Summary: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Zileli M, Cagli S. Combined anterior and posterior approach for managing basilar invagination associated with type I Chiari malformation. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2002;15:284-9 pubmed
    ..If there is a marked anterior compression, anterior transoral and posterior decompression, fusion, and instrumentation is an optimal strategy for treating patients with basilar invagination associated with type I Chiari malformation...
  2. Di Rocco F, Oi S. Spontaneous regression of syringomyelia in Hajdu-Cheney syndrome with severe platybasia. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:194-7 pubmed
    ..In some cases, progressive platybasia can occur and can lead to Chiari malformation with an obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow...
  3. Ugur H, Kahilogullari G, Attar A, Caglar S, Savas A, Egemen N. Neuronavigation-assisted transoral-transpharyngeal approach for basilar invagination--two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2006;46:306-8 pubmed
    ..Both patients had an uneventful postoperative course. The transoral-transpharyngeal approach with the neuronavigation system provides safe exposure and decompression for basilar invagination...
  4. Koenigsberg R, Vakil N, Hong T, Htaik T, Faerber E, Maiorano T, et al. Evaluation of platybasia with MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:89-92 pubmed
    b>Platybasia, or abnormal obtuseness of the basal angle, was first measured on plain skull images. At present, evaluation of the brain and skull more commonly involves CT and MR imaging...
  5. Pearce J. Platybasia and basilar invagination. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:62-4 pubmed
    Descriptions of the flattening (platybasia) of the skull base and the upward displacement(impression) of the basilar and condylar portions of the occipitalbone by the upper cervical spine date to the late 18th and early 19th centuries...
  6. Botelho R, Neto E, Patriota G, Daniel J, Dumont P, Rotta J. Basilar invagination: craniocervical instability treated with cervical traction and occipitocervical fixation. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:444-9 pubmed
  7. Primorac D, Rowe D, Mottes M, Barisic I, Anticevic D, Mirandola S, et al. Osteogenesis imperfecta at the beginning of bone and joint decade. Croat Med J. 2001;42:393-415 pubmed
    ..Thus, we also describe different genetic therapeutic approaches that have been tested either on OI cells or on available OI murine models. ..
  8. Yu Y, Hu F, Zhang X, Ge J, Sun C. Endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy combined with posterior reduction to treat basilar invagination: technical note. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013;19:637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of these 2 approaches has the advantages of minimally invasive access and a faster patient recovery, and thus is a valid alternative in selected cases. ..
  9. Kumar R, Chandra S, Sharma B. Giant intradiploic pseudomeningocele of occipital bone. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:82-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The authors suggest that this condition should be treated early, as for growing skull fractures. ..

More Information


  1. Nakamura M, Yone K, Yamaura I, Ryoki Y, Okano N, Higo M, et al. Treatment of craniocervical spine lesion with osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:E224-7 pubmed
  2. Silva J, Santos A, Costa M, Almeida E. Suboccipital craniectomy with opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty: study of 192 cases of craniovertebral malformations. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2013;71:609-14 pubmed publisher
  3. da Silva J, dos Santos A, Melo L, de Araújo A, Regueira G. Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2011;69:817-23 pubmed
    ..A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. ..
  4. Dasenbrock H, Clarke M, Bydon A, Sciubba D, Witham T, Gokaslan Z, et al. Endoscopic image-guided transcervical odontoidectomy: outcomes of 15 patients with basilar invagination. Neurosurgery. 2012;70:351-9; discussion 359-60 pubmed publisher
    ..005). ETO may be a valid treatment for patients with symptomatic irreducible basilar invagination that avoids some of the morbidity of transoral surgery and leads to long-term improvement in myelopathy. ..
  5. Bekelis K, Duhaime A, Missios S, Belden C, Simmons N. Placement of occipital condyle screws for occipitocervical fixation in a pediatric patient with occipitocervical instability after decompression for Chiari malformation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Postoperatively, she was neurologically intact. Computed tomography demonstrated a stable construct, and her cervical pain had resolved on follow-up...
