfeldt K, et al. Natural history and surgical treatment of brown tumor lesions at various sites in refractory primary hyperparathyroidism. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12:222-30 pubmed
    Nowadays, the occurrence of brown tumor lesions or osteitis fibrosa cystica caused by long-lasting primary hyperparathyroidism are very rare, since measuring serum calcium became available routinely in the mid-1970s...

More Information


  1. França T, Griz L, Pinho J, Diniz E, Andrade L, Lucena C, et al. Bisphosphonates can reduce bone hunger after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2011;51:131-7 pubmed
    To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on post-parathyroidectomy hypocalcemia in patients with osteitis fibrosa cystica.
  2. Qian Z, Bai R, Yan D, Li X, Cheng X, Gu X, et al. [Skeletal disease in primary hyperparathyroidism: X-ray, CT and MR imaging founding]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;93:30-3 pubmed
    ..3%) cases with subchondral resorption. There were 19 (63.3%) cases with osteitis fibrosa cystica/brown tumor. There were 5 (16.7%) patients sustained a pathological fracture...
  3. Grulois V, Buysschaert I, Schoenaers J, Debruyne F, Delaere P, Vander Poorten V. Brown tumour: presenting symptom of primary hyperparathyroidism. B-ENT. 2005;1:191-5 pubmed
    ..We present a patient where a brown tumour of the mandible was the presenting symptom of primary hyperparathyroidism. ..
  4. Al Gahtany M, Cusimano M, Singer W, Bilbao J, Kovacs K, Marotta T. Brown tumors of the skull base. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:417-20 pubmed
    ..The authors report a case of brown tumor of the ethmoidal sinus, documenting its clinical, neuroimaging, and pathological features with long-term follow-up results, and review previous reports on this disorder. ..
  5. Inaba M. [Bone loss in hemodialysis patients]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 9:521-5 pubmed
  6. Huang R, Zhuang R, Liu Y, Li T, Huang J. Unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism: report of three cases. BMC Med Imaging. 2015;15:23 pubmed publisher
    ..results in an altered state of osseous metabolism involving bone resorption and tissue change known as osteitis fibrosa cystica, which is the end stage of primary hyperparathyroidism...
  7. Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Cinel A, Ersoz H, Reis A, Sari A, et al. Sphenoid sinus brown tumor, a mass lesion of occipital bone and hypercalcemia: an unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004;27:366-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this is a first report of primary HPT masquerading as a destructive fibrous sphenoid sinus brown tumor associated with a mass lesion of occipital bone and hypercalcemia in the literature. ..
  8. Pace C, Crosher R. Simultaneously occurring brown tumours in the mandible and maxilla in a patient with vitamin D deficiency. Aust Dent J. 2010;55:453-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a rare case of a 27-year-old Asian female presenting with simultaneous brown tumours in the maxilla and mandible secondary to vitamin D deficiency which was a result of dietary deficiency and lack of exposure to sunlight. ..
  9. Schwarz T, Störk C, Megahy I, Lawrie A, Lochmüller E, Johnston P. Osteodystrophia fibrosa in two guinea pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:63-6, 49 pubmed
    ..Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by calcium-phosphorus imbalance was considered to be the underlying cause of osteodystrophia fibrosa in both guinea pigs. ..
  10. Misiorowski W, Czajka Oraniec I, Kochman M, Zgliczynski W, Bilezikian J. Osteitis fibrosa cystica-a forgotten radiological feature of primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine. 2017;58:380-385 pubmed publisher
    ..The X-ray or computed tomography scan findings of osteitis fibrosa cystica include lytic or multilobular cystic changes...
  11. Eubanks P, Stabile B. Osteitis fibrosa cystica with renal parathyroid hormone resistance: a review of pseudohypoparathyroidism with insight into calcium homeostasis. Arch Surg. 1998;133:673-6 pubmed
    ..The complexities of parathyroid hormone cellular interactions and calcium homeostasis are discussed. Pseudohypoparathroidism is an unusual disease; however, it provides an elegant model for studying problems of calcium balance. ..
  12. Khan A, Bilezikian J. Primary hyperparathyroidism: pathophysiology and impact on bone. CMAJ. 2000;163:184-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, a new class of therapeutics may include the calcimimetic agents. Bisphosphonates are also currently being evaluated with regard to their impact on fracture prevention and their beneficial effects on bone mineral density. ..
