pituitary dwarfism


Summary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.

Top Publications

  1. Darendeliler F, Berberoglu M, Ocal G, Adiyaman P, Bundak R, Gunoz H, et al. Response to growth hormone with respect to pubertal status on increased dose in idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: an analysis of Turkish children in the KIGS database (Pfizer International Growth Study). J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005;18:949-54 pubmed
    ..001). These data show that in IGHD the slight increase (15-20%) in the dose of GH during puberty was not adequate to maintain height velocity at the same magnitude as in prepuberty, and thus was not cost effective. ..
  2. Lantinga van Leeuwen I, Mol J, Kooistra H, Rijnberk A, Breen M, Renier C, et al. Cloning of the canine gene encoding transcription factor Pit-1 and its exclusion as candidate gene in a canine model of pituitary dwarfism. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:31-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a gene other than Pit-1 is responsible for the pituitary anomaly in dwarf German shepherd dogs...
  3. Miki F, Sakai T, Wariishi M, Kaji M. Measurement of zinc, copper, manganese, and iron concentrations in hair of pituitary dwarfism patients using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2002;85:127-36 pubmed
    b>Pituitary dwarfism (hGHD) is known to be associated with trace element deficiency, which causes improper functioning of the involved endocrine system...
  4. Bhatti S, De Vliegher S, Mol J, Van Ham L, Kooistra H. Ghrelin-stimulation test in the diagnosis of canine pituitary dwarfism. Res Vet Sci. 2006;81:24-30 pubmed
    ..ghrelin, a potent releaser of growth hormone (GH) secretion, is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of canine pituitary dwarfism. The effect of intravenous administration of ghrelin on the release of GH and other adenohypophyseal ..
  5. Trivin C, Souberbielle J, Aubertin G, Lawson Body E, Adan L, Brauner R. Diagnosis of idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: contributions of data on the acid-labile subunit, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and-II, and IGF binding protein-3. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19:481-9 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of non-organic growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) remains difficult...
  6. de Ridder M, Stijnen T, Hokken Koelega A. Prediction of adult height in growth-hormone-treated children with growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:925-31 pubmed
    ..Several studies have searched for factors that significantly influence adult height (AH) of children with GH deficiency (GHD) who have been treated with biosynthetic GH, but a prediction model for AH has not yet been presented...
  7. Lemaire P, Brauner N, Hammer P, Trivin C, Souberbielle J, Brauner R. Improved screening for growth hormone deficiency using logical analysis data. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:MT5-10 pubmed
    ..These criteria are very sensitive but not specific enough. The objective of this study was to improve screening for GHD, so reducing the need for stimulation tests...
  8. Wang Q, Diao Y, Xu Z, Li X, Luo X, Xu H, et al. Identification of a novel splicing mutation in the growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone receptor gene in a Chinese family with pituitary dwarfism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;313:50-6 pubmed publisher
    A Chinese family with autosomal recessive pituitary dwarfism was identified and the proband was evaluated by MRI and hormonal analysis, which revealed pituitary dwarfism with a complete growth hormone deficiency...
  9. Katayama M, Nogami H, Nishiyama J, Kawase T, Kawamura K. Developmentally and regionally regulated expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor mRNA in rat brain and pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology. 2000;72:333-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that region-specific, developmentally regulated expression of GHS-R mRNA may reflect divergent physiological roles of GHS/GHS-R in distinct regions of the central nervous system and the pituitary gland. ..

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Moseley C, Orenstein M, Phillips J. GH Gene Deletions and IGHD type IA. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2002;3:339-46 pubmed
  2. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Gdula Dymek A. [Growth hormone therapy]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2007;22:305-11 pubmed
    ..We review both well-known and less-commonly known indications for this form of treatment. Suggested dosage and the time of the beginning and duration of therapy are also discussed. ..