  6. da Silva J, Holanda M. Basilar impression, Chiari malformation and syringomyelia: a retrospective study of 53 surgically treated patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2003;61:368-75 pubmed
  7. Johnson Tesch B, Gawande R, Zhang L, Macmillan M, Nascene D. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups. Pediatr Radiol. 2017;47:868-876 pubmed publisher
    ..These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), ..
  8. de Mello Filho F, Mamede R, Ricz H, Susin R, Colli B. Midfacial translocation, a variation of the approach to the rhinopharynx, clivus and upper odontoid process. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006;34:400-4 pubmed
    ..The technique of midfacial translocation provides both good surgical approach and access to the rhinopharynx, pterygomaxillary fossa, high odontoid process and clivus, with few adverse sequelae for the patient. ..
  9. Kasai T, Yoshikawa K, Tachibana S, Taniguchi T, Nakagawa M. [A case of brainstem and cerebellar infarctions related to basilar impression]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2004;44:203-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanical stress on the bilateral vertebral arteries may have caused infarctions in the territories of the posterior circulation of this patient with basilar impression. ..
  10. Perrini P, Benedetto N, Guidi E, Di Lorenzo N. Transoral approach and its superior extensions to the craniovertebral junction malformations: surgical strategies and results. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:331-42; discussion 342 pubmed publisher
    ..Anterior decompression has been proven effective in relieving obstruction of the subarachnoid space at the foramen magnum in most patients with associated Chiari malformation. ..
  11. Yu Y, Wang X, Zhang X, Hu F, Gu Y, Xie T, et al. Endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy to treat basilar invagination with congenital osseous malformations. Eur Spine J. 2013;22:1127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimally invasive access and faster recovery associated with this technique make it a valid alternative for decompression of the ventral side of the cervicomedullary junction. ..
  12. Canalis E, Zanotti S. Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome, a Disease Associated with NOTCH2 Mutations. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2016;14:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..HCS is characterized by craniofacial developmental defects, including platybasia and wormian bones, osteoporosis with fractures, and acro-osteolysis...
  13. Ogihara N, Takahashi J, Hirabayashi H, Mukaiyama K, Kato H. Surgical treatment of Klippel-Feil syndrome with basilar invagination. Eur Spine J. 2013;22 Suppl 3:S380-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction and internal fixation using instrumentation are effective techniques for KFS with BI; however, caution should be exercised because of the possibility of paralysis caused by intraoperative reduction. ..
  14. Wolinsky J, Sciubba D, Suk I, Gokaslan Z. Endoscopic image-guided odontoidectomy for decompression of basilar invagination via a standard anterior cervical approach. Technical note. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;6:184-91 pubmed
    ..The technique is safe and effective for decompression and provides a surgical route that can be added to the armamentarium of treatments for pathological conditions in this region. ..
  15. Goel A. Basilar invagination, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia: a review. Neurol India. 2009;57:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The division of patients with basilar invagination on the basis of presence or absence of instability provides insight into the pathogenesis of the anomaly and a basis for rational surgical treatment. ..
  16. Piagkou M, Manolakos O, Troupis T, Lazaridis N, Laios K, Samolis A, et al. Variable skeletal anatomical features of acromegaly in the skull and craniocervical junction. Acta Med Acad. 2017;46:162-168 pubmed publisher
    ..The sphenoid sinus expanded intraorbitally, leading to sella enlargement. The orbital asymmetry coexisted with platybasia and hypoplasia of the occipital condyles and the odontoid process...
  17. Joseph V, Rajshekhar V. Resolution of syringomyelia and basilar invagination after traction. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:298 pubmed
  18. Asamoto S, Nestler U, Shulz C, Böker D. A case of basilar impression complicated with left frontal meningioma. No Shinkei Geka. 2003;31:1003-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, the tumor was resected via the left frontal approach using microsurgical technique. Histological examination disclosed fibroblastic meningioma...