  13. Owada G, Inagawa G, Nakamura K, Kariya T, Goto T. [Usefulness of ultrasound pre-scanning for cricothyroid membrane puncture in a patient with rupture of a pseudoaneurysm]. Masui. 2014;63:77-80 pubmed
    ..We recommend ultrasound pre-scanning for cricothyroid membrane puncture in a patient with suspected tracheal displacement. ..
  14. Schnyder M, Stolzmann P, Huber G, Schmid C. A patient with a history of breast cancer and multiple bone lesions: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2017;11:127 pubmed publisher
    ..severe hyperparathyroidism leads to thinning of cortical bone and cystic bone defects referred to as osteitis fibrosa cystica. Cysts filled with hemosiderin deposits may appear colored as "brown tumors...
  15. Spitale L, Piccinni D. [Brown tumor in hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure]. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba. 2004;61:65-9 pubmed
    ..We consider that the radiological and tomographyc finds, besides the history of chronic renal failure with a long history of hemodialysis, were enough to link, with great approach, the histopathology with the diagnosis of BT. ..
  16. Guldfred L, Daugaard S, Von Buchwald C. Brown tumor mimicking maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2012;39:418-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of hyperparathyroidism confirmed the diagnosis of brown tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic brown tumor mimicking a mucocele of the maxillary sinus. ..
  17. Fok W, Leung H. Unresolved lytic lesions following parathyroidectomy in a patient with chronic renal failure. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90:506-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, the prevalence of osteitis fibrosa cystica, a manifestation of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beta2 microglobulin amyloidosis, a result of long-..
  18. Nakanishi S, Fukagawa M. [Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy]. Clin Calcium. 2004;14:15-20 pubmed
    ..It was invited osteitis fibrosa, high bone turnover. The parathyroid function is suppressed by active vitamin D, it was considered that lower parathyroid hormone levels was one of the cause of low bone turnover, adynamic bone disease. ..
  19. Thomas D, Stonell C, Hasan K. Tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica: incidental finding at tracheal intubation. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87:515-7 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica was made after subsequent bronchoscopy and biopsy in the post-operative period. A brief review of this rare benign condition is given...
  20. Bandeira F, Oliveira R, Griz L, Caldas G, Bandeira C. Differences in accuracy of 99mTc-sestamibi scanning between severe and mild forms of primary hyperparathyroidism. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36:30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..patients without overt bone disease (group II), and 21 patients with severe bone involvement and osteitis fibrosa cystica (group III). Mean serum calcium in groups I, II, and III was 10.98 +/- 0.02, 11.32 +/- 0.17, and 13...
  21. Bandeira F, Cassibba S. Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Health. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2015;17:48 pubmed publisher
    Bone pain, proximal muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, and pathological fractures are features of osteitis fibrosa cystica which occur in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)...
  22. Singhal S, Johnson C, Udelsman R. Primary hyperparathyroidism: what every orthopedic surgeon should know. Orthopedics. 2001;24:1003-9; quiz 1010-1 pubmed
    ..In addition, these procedures can easily be performed simultaneously under one anesthetic and thereby minimize cost and length of hospitalization. ..
  23. Jeren Strujić B, Rozman B, Lambasa S, Jeren T, Markovic M, Raos V. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and brown tumor in dialyzed patients. Ren Fail. 2001;23:279-86 pubmed
    ..Surgery was performed and PHD was granuloma gigantocelulare. Prevention and therapy of secondary HP is a problem that demands early actions to avoid possible complications. ..
  24. Kao H, Chang W, Lee C, Lee H, Huang G. Missed brown tumors in a young adult with decreased bone density. South Med J. 2010;103:371-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the radiographic findings and biochemistry results in a young adult patient, brown tumor was suspected and subsequently definitively diagnosed...
  25. Guney E, Yigitbasi O, Bayram F, Ozer V, Canoz O. Brown tumor of the maxilla associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28:369-72 pubmed
    ..Excision of a parathyroid adenoma normalized the metabolic status. Excision of the maxillary mass led both histopathological confirmation of the disease and early masticator rehabilitation. ..
  26. Spasovski G, Masin Spasovska J, Gjurchinov D. Successful treatment of severe secondary hyperparathyroidsm (Brown tumor) by kidney transplantation and pulses of oral calcitriol. Clin Transplant. 2009;23:426-30 pubmed
  27. Silverberg S, WALKER M, Bilezikian J. Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Densitom. 2013;16:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. ..