  3. Szynaka E, Petriczko E, Grabarek J, Miklaszewicz A, Domagala W, Walczak M. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy on detailed immunologic parameters in somatotropine--deficient paediatrics patients prior and after 6 months of rhGH treatment. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:553-8 pubmed
  4. Hunter W, Croson W, Bartke A, Gentry M, Meliska C. Low body temperature in long-lived Ames dwarf mice at rest and during stress. Physiol Behav. 1999;67:433-7 pubmed
    ..However, whether low Tco per se is related to the increased longevity of the dwarf mice remains an interesting possibility to be investigated. ..
  5. Bouillon R, Koledova E, Bezlepkina O, Nijs J, Shavrikhova E, Nagaeva E, et al. Bone status and fracture prevalence in Russian adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4993-8 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that not only volumetric density but also bone mass and shape are major determinants of bone strength. ..
  6. Fintini D, Salvatori R, Salemi S, Otten B, Ubertini G, Cambiaso P, et al. Autosomal-dominant isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD type II) with normal GH-1 gene. Horm Res. 2006;65:76-82 pubmed
    ..This study shows that GH-1 mutations are absent in 5/30 (16.6%) of the families with autosomal-dominant IGHD and raises the possibility that mutations in other gene(s) may be involved in IGHD with this mode of transmission. ..
  7. Ammar A, Al Sultan A, Al Mulhim F, Al Hassan A. Empty sella syndrome: does it exist in children?. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:960-3 pubmed
    ..It is important to raise awareness in the neurosurgical community about the existence of ESS in children so that it can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. A classification system for the diaphragma sellae is recapitulated. ..
  8. Thompson N, Gill D, Davies R, Loveridge N, Houston P, Robinson I, et al. Ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin promote adipogenesis directly in vivo by a mechanism independent of the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Endocrinology. 2004;145:234-42 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the ratio of ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin production could help regulate the balance between adipogenesis and lipolysis in response to nutritional status. ..
  9. de Graaff L, Argente J, van Meurs J, Uitterlinden A, Hokken Koelega A. Genetic polymorphisms in the locus control region and promoter of GH1 are related to serum IGF-I levels and height in patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency and healthy controls. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;73:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of IGF-I SDS variation in IGHD patients and 15.9% of height SDS variation in controls. GH1 Promoter SNPs 6, 8 and 9 were associated with height and IGF-1 levels among patients, and SNPs 6 and 11 with height in controls. ..
  10. Diene G, Mimoun E, Feigerlova E, Caula S, Molinas C, Grandjean H, et al. Endocrine disorders in children with Prader-Willi syndrome--data from 142 children of the French database. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;74:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The database, which now encompasses six southern regions of France, will be further extended to the whole country and to adult patients. ..
  11. Nielsen S, Jørgensen J, Hartmund T, Nørrelund H, Nair K, Christiansen J, et al. Effects of lowering circulating free fatty acid levels on protein metabolism in adult growth hormone deficient patients. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2002;12:425-33 pubmed
    ..The increase in serum urea and a doubling of net forearm phenylalanine release after lowering of FFA strongly indicate that the overall effect is catabolic and supports a pivotal protein conserving role of lipids. ..
  12. Prakasam G. Growth hormone therapy effective in treatment of variety of hormone deficiency disorders in children. Manag Care Interface. 2005;Suppl:3-5 pubmed
  13. Turton J, Buchanan C, Robinson I, Aylwin S, Dattani M. Evolution of gonadotropin deficiency in a patient with type II autosomal dominant GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:793-9 pubmed
    ..5 kDa GH causes a form of GHD that can evolve into multiple hormone deficiencies. Hence, patients diagnosed initially with IGHD type II require continued long-term clinical follow-up. ..
  14. Georgopoulos N, Katsikis I, Giamalis P, Koika V, Adonakis G, Kourtis A, et al. Long-term follow-up of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in two siblings with a Prophet of Pit-1 gene mutation. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:704-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these two siblings of different sexes with CPHD carrying the 301-302delAG mutation in the Prop1 gene presented a variable phenotype characterized by GH, TSH, LH and FSH deficiency. ..