  19. Veerapandiyan A, Blalock D, Ghosh S, Ip E, Barnes C, Shashi V. The role of cephalometry in assessing velopharyngeal dysfunction in velocardiofacial syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report our experience with cephalometry in evaluating velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and its utility in assessing the role of cervical spine abnormalities in VPD, prior to surgical correction of VPD...
  20. Botelho R, Bittencourt L, Rotta J, Tufik S. A prospective controlled study of sleep respiratory events in patients with craniovertebral junction malformation. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:1004-9 pubmed
    ..The respiratory center and some of its afferent and efferent components can be altered in these diseases. The authors studied patients with and without CVJM to determine whether this physical feature contributed to sleep disturbances...
  21. Ibrahim A, Crockard H. Basilar impression and osteogenesis imperfecta: a 21-year retrospective review of outcomes in 20 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:594-600 pubmed
    ..This study is a retrospective review of the 21-year experience of ventral decompression surgery and dorsal occipitocervical fixation in patients with BI secondary to OI and is the largest patient series reported to date...
  22. Bandyopadhyay S, Ghosal J, Chakrabarti N, Dutta A. Melnick- needles osteodysplasty presenting with quadriparesis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:248-9 pubmed
    ..We report the first case from Eastern India in an adolescent male, who had cranio-vertebral junction anomalies and presented with spastic quadriparesis at the age of 13 years...
  23. Takada Y, Morimoto T, Sugawara T, Ohno K. Trigeminal neuralgia associated with achondroplasia. Case report with literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2001;143:1173-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first reported case of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with achondroplasia. The deformity of the skull base was considered to influence the development of the trigeminal neuralgia...
  24. Simsek S, Yigitkanli K, Belen D, Bavbek M. Halo traction in basilar invagination: technical case report. Surg Neurol. 2006;66:311-4; discussion 314 pubmed
    ..We aimed to discuss the role of the halo vest apparatus traction on the reduction of severe anterior compression pathologies in basilar invagination...
  25. Suri S, Tompson B, Cornfoot L. Cranial base, maxillary and mandibular morphology in Down syndrome. Angle Orthod. 2010;80:861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between craniofacial measurements of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and normal controls...
  26. Wang S, Wang C, Yan M, Zhou H, Jiang L. Syringomyelia with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, basilar invagination and Chiari I malformation. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Final follow-up at 2-years revealed an excellent clinical outcome...
  27. Thiebaut M, Le Bigot P, Besson G, Dorval M, Martin C. [Arnold-Chiari II malformation and basilar impression. Report of one case (a literature review)]. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2002;45:131-8 pubmed
    ..To tell the rare association of Arnold-Chiari II malformation and basilar impression and to describe an exceptional clinical state with a particular surgical approach...
  28. El Sayed I, Wu J, Dhillon N, Ames C, Mummaneni P. The importance of platybasia and the palatine line in patient selection for endonasal surgery of the craniocervical junction: a radiographic study of 12 patients. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:183-8; discussion 74-8 pubmed publisher performed to manage a variety of conditions, including basilar invagination, which can be associated with platybasia. We have noted that the anatomic changes of platybasia could affect the height of the odontoid over a line drawn ..
  29. Landeiro J, Boechat S, Christoph D, Gonçalves M, Castro I, Lapenta M, et al. Transoral approach to the craniovertebral junction. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:1166-71 pubmed
    ..In patients with marked ventral compression, the transoral approach provides direct access to the anterior face of the craniovertebral junction and effective means for odontoidectomy...
  30. Goel A. High cervical C3-4 'disc' compression associated with basilar invagination. Neurol India. 2008;56:68-70 pubmed
    ..The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction...
  31. Soni P, Sharma V, Sengupta J. Cervical vertebrae anomalies-incidental findings on lateral cephalograms. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients were educated about the likely future course of these findings. Specialist follow-up was advised to all the patients...
