Summary: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)

Top Publications

  1. Postma M, Netea Maier R, van den Berg G, Homan J, Sluiter W, Wagenmakers M, et al. Quality of life is impaired in association with the need for prolonged postoperative therapy by somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:585-92 pubmed publisher on long-term health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in relation to disease control in patients with acromegaly. This is a cross-sectional study in two tertiary referral centers in The Netherlands...
  2. Wassenaar M, Biermasz N, Hamdy N, Zillikens M, van Meurs J, Rivadeneira F, et al. High prevalence of vertebral fractures despite normal bone mineral density in patients with long-term controlled acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:475-83 pubmed publisher
    To establish the prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fractures (VFs), and non-VFs in acromegaly patients with long-term controlled disease and factors potentially influencing fracture risk. Case-control study...
  3. Espinosa de los Monteros A, González B, Vargas G, Sosa E, Mercado M. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of acromegalic patients with different abnormalities in glucose metabolism. Pituitary. 2011;14:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of diabetes, glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose in Mexican patients with acromegaly and establish associations with clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables...
  4. Ribeiro Oliveira A, Barkan A. The changing face of acromegaly--advances in diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8:605-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of a pituitary growth hormone (GH)-producing tumour, excessive secretion of growth hormone, raised levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and characteristic clinical ..
  5. Jallad R, Bronstein M. The place of medical treatment of acromegaly: current status and perspectives. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:1001-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is characterized by elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and by progressive somatic disfigurement and systemic manifestations, which lead to a mortality rate higher than the general ..
  6. Sievers C, Sämann P, Pfister H, Dimopoulou C, Czisch M, Roemmler J, et al. Cognitive function in acromegaly: description and brain volumetric correlates. Pituitary. 2012;15:350-7 pubmed publisher
    In acromegaly, we reported on increased rates of affective disorders such as dysthymia and depression, as well as structural brain changes...
  7. Ghazi A, Amirbaigloo A, Dezfooli A, Saadat N, Ghazi S, Pourafkari M, et al. Ectopic acromegaly due to growth hormone releasing hormone. Endocrine. 2013;43:293-302 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly secondary to extra-pituitary tumors secreting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is rarely encountered...
  8. Boguszewski C, Fighera T, Bornschein A, Marques F, Dénes J, Rattenbery E, et al. Genetic studies in a coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and thyroid follicular adenoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2012;56:507-12 pubmed
    We report on an adult woman with rare coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma (PHEO), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), intestinal polyposis, and thyroid follicular adenoma...
  9. Gatto F, Feelders R, van der Pas R, Kros J, Waaijers M, Sprij Mooij D, et al. Immunoreactivity score using an anti-sst2A receptor monoclonal antibody strongly predicts the biochemical response to adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Sst2A IRS with the anti-sst2A antibody UMB-1 represents a valid tool in the clinical practice to identify acromegalic patients likely to be responders to adjuvant therapy with the currently available somatostatin analogs. ..

More Information


  1. Wassenaar M, Biermasz N, Bijsterbosch J, Pereira A, Meulenbelt I, Smit J, et al. Arthropathy in long-term cured acromegaly is characterised by osteophytes without joint space narrowing: a comparison with generalised osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:320-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare the distribution of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) between patients with acromegaly and primary generalised osteoarthritis to gain insight into the pathophysiological process of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like ..
  2. Hong J, Ding X, Wang S. Coexistence of ectopic pituitary adenoma and empty sella in a patient with acromegaly : a case report and review of literature. Neurol India. 2012;60:304-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor in the sphenoid sinus was completely removed by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. During the follow-up, the patient met the criteria for endocrinological cure...
  3. Wang M, Mou C, Jiang M, Han L, Fan S, Huan C, et al. The characteristics of acromegalic patients with hyperprolactinemia and the differences in patients with merely GH-secreting adenomas: clinical analysis of 279 cases. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the criteria for hormonal cure of acromegaly, the surgical control rates in the GH and GH+PRL groups were 68.4 and 59.7% respectively (P=0.187)...