  15. Chen X, Song F, Dai Y, Bao X, Jin Y. A novel mutation of the growth hormone receptor gene (GHR) in a Chinese girl with Laron syndrome. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2003;16:1183-9 pubmed
  16. Tubbs R, Oakes W, Blount J. Isolated atlantal stenosis in a patient with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, and Klippel-Feil and Duane's syndromes. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:421-4 pubmed
    ..An unusual case of this rare clinical entity is reported in conjunction with multiple other anomalies...
  17. Fukami T, Makino Y, Kawarabayashi T. Pregnancy complicated by multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006;32:252-6 pubmed
    We report a case of pituitary dwarfism and diabetes insipidus due to pituitary stalk transection in a pregnant Japanese woman, 138 cm in height, born by breech delivery with no evidence of ante- or intrapartum asphyxia...
  18. Miljic D, Miljic P, Doknic M, Pekic S, Djurovic M, Colovic M, et al. Changes in prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time during replacement therapy with human recombinant growth hormone in growth hormone deficient adults. Hormones (Athens). 2006;5:187-91 pubmed
    ..Changes in PT were more pronounced in female GHD patients, while an increase in aPTT values was observed only in male patients with GHD. The clinical significance of these changes needs further evaluation. ..
  19. van Vught A, Nieuwenhuizen A, Gerver W, Veldhorst M, Brummer R, Westerterp Plantenga M. Pharmacological and physiological growth hormone stimulation tests to predict successful GH therapy in children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009;22:679-94 pubmed
    ..Oral ingestion of dietary protein is convenient in practice and may induce more physiological stimulation of GH secretion, hence may be a promising valuable addition to the existing GHSTs in GH deficiency. ..
  20. Maheshwari H, Silverman B, Dupuis J, Baumann G. Phenotype and genetic analysis of a syndrome caused by an inactivating mutation in the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor: Dwarfism of Sindh. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:4065-74 pubmed
    ..Its discovery raises the possibility of milder mutations in the GHRH-R gene as potential causes for partial GH insufficiency and idiopathic short stature. ..
  21. Sartorio A, Agosti F, De Col A, Mazzilli G, Marazzi N, Busti C, et al. Muscle strength and power, maximum oxygen consumption, and body composition in middle-aged short-stature adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. Arch Med Res. 2008;39:78-83 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, it is not known which age-dependent evolution in motor dysfunction could be expected in this subgroup of GHD patients, when ageing processes add up to hormonal deficiencies. ..
  22. Savitz S. Cushing's contributions to neuroscience, part 2: Cushing and several dwarfs. Neuroscientist. 2001;7:469-73 pubmed
  23. Gleeson H, Shalet S. Endocrine complications of neoplastic diseases in children and adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2001;13:346-51 pubmed
  24. van Oost B, Versteeg S, Imholz S, Kooistra H. Exclusion of the lim homeodomain gene LHX4 as a candidate gene for pituitary dwarfism in German shepherd dogs. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;197:57-62 pubmed
    b>Pituitary dwarfism in the German shepherd dog is an autosomal recessive inherited abnormality. We tested the hypothesis that a variant of the LIM homeodomain gene LHX4 is responsible for the dwarfism phenotype...
  25. Chihara K, Shimatsu A, Hizuka N, Tanaka T, Seino Y, Katofor Y. A simple diagnostic test using GH-releasing peptide-2 in adult GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157:19-27 pubmed
    ..Severe GH deficiency could be diagnosed with high reliability using a 15 microg/l (9 microg/l when GH calibrated with recombinant World Health Organization 98/574 standard) cut-off for peak GH concentration. ..
  26. Flurkey K, Papaconstantinou J, Harrison D. The Snell dwarf mutation Pit1(dw) can increase life span in mice. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002;123:121-30 pubmed
  27. Listernick R. A 4-month-old boy with an abdominal mass. Pediatr Ann. 2007;36:688-91 pubmed
  28. Masternak M, Panici J, Wang F, Wang Z, Spong A. The effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on GH and insulin/IGF-1 signaling in long-lived Ames dwarf mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that improving growth of these animals may negatively affect both their healthspan and longevity by causing insulin resistance. ..