  28. Hong W, Sung M, Chun K, Kim J, Park S, Lee K, et al. Emphasis on the MR imaging findings of brown tumor: a report of five cases. Skeletal Radiol. 2011;40:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..There are few lesions that are osteolytic on the radiographs and that show a short T2 on MR imaging, such as brown tumor. Multiple cystic or mixed lesions are the expected findings of brown tumors. ..
  29. Kao C, Chang J, Lin J, Lin C. Brown tumor of the sternum. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:1651-3 pubmed
    The skeletal changes of severe hyperparathyroidism, known as osteitis fibrosa cystica, are now rarely encountered, because hyperparathyroidism is currently being diagnosed and treated at an early stage...
  30. Ubara Y, Tagami T, Nakanishi S, Sawa N, Hoshino J, Suwabe T, et al. Significance of minimodeling in dialysis patients with adynamic bone disease. Kidney Int. 2005;68:833-9 pubmed
  31. Kanakis G, Kaltsas G, Granberg D, Grimelius L, Papaioannou D, Tsolakis A, et al. Unusual complication of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting with malignant hypercalcemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the appearance of bone lesions in this setting may be in the context of metabolic bone disease and could be misdiagnosed as bone metastases. ..
  32. Rao D, Agarwal G, Talpos G, Phillips E, Bandeira F, Mishra S, et al. Role of vitamin D and calcium nutrition in disease expression and parathyroid tumor growth in primary hyperparathyroidism: a global perspective. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17 Suppl 2:N75-80 pubmed
    ..It will be of interest to see if the pattern of presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism changes when better nutritional policies are implemented in developing countries. ..
  33. Bostan B, Erdem M, Gunes T, Sen C, Koseoglu R. [Overlooked primary hyperparathyroidism presented with fractures: case report]. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2010;16:567-70 pubmed
    ..and pathological femur and contralateral tibia fractures at the level of these cystic lesions (osteitis fibrosa cystica)...
  34. Ahmed M, Faraz H, Almahfouz A, Alarifi A, Raef H, Al Dayel F, et al. A case of vitamin D deficiency masquerading as occult malignancy. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26:231-6 pubmed
  35. Sato S, Kitahara A, Koike T, Hashimoto T, Ohashi R, Motoi N, et al. Resection of a large ectopic parathyroid adenoma: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2016;23:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..However, cases of parathyroid adenomas greater than 4cm with osteitis fibrosa cystica are extremely rare...
  36. Safi S, Hassikou H, Messary A, Boumdin H, Hadri L, Zouhair A. [Severe primary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2004;65:226-32 pubmed
    ..Laboratory tests revealed severe primary hyperparathyroidism (osteitis fibrosa cystica and nephrolithiasis) associated with vitamin D deficiency...
  37. Sutbeyaz Y, Yoruk O, BIlen H, Gursan N. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as a palatal and mandibular brown tumor. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:2101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis was suggested by the clinical history and confirmed by biochemical, radiologic, and histopathologic evidence. Excision of a parathyroid adenoma normalization of the metabolic status was then realized...
  38. Chauhan V, Kelepouris E, Chauhan N, Vaid M. Current concepts and management strategies in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. South Med J. 2012;105:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines the evidence behind the understanding of CKD-MBD, its implications for overall mortality, and the latest recommendations for management of CKD-MBD in patients with predialysis CKD...
  39. Bains M, Pardoe L, Rudin C. Osteitis fibrosa cystica and secondary hyperparathyroidism in multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol. 2007;136:179 pubmed
  40. Bandeira F, Caldas G, Freese E, Griz L, Faria M, Bandeira C. Relationship between serum vitamin d status and clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002;8:266-70 pubmed
    ..To compare vitamin D status represented by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels in a group of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, stratified by clinical manifestations...
  41. Turner R, Iwaniec U, Marley K, Sibonga J. The role of mast cells in parathyroid bone disease. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1637-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice, in turn, were resistant to the development of PTH-induced bone marrow fibrosis. These findings suggest that the mast cell may be a novel target for treatment of metabolic bone disease...
  42. Pinto L, Cherubinim K, Salum F, Yurgel L, de Figueiredo M. Highly aggressive brown tumor in the jaw associated with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28:543-6 pubmed
    ..After 14 months of therapy, a reduction in size and complete calcification of the lesion were achieved. Aesthetic osteoplasty of the jaw was then performed...