  4. Cannavo S, Condurso R, Ragonese M, Ferrau F, Alibrandi A, Aricò I, et al. Increased prevalence of restless legs syndrome in patients with acromegaly and effects on quality of life assessed by Acro-QoL. Pituitary. 2011;14:328-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifty-six patients (20 men, 55.0 ± 1.6 years), 22 with active acromegaly (group 1) and 34 with controlled disease (group 2), and 95 controls (35 men, 52.9 ± 1...
  5. Mazziotti G, Gola M, Bianchi A, Porcelli T, Giampietro A, Cimino V, et al. Influence of diabetes mellitus on vertebral fractures in men with acromegaly. Endocrine. 2011;40:102-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is frequently complicated by fragility vertebral fractures and diabetes mellitus...
  6. Ramirez C, Vargas G, González B, Grossman A, RABAGO J, Sosa E, et al. Discontinuation of octreotide LAR after long term, successful treatment of patients with acromegaly: is it worth trying?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:21-6 pubmed publisher
    Somatostatin analogs (SA) have been used for over 25 years in the treatment of acromegaly. A major disadvantage is the need to continue therapy indefinitely.
  7. Neggers S, de Herder W, Feelders R, van der Lely A. Conversion of daily pegvisomant to weekly pegvisomant combined with long-acting somatostatin analogs, in controlled acromegaly patients. Pituitary. 2011;14:253-8 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy of combined treatment in active acromegaly with both long-acting somatostatin analogs (SRIF) and pegvisomant (PEG-V) has been well established...
  8. Yamada S, Fukuhara N, Nishioka H, Takeshita A, Suzuki H, Miyakawa M, et al. GH deficiency in patients after cure of acromegaly by surgery alone. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:873-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of severe GH deficiency (sGHD) in patients after treatment of acromegaly by surgery alone.
  9. Fleseriu M. Clinical efficacy and safety results for dose escalation of somatostatin receptor ligands in patients with acromegaly: a literature review. Pituitary. 2011;14:184-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a rare disease with a multifaceted clinical presentation...
  10. van der Lely A, Biller B, Brue T, Buchfelder M, Ghigo E, Gomez R, et al. Long-term safety of pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly: comprehensive review of 1288 subjects in ACROSTUDY. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1589-97 pubmed publisher
    Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist. The ACROSTUDY is a global safety surveillance study of long-term treatment of acromegaly with pegvisomant.
  11. Sherlock M, Woods C, Sheppard M. Medical therapy in acromegaly. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7:291-300 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations...
  12. Mazziotti G, Porcelli T, Bogazzi F, Bugari G, Cannavo S, Colao A, et al. Effects of high-dose octreotide LAR on glucose metabolism in patients with acromegaly inadequately controlled by conventional somatostatin analog therapy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:341-7 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the effect of high-dose octreotide LAR on glucose metabolism in patients with acromegaly was investigated.
  13. Verhelst J, Velkeniers B, Maiter D, Haentjens P, T sjoen G, Rietzschel E, et al. Active acromegaly is associated with decreased hs-CRP and NT-proBNP serum levels: insights from the Belgian registry of acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:177-84 pubmed publisher
    Patients with active acromegaly have an increased prevalence of cardiomyopathy and heart failure but a less than expected risk of coronary artery disease, considering the frequent association of diabetes mellitus and hypertension...
  14. Neggers S, van der Lely A. Combination treatment with somatostatin analogues and pegvisomant in acromegaly. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2011;21:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..analogues and surgery cannot provide optimal biochemical control in a large proportion of patients with acromegaly. This results in increased mortality, poor control of signs and symptoms of disease and decreased quality of ..
  15. Appel J, Bergsneider M, Vinters H, Salamon N, Wang M, Heaney A. Acromegaly due to an ectopic pituitary adenoma in the clivus: case report and review of literature. Pituitary. 2012;15 Suppl 1:S53-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a 50-year-old female who presented with clinical signs and biochemical evidence of acromegaly. Pituitary MRI demonstrated a 2 mm hypointense lesion on the right side of the pituitary gland...
  16. Neggers S, Biermasz N, van der Lely A. What is active acromegaly and which parameters do we have?. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;76:609-14 pubmed publisher
    Disease activity of acromegaly can be measured in many ways. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentrations are the main biochemical markers used to measure the response to treatment...