  29. Battin J. Art and the history of medicine. The dwarf pointed by Mantegna of Montua and the Morgante of Florence. Vesalius. 2009;15:5-8 pubmed
    ..This painting includes a female dwarf. Modern ideas on dwarfism are briefly discussed and another dwarf, Morgante, from the court of the Medicis in Florence, is described and illustrated. ..
  30. Abdu T, Neary R, Elhadd T, Akber M, Clayton R. Coronary risk in growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults: increased predicted risk is due largely to lipid profile abnormalities. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001;55:209-16 pubmed
    ..Adverse calculated coronary risk might provide a new objective indication for consideration of GH replacement therapy in adults. ..
  31. Caceres A, Reitman A, Tomita T. Craniopharyngioma and Cushing disease: case report. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:318-21 pubmed
    ..The neurosurgical implications of CD along with a possible mechanism for this patient's presentation are discussed in detail on the basis of the pertinent literature. ..
  32. Peterfi Z, Obal F, Taishi P, Gardi J, Kacsoh B, Unterman T, et al. Sleep in spontaneous dwarf rats. Brain Res. 2006;1108:133-46 pubmed
    ..These results support the ideas that GHRH is involved in NREMS regulation and that GH is involved in the regulation of REMS and in EEG slow wave activity regulation during NREMS. ..
  33. Furtner M, Gelpi E, Kiechl S, Knoflach M, Zangerl A, Gotwald T, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 22 years after human growth hormone therapy: clinical and radiological features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:229-31 pubmed publisher
  34. Roh M, Paterson A, Asa S, Chin E, Kudlow J. Stage-sensitive blockade of pituitary somatomammotrope development by targeted expression of a dominant negative epidermal growth factor receptor in transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:600-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that EGFR signaling is required for the differentiation and/or maintenance of somatomammotropes early in pituitary organogenesis but not later in life. (Molecular Endocrinology 15: 600-613, 2001) ..
  35. Alderman J, Flurkey K, Brooks N, Naik S, Gutierrez J, Srinivas U, et al. Neuroendocrine inhibition of glucose production and resistance to cancer in dwarf mice. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results in Snell dwarf mice suggest that the pituitary gland and adipose tissue are part of a neuroendocrine loop that lowers the risk of cancer during aging by reducing the availability of glucose. ..
  36. Mariani A, Chalies S, Jeandel C, Rodiere M. [Psychosocial dwarfism, a reality: Case report]. Arch Pediatr. 2010;17:486-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Family problems need to be taken into account and intensive medical and psychological follow-up is required. Prognosis is good if an early diagnosis is made and followed with a close and prolonged follow-up. ..
  37. Sherafat Kazemzadeh R, Mehta S, Care M, Kim M, Williams D, Rose S. Small pituitary size in children with Fanconi anemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;49:166-70 pubmed
    ..Children with FA tend to have unsuspected small pituitary glands beyond what is expected from the effects of their stunted growth. Further studies are required to reveal the clinical implications of this finding. ..
  38. Kriström B, Aronson A, Dahlgren J, Gustafsson J, Halldin M, Ivarsson S, et al. Growth hormone (GH) dosing during catch-up growth guided by individual responsiveness decreases growth response variability in prepubertal children with GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Individualized GH doses during catch-up growth significantly reduce the proportion of unexpectedly good and poor responders around a predefined individual growth target and result in equal growth responses in children with GHD and ISS. ..
  39. Meseguer A, Catterall J. Effects of pituitary hormones on the cell-specific expression of the KAP gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992;89:153-62 pubmed
    ..The possible participation of GH and PRL was eliminated on the basis of the hormone replacement studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  40. Aida K, Negishi M. A trans-acting locus regulates transcriptional repression of the female-specific steroid 15 alpha-hydroxylase gene in male mice. J Mol Endocrinol. 1993;11:213-22 pubmed
  41. Brabant G. GH releasing peptide 2 test: the holy grail of testing GH deficiency?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157:29-30 pubmed
  42. Schmid I, Stachel D, Freudenberg S, Schmitt M, Schuster F, Haas R. Megestrol acetate to correct the nutritional status in an adolescent with growth hormone deficiency: Increase of appetite and body weight but only by increase of body water and fat mass followed by profound cortisol and testosterone depletion. Klin Padiatr. 2002;214:54-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, MA as a single therapy cannot be recommended to improve the nutritional status. If MA is given, cortisol and testosterone levels have to be monitored and supplemented as needed...