  32. Cahill D. Cranial settling. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:272; author reply 272 pubmed
  33. Kanpolat Y, Tatli M, Ugur H, Kahilogullari G. Evaluation of platybasia in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Surg Neurol. 2007;67:78-81; discussion 81-2 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate one such skull base deformity, platybasia, in ITN patients in comparison with a randomized control population.
  34. Taricco M, Melo L. Retrospective study of patients with Chiari: malformation submitted to surgical treatment. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:184-8 pubmed
    ..Those CM cases associated with other abnormalities, such as SM and BI, probably need complementary techniques which will be the theme for new prospective studies...
  35. Reitman C, Heggeness M. An extreme case of basilar invagination in rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine. Orthopedics. 2004;27:518-9 pubmed
  36. Pascal Moussellard H, Drossard G, Cursolles J, Catonne Y, Smadja D. Myelopathy by lesions of the craniocervical junction in a patient with forestier disease. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:E557-60 pubmed
    ..The authors report a case of a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) associated with basilar impression resulting in tetraparesis...
  37. Goel A, Sharma P. Craniovertebral junction realignment for the treatment of basilar invagination with syringomyelia: preliminary report of 12 cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:512-7; discussion 518 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of the atlantoaxial joints and restoring the anatomical craniovertebral alignments in selected cases of syringomyelia leads to remarkable and sustained clinical recovery, and is probably the optimum surgical treatment...
  38. Royo Salvador M. [A new surgical treatment for syringomyelia, scoliosis, Arnold-Chiari malformation, kinking of the brainstem, odontoid recess, idiopathic basilar impression and platybasia]. Rev Neurol. 1997;25:523-30 pubmed
    ..responsible for idiopathic syringomyelia (SMI), idiopathic scoliosis (ESCID), Arnold Chiari malformation (ARCH), platybasia (PTB), basilar impression (IMB), odontoid recess (RTO) kinking of the brain stem (KTC) and considering the ..
  39. Falahat F, Martín Granizo R, Ruiz Ocaña C, de Pedro M, Dominguez L, Berguer A. [Anterior bulbar compresion with basilar impresion. Surgical management by 2-Piece Le Fort I Transmaxilar Osteotomy]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2003;14:417-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore we chose the use of a LFPS to approach this lesion. With an optimal surgical field, a complete excision of the lesion was obtained. The postoperatory result in the subsequent follow-up was highly satisfactory...
  40. Teive H. Basilar impression associated with impacted cisterna magna, spastic paraparesis and distress of balance. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2006;64:1053; author reply 1053 pubmed
  41. Rittmeister M, Böhme T, Richolt J, Kerschbaumer F. [Occipitocervical fusion in rheumatoid arthritis]. Orthopade. 2001;30:932-6 pubmed
    ..As a result of fusion, the dens axis is unable to exert compression on the spinal cord with increased neck flexion...
  42. Collignon F, Cohen Gadol A, Krauss W. Circumferential decompression of the foramen magnum for the treatment of syringomyelia associated with basilar invagination. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27:168-72 pubmed
    ..These cases demonstrate that circumferential decompression of the foramen magnum may be necessary in some cases of cervical syringomyelia associated with basilar invagination and Chiari malformation...
  43. Ture U, Pamir M. Extreme lateral-transatlas approach for resection of the dens of the axis. J Neurosurg. 2002;96:73-82 pubmed an alternative approach. In this report, the authors describe the surgical technique of the extreme lateral-transatlas approach and their clinical experiences...
  44. Brunetti Pierri N, Esposito V, De Brasi D, Mattiacci D, Krakow D, Lee B, et al. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis: long-term follow-up of a case due to FLNB mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:1230-3 pubmed publisher
  45. Goel A, Shah A. Atlantoaxial joint distraction as a treatment for basilar invagination: a report of an experience with 11 cases. Neurol India. 2008;56:144-50 pubmed
    ..Bone graft that is additionally placed within the appropriately prepared atlantoaxial joint and posterior to the arch of atlas and lamina of C2 provides bony fusion...