  17. Colao A, Pivonello R, Grasso L, Auriemma R, Galdiero M, Savastano S, et al. Determinants of cardiac disease in newly diagnosed patients with acromegaly: results of a 10 year survey study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:713-21 pubmed publisher
    The most frequent cause of death in acromegaly is cardiomyopathy.
  18. Manara R, Maffei P, Citton V, Rizzati S, Bommarito G, Ermani M, et al. Increased rate of intracranial saccular aneurysms in acromegaly: an MR angiography study and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1292-300 pubmed publisher
    The concurrence of intracranial aneurysms and acromegaly has been reported and debated previously...
  19. Chahal H, Stals K, Unterländer M, Balding D, Thomas M, Kumar A, et al. AIP mutation in pituitary adenomas in the 18th century and today. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Four contemporary Northern Irish families who presented with gigantism, acromegaly, or prolactinoma have the same mutation and haplotype associated with the mutated gene...
  20. Tutuncu Y, Berker D, Isik S, Ozuguz U, Akbaba G, Kucukler F, et al. Comparison of octreotide LAR and lanreotide autogel as post-operative medical treatment in acromegaly. Pituitary. 2012;15:398-404 pubmed publisher
    Long-acting somatostatin analogs are frequently used as adjuvant treatment of acromegaly patients after noncurative surgery...
  21. del Porto L, Liubinas S, Kaye A. Treatment of persistent and recurrent acromegaly. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:181-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a chronic insidious disease characterised by growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion, typically from a pituitary adenoma...
  22. Syro L, Sundsbak J, Scheithauer B, Toledo R, Camargo M, Heyer C, et al. Somatotroph pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SSTR5 polymorphism and PKD1 mutation. Pituitary. 2012;15:342-9 pubmed publisher
    A 39-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) presented with acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma. There was a family history of this renal disorder...
  23. Colao A. Improvement of cardiac parameters in patients with acromegaly treated with medical therapies. Pituitary. 2012;15:50-8 pubmed publisher
    In acromegaly, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) excess results in a specific cardiomyopathy characterized by concentric cardiac hypertrophy primarily associated with diastolic dysfunction that can lead to ..
  24. Minniti G, Scaringi C, Enrici R. Radiation techniques for acromegaly. Radiat Oncol. 2011;6:167 pubmed publisher
    Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed ..
  25. Oruk G, Tarhan F, Argin M, Ozmen M. Is every joint symptom related to acromegaly?. Endocrine. 2013;43:404-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a chronic endocrinopathy characterized by the hypersecretion of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1...
  26. Shimon I, Barkan A. Estrogen treatment for acromegaly. Pituitary. 2012;15:601-7 pubmed publisher
    Estrogens have been used in patients with acromegaly since the 1930-1940s, suppressing plasma IGF-1 levels and improving clinical signs and symptoms of acromegaly...
  27. Anagnostis P, Efstathiadou Z, Polyzos S, Adamidou F, Slavakis A, Sapranidis M, et al. Acromegaly: presentation, morbidity and treatment outcomes at a single centre. Int J Clin Pract. 2011;65:896-902 pubmed publisher
    Analysis of patients with acromegaly followed-up at a single centre, focusing on baseline characteristics, morbidity and efficacy of treatment.
  28. Annamalai A, Gayton E, Webb A, Halsall D, Rice C, Ibram F, et al. Increased prevalence of gallbladder polyps in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1120-5 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have suggested an increased prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in acromegaly, particularly colonic neoplasms...
  29. Carlsen S, Svartberg J, Schreiner T, Aanderud S, Johannesen O, Skeie S, et al. Six-month preoperative octreotide treatment in unselected, de novo patients with acromegaly: effect on biochemistry, tumour volume, and postoperative cure. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;74:736-43 pubmed publisher
    Treatment with somatostatin analogues is the primary medical treatment of acromegaly. Controversies still exist whether acute octreotide effect predicts long-term biochemical effects, tumour regression or surgical cure...