  43. Dumont F, Robert F, Bischoff P. T and B lymphocytes in pituitary dwarf Snell-Bagg mice. Immunology. 1979;38:23-31 pubmed
    ..These data suggested that in adult life, developmental hormones exert little direct effect on the thymus lymphocytes but influence the size of the pool of both peripheral T and B lymphocytes...
  44. Obal F, Fang J, Taishi P, Kacsoh B, Gardi J, Krueger J. Deficiency of growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling is associated with sleep alterations in the dwarf rat. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2912-8 pubmed
    ..The alterations in NREMS are attributed to the defect in GHRH signaling, whereas the decreases in REMS might result from the growth hormone deficiency in the dw/dw rat...
  45. Carrilho A, Cunha Neto M, Nunes V, Lottenberg A, Medina W, Nakandakare E, et al. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lipoprotein levels during treatment of growth hormone-deficient adult humans. Lipids. 2001;36:549-54 pubmed
    ..Endogenous CETP activity and the CER were not modified because these parameters are regulated in opposite ways by plasma levels of triglycerides; that is, CER increased and CETP decreased...
  46. Dreifuss P. Cardiac effects of growth hormone. Circulation. 2004;109:e332 pubmed
  47. Bennett R. Growth hormone in musculoskeletal pain states. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2004;6:266-73 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the evaluation and effective management of growth hormone oversecretion and undersecretion is relevant to practicing rheumatologists...
  48. Arwert L, Veltman D, Deijen J, van Dam P, Drent M. Effects of growth hormone substitution therapy on cognitive functioning in growth hormone deficient patients: a functional MRI study. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;83:12-9 pubmed
    ..GH substitution in GHD patients is beneficial for cognitive functioning, the effects of which can be visualized by means of neuroimaging...
  49. Federico G, Street M, Maghnie M, Caruso Nicoletti M, Loche S, Bertelloni S, et al. Assessment of serum IGF-I concentrations in the diagnosis of isolated childhood-onset GH deficiency: a proposal of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP/ISPED). J Endocrinol Invest. 2006;29:732-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest an algorithm in which circulating levels of IGF-I together with the evaluation of auxological data, such as growth rate and growth, may be used to assess the likelihood of GHD in pre-pubertal children...
  50. Davies J, Gevers E, Stevenson A, Coschigano K, El Kasti M, Bull M, et al. Adiposity profile in the dwarf rat: an unusually lean model of profound growth hormone deficiency. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1483-94 pubmed
    ..Disruption of preadipocyte differentiation or adipocyte proliferation in the dw/dw rat may lead to the development of this unusually lean/hypoleptinemic phenotype...
  51. Rauch F, Georg M, Stabrey A, Neu C, Blum W, Remer T, et al. Collagen markers deoxypyridinoline and hydroxylysine glycosides: pediatric reference data and use for growth prediction in growth hormone-deficient children. Clin Chem. 2002;48:315-22 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the urinary collagen markers deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and hydroxylysine (Hyl) and its glycosides [galactosyl-Hyl (Gal-Hyl) and glucosyl-Gal-Hyl] with growth...
  52. Linglart A, Visot A. [Cushing's disease in children and adolescents]. Neurochirurgie. 2002;48:271-80 pubmed
    ..Diagnostic peculiarities specific surgical problems and outcome were reviewed. Direct transnasal submucosal surgery for Cushing's disease is successful, and pituitary function can be preserved in most of these young patients...
  53. Okada S, Miyagawa S, Nishimura S, Kobayashi M, Nishi Y. [X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia with growth hormone deficiency]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;Suppl 1:67-9 pubmed
  54. Salvatori R, Serpa M, Parmigiani G, Britto A, Oliveira J, Oliveira C, et al. GH response to hypoglycemia and clonidine in the GH-releasing hormone resistance syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006;29:805-8 pubmed
    ..There was a small but significant GH increase during ITT, but not during CL test. These results indicate that a minimal albeit significant GH response to ITT can occur despite complete lack of GHRH-R function...