  43. Duarte M, Carvalho E, Cruz E, Lucena S, Andress D. Cytokine accumulation in osteitis fibrosa of renal osteodystrophy. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002;35:25-9 pubmed
  44. Fleischer J, Becker C, Hamele Bena D, Breen T, Silverberg S. Oxyphil parathyroid adenoma: a malignant presentation of a benign disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5948-51 pubmed
    ..Skeletal manifestations were also atypical for benign PHPT, with severe osteoporosis in one patient and osteitis fibrosa cystica in the other...
  45. Hyodo T, Wakai H, Takemura T, Taira T, Hidai H, Tsuchida M, et al. [Treatment of adynamic bone disease with the complete replacement from calcium carbonate to sevelamer hydrochloride]. Clin Calcium. 2005;15 Suppl 1:15-22; discussion 22 pubmed
    ..9 cases (32.1%) changed into NTB in 12 months and one case (3.6%) changed into ostitis fibrosa in 12 months. It is thought that SH is effective for the treatment of ABD but we have to be careful for ostitis fibrosa...
  46. Gupta A, Horattas M, Moattari A, Shorten S. Disseminated brown tumors from hyperparathyroidism masquerading as metastatic cancer: a complication of parathyroid carcinoma. Am Surg. 2001;67:951-5 pubmed
    b>Osteitis fibrosa cystica (brown tumors) can be a skeletal manifestation of advanced hyperparathyroidism, including parathyroid cancer...
  47. Otomi Y, Otsuka H, Morita N, Terazawa K, Harada M, Nishitani H. A case of von Recklinghausen's disease with coincident malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. J Med Invest. 2009;56:76-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, vRd patients need to have periodical examinations including PET/CT. We present a rare case of a patient with vRd with a MPNST of the left femur and coincidental GIST of the small intestine. February, 2009...
  48. Sugden C, Laird B. Hammers and nails: a report. Palliat Med. 2004;18:734-6 pubmed
    ..A case report where parathyroid bone disease simulates bone metastases. Subsequent treatment of underlying hyperparathyroidism causes a marked improvement in bone disease, leading to a review of the initial diagnosis...
  49. Gangidi S, Dyer R, Cunliffe D. Not all radiolucencies of the jaw require enucleation: a case of brown tumour. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;50:e33-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to be aware of endocrine causes of a common radiological sign to avoid unnecessary local surgical intervention...
  50. Henriques J, Castilho J, Jacobs R, Amorim J, Rosa R, Matai C. Correlation between hand/wrist and panoramic radiographs in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:1611-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Zuberi L, Talati J, Jabbar A, Kayani N. Parathyroid apoplexy manifesting as fever of unknown origin. Endocr Pract. 2005;11:180-3 pubmed
    ..To describe a rare clinical presentation of necrosis of a parathyroid adenoma, manifesting as fever of unknown origin...
  52. Grasland A, Vinceneux P, Jos E, Grossin M. Synovial neurofibromatosis in von Recklinghausen's disease. Am J Med. 2005;118:798-9 pubmed
  53. Erturk E, Keskin M, Ersoy C, Kaleli T, Imamoglu S, Filiz G. Metacarpal brown tumor in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to vitamin-D deficiency. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1363-6 pubmed
  54. Duarte P, Domingues F, Costa M, Brandão C, Oliveira M, Vieira J. [Brown tumor of the sternum--a potential cause of false-positive result on parathyroid scintigraphy with Tc-99m sestamibi]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51:1023-6 pubmed
    ..This focal uptake, initially thought to be an ectopic parathyroid gland, after a more detailed analysis and the performance of other imaging diagnostic tests was demonstrated to be a brown tumor of the sternum...
  55. Aslani M, Movassaghi A, Mohri M, Seifi H. Outbreak of osteodystrophia fibrosa in young goats. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2001;48:385-9 pubmed
    ..The laboratory findings showed a low level of serum calcium in all affected goats. Histopathological examination revealed marked fibrous deposition and osteoclasia in bones of the maxilla and mandible...
  56. MacDonald D, Zhang L, Gu Y. Calcification of the external carotid arteries and their branches. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012;41:615-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The brown tumour responded to the parathyroidectomy and the renal transplant...
  57. Perrin J, Zaunbauer W, Haertel M. Brown tumor of the thyroid cartilage: CT findings. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:530-2 pubmed
    ..Ossification of the laryngeal skeleton may explain the presence of this process in this unusual location...
  58. Su A, Chen C, Huang C, Chen P, Chen W, Chen T. Primary hyperparathyroidism with brown tumor mimicking metastatic bone malignancy. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73:177-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient is now symptom-free. In addition to suspecting malignancy, the clinician should be highly alert to other possible causes of bony lesions. Brown tumor should be kept in mind during daily practice...