  30. Kamenicky P, Blanchard A, Frank M, Salenave S, Letierce A, Azizi M, et al. Body fluid expansion in acromegaly is related to enhanced epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:2127-35 pubmed publisher
    Soft-tissue swelling and increased extracellular volume, two features of acromegaly, are related to the antinatriuretic effects of excess GH/IGF-I, but the precise pathophysiological mechanism is unclear.
  31. Kashyap R, Babu G, Shetty S. Dental patient with acromegaly: a case report. J Oral Sci. 2011;53:133-6 pubmed
    b>Acromegaly is an acquired disorder related to excessive production of growth hormone after epiphyseal closure of bones...
  32. Gadelha M, Kasuki L, Korbonits M. Novel pathway for somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013;24:238-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a chronic disease with increased morbidity and mortality, where usually multiple treatment modalities are used...
  33. Kinoshita Y, Fujii H, Takeshita A, Taguchi M, Miyakawa M, Oyama K, et al. Impaired glucose metabolism in Japanese patients with acromegaly is restored after successful pituitary surgery if pancreatic {beta}-cell function is preserved. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:467-73 pubmed publisher
    Impaired glucose metabolism is common in acromegaly, but it is not clear how glucose metabolism is impaired or what predicts its restoration after cure of the disease...
  34. Melmed S, Casanueva F, Klibanski A, Bronstein M, Chanson P, Lamberts S, et al. A consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly complications. Pituitary. 2013;16:294-302 pubmed publisher
    In March 2011, the Acromegaly Consensus Group met to revise and update the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly complications...
  35. Brummelman P, Koerts J, Dullaart R, van den Berg G, Tucha O, Wolffenbuttel B, et al. Effects of previous growth hormone excess and current medical treatment for acromegaly on cognition. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012;42:1317-24 pubmed publisher
    In untreated acromegaly patients, decreased cognitive functioning is reported to be associated with the degree of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 excess...
  36. Kasuki L, Wildemberg L, Neto L, Marcondes J, Takiya C, Gadelha M. Ki-67 is a predictor of acromegaly control with octreotide LAR independent of SSTR2 status and relates to cytokeratin pattern. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;169:217-23 pubmed publisher
    Only one study has evaluated Ki-67 as a predictor of the response to somatostatin analog therapy in acromegaly; however, other predictors like somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) and cytokeratin pattern expressions were not considered.
  37. Valassi E, Brick D, Johnson J, Biller B, Klibanski A, Miller K. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on the quality of life in women with growth hormone deficiency who have a history of acromegaly versus other disorders. Endocr Pract. 2012;18:209-18 pubmed publisher
    To compare the response in quality of life (QoL) to growth hormone (GH) replacement in women with GH deficiency (GHD) and a history of acromegaly with that in women with GHD of other causes.
  38. Sesmilo G. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain]. Endocrinol Nutr. 2013;60:470-4 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series...
  39. Howlett T, Willis D, Walker G, Wass J, Trainer P. Control of growth hormone and IGF1 in patients with acromegaly in the UK: responses to medical treatment with somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;79:689-99 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the control of GH and IGF1 in acromegaly in routine clinical practice in the UK on and off medical treatment.
  40. Roemmler J, Gutt B, Fischer R, Vay S, Wiesmeth A, Bidlingmaier M, et al. Elevated incidence of sleep apnoea in acromegaly-correlation to disease activity. Sleep Breath. 2012;16:1247-53 pubmed publisher
    An elevated prevalence of sleep apnoea (SA) in patients with acromegaly has been suggested.
  41. Muto C, Chiba K, Suwa T. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of pegvisomant in asian and Western acromegaly patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;51:1628-43 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone (GH) receptor antagonist that normalizes insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in patients with acromegaly. Although the dose of pegvisomant is determined by the IGF-I level, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/..
  42. Heck A, Ringstad G, Fougner S, Casar Borota O, Nome T, Ramm Pettersen J, et al. Intensity of pituitary adenoma on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging predicts the response to octreotide treatment in newly diagnosed acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;77:72-8 pubmed publisher
    Primary, preoperative medical treatment is an option in selected patients with acromegaly, but a subset of patients respond poorly. Valid prediction of response to somatostatin analogues (SA) might thus alter treatment stratification...