  55. Pusztai P, Toke J, Somogyi A, Ruzicska E, Sarman B, Racz K, et al. Plasma ghrelin response to an oral glucose load in growth hormone-deficient adults treated with growth hormone. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:99-103 pubmed
  56. Lanzi R, Previtali S, Sansone V, Scavini M, Fortunato M, Gatti E, et al. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a patient with acquired growth hormone deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007;30:341-5 pubmed
  57. Hibi I, Tanaka T, Tanae A, Kagawa J, Hashimoto N, Yoshizawa A, et al. The influence of gonadal function and the effect of gonadal suppression treatment on final height in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;69:221-6 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 0.6, significantly higher than that in group A. This beneficial effect of gonadal suppression treatment on final height was caused by increases in the duration of puberty and the pubertal height gain...
  58. Zuccoli G, Ferrozzi F, Troiso A, Inverardi T, Ubaldi A, Ghizzoni L. [A magnetic resonance study of 39 children with different causes of short stature]. Radiol Med. 2000;100:17-20 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship between Magnetic Resonance (MR) findings and the presence of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD)...
  59. Holden M, Schnabel J, Hill D. Quantification of small cerebral ventricular volume changes in treated growth hormone patients using nonrigid registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2002;21:1292-301 pubmed
    ..7 (n = 11). To determine the level of shape correspondence we manually segmented subject's ventricles and compared them to the propagations using a voxel overlap similarity index, this gave a mean similarity index of 0.81 (n = 7)...
  60. Baroncelli G, Saggese G. Effect of GH treatment on bone mass in children with GH deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:23-7 pubmed
    ..In patients with GH deficiency a possible strategy for avoiding acquisition of a suboptimal bone mass in the young-adult, could be to continue GH treatment during the transition to adulthood up to the acquisition of PBM...
  61. Silbergeld A, Lilos P, Laron Z. Foot length before and during insulin-like growth factor-I treatment of children with laron syndrome compared to human growth hormone treatment of children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2007;20:1325-8 pubmed
  62. Eliakim A, Nemet D. Exercise provocation test for growth hormone secretion: methodologic considerations. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2008;20:370-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to recommendations of more standardized exercise protocols and environmental considerations, we will also focus on GH responses to exercise in unique populations such as obese children...
  63. Di Iorgi N, Napoli F, Allegri A, Secco A, Calandra E, Calcagno A, et al. The accuracy of the glucagon test compared to the insulin tolerance test in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in young children with growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The accuracy of the glucagon test in the diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency in young children has not yet been definitively established...
  64. Radhakrishnan S, Rajan P. Gingival fibromatosis and growth hormone deficiency syndrome--report of a rare case and review of literature. Indian J Dent Res. 2003;14:170-2 pubmed
    ..We are herewith reporting this case for its rarity with a brief review of literature of syndromes associated with generalized gingival fibromatosis...
  65. Colao A, Di Somma C, Savanelli M, De Leo M, Lombardi G. Beginning to end: cardiovascular implications of growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH therapy. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2006;16 Suppl A:S41-8 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the roles of GHD and GH replacement therapy in the development of cardiovascular disease...
  66. de Beaufort C, Beck P, Seligmann R, De Meirleir L, De Schepper J. Acute pancreatitis after growth hormone treatment: disease or treatment linked?. Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165:652-3 pubmed
  67. Minotto I, Abdala N, Miachon A, Spinola e Castro A, Imamura P, Nogueira R. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:988-91 pubmed
    ..Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the ..
  68. Colao A, Di Somma C, Spiezia S, Savastano S, Rota F, Savanelli M, et al. Growth hormone treatment on atherosclerosis: results of a 5-year open, prospective, controlled study in male patients with severe growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe GH deficiency (GHD) is associated with, increased cardiovascular risk and intima-media thickness (IMT) at major arteries...