  59. Dorigatti de Ávila E, de Molon R, Cabrini Gabrielli M, Hochuli Vieira E, Sgavioli Massucato E, de Mello Filho F, et al. Unusually rapid growth of brown tumour in the mandible after parathyroidectomy associated with the presence of a supernumerary parathyroid gland. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:e19-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, this case emphasises the importance of knowing the type of hyperparathyroidism involved to allow for effective treatment planning...
  60. Bohdanowicz Pawlak A, Szymczak J, Jakubowska J, Jedrzejuk D, Pawlak A, Lukieńczuk T, et al. Parathyroid adenoma diagnosed on the basis of a giant cell tumor of parieto-occipital region and multifocal bone injuries. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013;34:610-4 pubmed
    ..The key treatment for the condition was surgical excision of the adenoma followed by the normalization of parathyroid function and significant reduction in size of skull tumor and other lesions. ..
  61. Gomez M, Riquelme P, Sirandoni G, Sapunar J, Princic E, Lee B. [Brown tumors in multiple locations: manifestation of severe renal osteodystrophy. Case report]. Rev Med Chil. 2003;131:1183-7 pubmed
    ..These were diagnosed as brown tumors, secondary to osteitis fibrosa cystica, in the context of a secondary hyperparathyroidism...
  62. Gasser R. Clinical aspects of primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and therapy. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013;163:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Medical therapy includes bisphosphonates and calcimimetics...
  63. Unlu R, Abaci E, Kerem M, Aksoy E, Sensoz O. Brown tumor in children with normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism: a report of two cases. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:69-73 pubmed
    ..In this study, two cases of normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism accompanied by mandibular brown tumors are presented...
  64. Gal Moscovici A, Popovtzer M. Parathyroid hormone-independent osteoclastic resorptive bone disease: a new variant of adynamic bone disease in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:620-4 pubmed
    b>Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism is the pre-eminent form of uraemic osteodystrophy. In recent years, however, new bone abnormalities have been described...
  65. Kalambokis G, Economou G, Kamina S, Papachristou D, Bai M, Tsianos E. Multiple brown tumors of the ribs simulating malignancy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:738-40 pubmed
    Bone disease associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, known as osteitis fibrosa cystica, is now very rarely encountered, since the parathyroid disorder is most often diagnosed at the early stage of asymptomatic hypercalcemia...
  66. Chammakhi Jemli C, Saddoud N, Zouaoui W, Ben Gamra O, Mzabi H, Sehili S, et al. [What is your diagnosis? Brown tumor of the right maxillary sinus]. J Radiol. 2006;87:977-9 pubmed
  67. Angadi P, Rekha K, Shetty S. "An exophytic mandibular brown tumor": an unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;14:67-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A case of 35-year-old male patient with previously undiagnosed primary hyperparathyroidism who presented with an atypical exophytic mandibular swelling is reported...
  68. Colucci P, Schweitzer A, Saab J, Lavi E, Chazen J. Imaging findings of spinal brown tumors: a rare but important cause of pathologic fracture and spinal cord compression. Clin Imaging. 2016;40:865-9 pubmed publisher
  69. Hayakawa H, Shigematsu T, Kazama J. [Bone disease in secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Nihon Rinsho. 2004;62 Suppl 6:324-9 pubmed
  70. Shang Z, Li Z, Chen X, Li J, McCoy J. Expansile lesion of the mandible in a 45-year-old woman. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61:621-5 pubmed
  71. Pino Rivero V, Gonzalez Palomino A, Trinidad Ruiz G, Keituqwa Yáñez T, Pardo Romero G, Pantoja Hernandez C, et al. [Multiple brown tumours in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 2005;32:323-9 pubmed
    ..There were not any postoperative complications such as hypocalcemia or recurrential palsy although Nephrology Department had to control her renal function...
  72. Raeburn C, Cothren C, McIntyre R. End-stage skeletal manifestations of severe hyperparathyroidism. Surgery. 2002;132:896-8 pubmed
  73. Iwasaki Y, Yamato H, Nii Kono T, Fujieda A, Uchida M, Hosokawa A, et al. Uremic toxin and bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Metab. 2006;24:172-5 pubmed
    ..However, all patients share a common factor, i.e., the presence of a uremic condition...