  46. Havkin N, Tatum S, Shprintzen R. Velopharyngeal insufficiency and articulation impairment in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: the influence of adenoids on phonemic development. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;54:103-10 pubmed
    ..Factors studied included palatal clefting, hypotonia, platybasia, and adenoid size...
  47. Botelho R, Ferreira E. Angular craniometry in craniocervical junction malformation. Neurosurg Rev. 2013;36:603-10; discussion 610 pubmed publisher
    ..The Chiari malformation group does not show significant differences when compared with normal controls. Platybasia occurred only in basilar invagination and is suggested to be more prevalent in type II than in type I...
  48. Zotter H, Zenz W, Gallistl S, Zohrer B, Lindbichler F. Stroke following appendectomy under general anesthesia in a patient with basilar impression. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000;44:1271-2 pubmed
  49. Abarca Olivas J, Sempere A, Cortes Vela J, Bano Ruiz E, Nieto Navarro J, Botella Asuncion C. [The role of platybasia in trigeminal neuralgia]. Rev Neurol. 2009;49:630-2 pubmed
    ..However, several cases of skull base deformities in patients with ITN have been reported in our bibliographic review. AIM. To compare the existence of platybasia between a group of patients with ITN and a randomized control group.
  50. Arruda J, Costa C, Tella O. Results of the treatment of syringomyelia associated with Chiari malformation: analysis of 60 cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2004;62:237-44 pubmed
    ..Syringomyelia signs improved statistically more than CM signs. In half of patients, the percent improvement of signs and symptoms ranged between 40% and 60%...
  51. Hansen M, da Cruz M, Owler B. Endoscopic transnasal decompression for management of basilar invagination in osteogenesis imperfecta. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;9:354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This technical note outlines a novel endoscopic transnasal approach for ventral decompression. The literature is reviewed and a strategy for the management of BI in patients with OI is outlined...
  52. Kerschbaumer F, Kerschbaumer G, Kandziora F. [Surgical therapy of the rheumatic cervical spine]. Z Orthop Unfall. 2007;145:655-69; quiz 670-3 pubmed
  53. Husain M, Rastogi M, Ojha B, Chandra A, Jha D. Endoscopic transoral surgery for craniovertebral junction anomalies. Technical note. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;5:367-73 pubmed
    ..The use of minimally invasive endoscopic techniques has the potential to reduce the need for a wider cranial base opening and to decrease postoperative complications...
  54. McGREGER M. The significance of certain measurements of the skull in the diagnosis of basilar impression. Br J Radiol. 1948;21:171-81 pubmed
  55. Tsitouridis I, Goutsaridou F, Morichovitou A, Giataganas G, Iosifidis M, Melidis D, et al. Malformations of the craniocervical junction: 3D-CT evaluation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:320-1 pubmed
  56. Goel A. Treatment of basilar invagination by atlantoaxial joint distraction and direct lateral mass fixation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2004;1:281-6 pubmed
  57. Tassanawipas A, Mokkhavesa S, Chatchavong S, Worawittayawong P. Magnetic resonance imaging study of the craniocervical junction. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2005;13:228-31 pubmed
  58. Roje Bedeković M, Vargek Solter V, Bedek D, Demarin V. Basilar impression as a possible cause of cerebellar stroke: case report. Acta Clin Croat. 2011;50:577-80 pubmed
  59. Dokai T, Nagashima H, Nanjo Y, Tanida A, Teshima R. Posterior occipitocervical fixation under skull-femoral traction for the treatment of basilar impression in a child with Klippel-Feil syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93:1571-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our surgical strategy was an alternative solution. Prior to a posterior cervical fixation, without decompression, skull traction was used to confirm that the deformity was reducible and effective in resolving associated myelopathy...
  60. Royo Salvador M. [Platybasia, basilar groove, odontoid process and kinking of the brainstem: a common etiology with idiopathic syringomyelia, scoliosis and Chiari malformations]. Rev Neurol. 1996;24:1241-50 pubmed
    A common aetiopathogenic theory for basilar groove (IMB), platybasia (PTB), odontoid retrocession (RTO), kinking of the brainstem (KTC) applied to idiopathic syringomyelia (SMI), idiopathic scoliosis (ESCID) and Arnold-Chiari malformation ..