  43. De Menis E, Giustina A, Colao A, Degli Uberti E, Ghigo E, Minuto F, et al. Assessment of the awareness and management of sleep apnea syndrome in acromegaly. The COM.E.TA (Comorbidities Evaluation and Treatment in Acromegaly) Italian Study Group. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34:60-4 pubmed
    In 2007 the Italian COM.E.T.A. (COMorbidities Evaluation and Treatment in Acromegaly) study group started to assess the application in a clinical setting of the Versailles criteria for management of acromegaly complications by a first ..
  44. Vieira Neto L, Abucham J, Araujo L, Boguszewski C, Bronstein M, Czepielewski M, et al. [Recommendations of Neuroendocrinology Department from Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism for diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly in Brazil]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2011;55:91-105 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a disease associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy...
  45. Dusek T, Kastelan D, Melada A, Baretić M, Skoric Polovina T, Perkovic Z, et al. Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of patients with acromegaly: single-center experience. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34:e382-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to review the outcome of acromegaly treatment, as well as co-morbidity and mortality in a series of patients with acromegaly attending a single center in the last 10 yr...
  46. Liu F, Li W, Yao Y, Li G, Yang Y, Dou W, et al. A case of McCune-Albright syndrome associated with pituitary GH adenoma: therapeutic process and autopsy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2011;24:283-7 pubmed
    ..McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a clinical syndrome with low incidence, and its concurrence with pituitary GH adenoma is rare. Little of the history, treatment and outcome has been studied...
  47. Bozok Cetintaş V, Zengi A, Tetik A, Karadeniz M, Ergonen F, Kucukaslan A, et al. Does Apolipoprotein E genotype affect cardiovascular risk in subjects with acromegaly?. Endocrine. 2012;41:465-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly is a syndrome that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone after epiphyseal closure at puberty...
  48. van der Lely A, Bernabeu I, Cap J, Caron P, Colao A, Marek J, et al. Coadministration of lanreotide Autogel and pegvisomant normalizes IGF1 levels and is well tolerated in patients with acromegaly partially controlled by somatostatin analogs alone. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:325-33 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of coadministered lanreotide Autogel (LA; 120? mg/month) and pegvisomant (40-120? mg/week) in acromegaly.
  49. Pinho L, Vieira Neto L, Wildemberg L, Moraes A, Takiya C, Frohman L, et al. Familial isolated pituitary adenomas experience at a single center: clinical importance of AIP mutation screening. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010;54:698-704 pubmed
    ..In one of the patients, acromegaly was diagnosed through active screening, being cured by surgery...
  50. Tagliafico A, Resmini E, Ferone D, Martinoli C. Musculoskeletal complications of acromegaly: what radiologists should know about early manifestations. Radiol Med. 2011;116:781-92 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this article is to summarise the early musculoskeletal complications of acromegaly. Some of the early signs of acromegaly may be evaluated by the musculoskeletal radiologist...
  51. Fougner S, Casar Borota O, Heck A, Berg J, Bollerslev J. Adenoma granulation pattern correlates with clinical variables and effect of somatostatin analogue treatment in a large series of patients with acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;76:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Gsp oncogenes are activating mutations in the Gs? subunit gene, found in approximately 40% of somatotroph adenomas...
  52. Arihara Z, Sakurai K, Osaki Y, Fukazawa H, Yamada S, Inoshita N, et al. ACTH response to desmopressin in a patient with acromegaly; expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortins and vasopressin V1b receptor in GH-producing pituitary adenoma. Endocr J. 2011;58:1029-36 pubmed
    ..A 39-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of the pituitary tumor. The diagnosis of acromegaly was confirmed by elevated serum GH and IGF-I levels, and the absence of GH suppression by oral glucose tolerance ..
  53. Ludlam W, Anthony L. Safety review: dose optimization of somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. Adv Ther. 2011;28:825-41 pubmed publisher
    Patients with either acromegaly or neuroendocrine tumors (NET) can be treated with somatostatin analogs to relieve symptoms and improve disease control...