  74. Fukumoto S. [Parathyroid and bone. Calcimimetics and bone metabolism]. Clin Calcium. 2007;17:1865-9 pubmed
    ..Effects of calcimimetics on bone metabolism need to be investigated by clinical studies for longer usage of this drug in the future...
  75. Lowry M, Lotinun S, Leontovich A, Zhang M, Maran A, Shogren K, et al. Osteitis fibrosa is mediated by Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in a rat model for chronic hyperparathyroidism. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5735-46 pubmed publisher
  76. Collins W, Buchman C. Radiology quiz case 2: metastatic calcifications of the middle and external ear and osteitis fibrosa of the temporal bones as a result of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:457, 459-60 pubmed
  77. Ren W, Wang X, Zhu B, Liu Z. Quiz page September 2008: progressive paraplegia in a long-term hemodialysis patient. Brown tumor compressing the thoracic spinal column. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52:A37-9 pubmed publisher
  78. Lacativa P, Franco F, Pimentel J, Patrício Filho P, Gonçalves M, Farias M. Prevalence of radiological findings among cases of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sao Paulo Med J. 2009;127:71-7 pubmed
    ..The aim here was to determine which skeletal sites produce most radiographic findings, in order to evaluate hemodialysis patients with HPT2, and to describe the most prevalent radiographic findings...
  79. Sadri D, Hejazi M, Jahanbani J, Forouzandeh A. Quantitative analysis of argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions in giant cell lesions of jaws. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:431-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to investigate AgNORs count in these lesions as a proliferative marker and to determine whether it can be used to discriminate between them or not...
  80. Atabek M, Pirgon O, Sert A, Esen H. Extensive brown tumors caused by parathyroid adenoma in an adolescent patient. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:117-9 pubmed
    ..b>Osteitis fibrosa cystica and brown tumors have become extremely rare clinical entities...
  81. Zietek P, Bohatyrewicz A, Kotrych D, Jakuszewski M, Gusta A. [Imitation of metastatic lesions in patients with brown tumor]. Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol. 2006;71:459-61 pubmed
    ..The authors have confirmed that open biopsy should be a routine procedure in patients with suspicion of brown tumor...
  82. Dinkar A, Sahai S, Sharma M. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as an exophytic mandibular mass. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36:360-3 pubmed
    ..This case thus highlights the importance of a thorough diagnostic work-up for all lesions in the maxillofacial region and also serves to add another facet to the myriad of presentations associated with primary hyperparathyroidism...
  83. Heimbürger C, Andres E, Rust E, Ghiura C, Dakayi Nono C, Hassler S, et al. [Morpho-functional imaging in a patient with hyperparathyroidism and multifocal maxillary brown tumor]. Rev Med Interne. 2013;34:377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Brown tumors are uncommon osteolytic lesions directly related to the increased osteoclastic activity due to hyperparathyroidism...
  84. Knowles N, Smith D, Outwater E. MRI diagnosis of brown tumor based on magnetic susceptibility. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:759-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The susceptibility imaging probes one particular histological characteristic of tissues and allows a restricted differential of lytic tumors that contain significant hemosiderin, including brown tumor...
  85. Andreades D, Belazi M, Antoniades D. Diagnosis of a maxillary brown tumor associated with hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure--a case report. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2004;2:143-7 pubmed
    ..The radiographic, biochemical, and histopathological examinations are reported and the possible pathogenesis is also discussed...
  86. Thorwarth M, Rupprecht S, Schlegel A, Neureiter D, Kessler P. [Central giant cell granuloma and osteitis fibrosa cystica of hyperparathyroidism. A challenge in differential diagnosis of patients with osteolytic jawbone lesions and a history of cancer]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 2004;8:316-21 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis comprises central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of bone, and osteitis fibrosa cystica (brown tumor) in combination with hyperparathyroidism...
  87. Antonelli J, Hottel T. Oral manifestations of renal osteodystrophy: case report and review of the literature. Spec Care Dentist. 2003;23:28-34 pubmed
    ..Bone changes may include loss of lamina dura, giant cell lesions of hyperparathyroidism, and bone demineralization. The dentist's role in detection, assessment, and treatment is stressed...
  88. Mitchell D, Rybak L, Glatz F. Hyperparathyroid crisis in a pediatric patient. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;68:237-41 pubmed
    ..Delays in diagnosis due to vague symptoms can lead to severe disease manifestations such as osteitis fibrosa cystica. We report a rare case of primary hyperparathyroidism in a 13-year-old girl who presented with a ..