  61. Reynolds K, Modaff P, Pauli R. Absence of correlation between infantile hypotonia and foramen magnum size in achondroplasia. Am J Med Genet. 2001;101:40-5 pubmed
    ..We found no correlation. These results suggest that there is no direct relationship and foraminal size does not affect severity of hypotonia. Other potential explanations for this infantile hypotonia are considered...
  62. Dahdaleh N, Dlouhy B, Menezes A. Application of neuromuscular blockade and intraoperative 3D imaging in the reduction of basilar invagination. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducible lesions obviate a ventral decompression and require a dorsal-only approach for stabilization with or without a suboccipital decompression...
  63. Samimi S, Lesley W. Craniocervical CT and MR imaging of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1694-6 pubmed
    ..of an adolescent male patient with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, CT and MR imaging revealed basilar invagination, platybasia, Chiari I malformation, hyperpneumatized mastoids with intramastoid dural sinuses, platyspondyly, bulbous zygoma,..
  64. Bettegowda C, Shajari M, Suk I, Simmons O, Gokaslan Z, Wolinsky J. Sublabial approach for the treatment of symptomatic basilar impression in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:ons77-82; discussion ons82 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptomatic BI is often difficult to treat surgically secondary to the anatomic variants associated with many of the coinciding congenital syndromes...
  65. Peng X, Chen L, Wan Y, Zou X. Treatment of primary basilar invagination by cervical traction and posterior instrumented reduction together with occipitocervical fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:1528-31 pubmed publisher
  66. Cheung M, Arponen H, Roughley P, Azouz M, Glorieux F, Waltimo Siren J, et al. Cranial base abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta: phenotypic and genotypic determinants. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not find evidence for the hypothesis that bisphosphonate treatment protects against skull base abnormalities...
  67. Menezes A. Specific entities affecting the craniocervical region: osteogenesis imperfecta and related osteochondrodysplasias: medical and surgical management of basilar impression. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:1169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inheritable disorder of bone development caused by defective collagen synthesis. The attendant basilar impression or secondary basilar invagination is uncommon but can be devastating...
  68. Noske D, van Royen B, Bron J, Vandertop W. Basilar impression in osteogenesis imperfecta: can it be treated with halo traction and posterior fusion?. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:1301-5; discussion 1305 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, posterior fusion without additional VP shunt placement may not be effective in the long term for ameliorating symptoms and signs and halting progressive hydrocephalus in BI complicating OI...
  69. Klimo P, Rao G, Brockmeyer D. Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007;18:463-78 pubmed
    ..In general, those lesions that are causing or have caused neurologic injury, chronic pain, or spinal deformity or place the patient at high risk for developing these require treatment...
  70. Goel A. Progressive basilar invagination after transoral odontoidectomy: treatment by atlantoaxial facet distraction and craniovertebral realignment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:E551-5 pubmed
  71. Goel A, Phalke U, Cacciola F, Muzumdar D. Surgical management of high cervical disc prolapse associated with basilar invagination--two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2004;44:142-5 pubmed
    ..Both the patients were relieved of symptoms and remained asymptomatic at follow up. Simultaneous fixation procedure is not mandatory after transoral surgery in patients with basilar invagination...
  72. Frade H, França C, Nascimento J, Holanda M, Silva E, Araújo S. Cranio-vertebral transition assessment by magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of a northeast Brazilian population. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2017;75:419-423 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-sectional analysis of craniometric parameters from individuals submitted to magnetic resonance at an outpatient imaging center between 2011 and 2012...
  73. Janus G, Engelbert R, Beek E, Gooskens R, Pruijs J. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood: MR imaging of basilar impression. Eur J Radiol. 2003;47:19-24 pubmed
    ..To confirm this sign and altered geometrical relationships of the craniocervical junction in course of time with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...