  54. Arosio M, Reimondo G, Malchiodi E, Berchialla P, Borraccino A, De Marinis L, et al. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly: an Italian survey. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167:189-98 pubmed
  55. Golkowski F, Krzentowska Korek A, Baldys Waligorska A, Hubalewska Dydejczyk A. Goiter, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in patients with acromegaly. Endocr Regul. 2011;45:191-7 pubmed
    This study evaluated the relationship between selected acromegaly complications such as IGF-1 serum concentrations at diagnosis as well as of controlled and uncontrolled disease.
  56. Grasso L, Pivonello R, Colao A. Somatostatin analogs as a first-line treatment in acromegaly: when is it appropriate?. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012;19:288-94 pubmed publisher
    To discuss the role of medical therapy of acromegaly as a first-line treatment, focusing on recent data on the use of somatostatin analogs (SSAs), the first-choice pharmacotherapy for treating acromegaly.
  57. Karaca Z, Tanriverdi F, Elbuken G, Cakir I, Donmez H, Selcuklu A, et al. Comparison of primary octreotide-lar and surgical treatment in newly diagnosed patients with acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:678-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The second aim was to compare two primary treatment modalities in terms of side effects such as pituitary insufficiency, cholelithiasis, metabolic parameters and the effect on quality of life (QoL)...
  58. Fieffe S, Morange I, Petrossians P, Chanson P, Rohmer V, Cortet C, et al. Diabetes in acromegaly, prevalence, risk factors, and evolution: data from the French Acromegaly Registry. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:877-84 pubmed publisher
    The French Acromegaly Registry records data of acromegalic patients' since 1992 in French, Belgian (Liège), and Swiss (Lausanne) centers. We studied the prevalence of diabetes in this population looking for risk factors...
  59. Lekva T, Berg J, Fougner S, Olstad O, Ueland T, Bollerslev J. Gene expression profiling identifies ESRP1 as a potential regulator of epithelial mesenchymal transition in somatotroph adenomas from a large cohort of patients with acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1506-14 pubmed publisher
  60. Giustina A, Mazziotti G, Torri V, Spinello M, Floriani I, Melmed S. Meta-analysis on the effects of octreotide on tumor mass in acromegaly. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36411 pubmed publisher
    The long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide is used either as an adjuvant or primary therapy to lower growth hormone (GH) levels in patients with acromegaly and may also induce pituitary tumor shrinkage.
  61. Sesmilo G, Gaztambide S, Venegas E, Pico A, Del Pozo C, Blanco C, et al. Changes in acromegaly treatment over four decades in Spain: analysis of the Spanish Acromegaly Registry (REA). Pituitary. 2013;16:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to study changes in acromegaly treatment and outcomes over the last four decades in Spain...
  62. Annamalai A, Webb A, Kandasamy N, Elkhawad M, Moir S, Khan F, et al. A comprehensive study of clinical, biochemical, radiological, vascular, cardiac, and sleep parameters in an unselected cohort of patients with acromegaly undergoing presurgical somatostatin receptor ligand therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1040-50 pubmed publisher
    Attainment of safe GH and IGF-1 levels is a central goal of acromegaly management.
  63. Cozzi R, Attanasio R. Octreotide long-acting repeatable for acromegaly. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2012;5:125-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Acromegaly remains a therapeutic challenge for the endocrinologist...
  64. Rogozinski A, Furioso A, Glikman P, Junco M, Laudi R, Reyes A, et al. Thyroid nodules in acromegaly. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2012;56:300-4 pubmed
    ..We made a prospective study evaluating the prevalence of thyroid nodular disease in acromegalic patients...
  65. Jane J, Starke R, Elzoghby M, Reames D, Payne S, Thorner M, et al. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly: remission using modern criteria, complications, and predictors of outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:2732-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the growing application of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS), outcomes for GH adenomas are not clearly defined...
  66. Mosca S, Paolillo S, Colao A, Bossone E, Cittadini A, Iudice F, et al. Cardiovascular involvement in patients affected by acromegaly: an appraisal. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:1712-8 pubmed publisher
  67. Sandret L, Maison P, Chanson P. Place of cabergoline in acromegaly: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1327-35 pubmed publisher
    Cabergoline is widely considered to be poorly effective in acromegaly.