  69. Meyer S, Haist M, Schaefer S, Ivan D, Ittner J, Nawroth P, et al. Association of COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism with the effect of subcutaneously injected recombinant hGH in GH-deficient adults. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed a possible influence of the COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism on the effect of subcutaneously injected recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in GH-deficient adults...
  70. Barreto V, D Avila J, Sales N, Gonçalves M, Seabra J, Salvatori R, et al. Laryngeal and vocal evaluation in untreated growth hormone deficient adults. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the consequences of lifetime, severe and untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) on vocal and laryngeal function...
  71. Alvarez Nava F, Marcano H, Pardo T, Paoli M, Gunczler P, Soto M, et al. GHR and VDR genes do not contribute to the growth hormone (GH) response in GH deficient and Turner syndrome patients. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010;23:773-82 pubmed
    ..In addition, there was no significant difference among the subjects when both these genotypes were combined. Gene polymorphisms in low penetrance genes do not contribute to the rhGH therapy response in patients with GHD and TS...
  72. Kopchick J, Okada S. Growth hormone receptor antagonists: discovery and potential uses. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2001;11 Suppl A:S103-9 pubmed
    ..It is now being tested for its ability to combat the effects of high circulating levels of GH. In this review, we will discuss some of the detrimental actions of GH and how a GH antagonist may be used to combat these effects...
  73. Miller K. Growth hormone therapy. Determining appropriate use. Adv Nurse Pract. 2002;10:89-92, 95-6 pubmed
  74. Haimi M, Gershoni Baruch R. Autosomal recessive Oliver-McFarlane syndrome: retinitis pigmentosa, short stature (GH deficiency), trichomegaly, and hair anomalies or CPD syndrome (chorioretinopathy-pituitary dysfunction). Am J Med Genet A. 2005;138A:268-71 pubmed
    ..Evolving pigmentary retinopathy was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. A similar condition (Oliver-McFarlane) syndrome was reported previously. Our two sibs confirm the existence of this autosomal recessive syndrome...
  75. Ibanez L, de Zegher F. Puberty and prenatal growth. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;254-255:22-5 pubmed
    ..Current evidence suggests that insulin resistance is a key mechanism linking a post-SGA state to early menarche; hence, insulin sensitization may become a valid approach to prevent early menarche and early growth arrest in SGA girls...
  76. Nose O, Tatsumi K, Nakano Y, Amino N. Congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency attributable to a novel PROP1 mutation (467insT). J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19:491-8 pubmed
    ..PROP1 gene mutations appear to be frequently responsible for CPHD, particularly in Middle and Eastern Europe and the Americas, but few cases have been reported in Japan...
  77. Tei T, Kissmeyer Nielsen P, Flyvbjerg A, Christensen H. Growth hormone is a stimulating but not an essential factor in healing of colon. A study in GH-deficient dwarf rats. Scand J Surg. 2006;95:205-10 pubmed
    ..Growth hormone (GH) has been implicated as an important factor in the healing and previous studies showed significant strength acceleration of experimental intestinal anastomoses...
  78. Barbosa J, Salvatori R, Oliveira C, Pereira R, Farias C, Britto A, et al. Quality of life in congenital, untreated, lifetime isolated growth hormone deficiency. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:894-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in this unique population congenital, untreated, lifetime IGHD does not reduce QoL, and treatment with GH for 6 months only causes improvement in satisfaction with physical resistance...
  79. Hümmelink R, Sippell W. [Clinical value of the gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) test in the diagnosis of growth deficiency]. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1988;136:618-21 pubmed
    ..05) in the group of children with constitutional short stature than in GH deficient patients, but there were overlaps in this group with normal volunteers and other groups of patients with growth failure...
  80. Serizawa N. [Initial characterization of a new miniature animal model in the rat: studies on anatomy, pituitary hormones and GH mRNA in miniature rat Ishikawa]. Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1993;69:33-45 pubmed
    ..MRI, which showed a selective pituitary GH deficiency, may provide a useful new model for studying the endocrinological aspects of the growth...
  81. Zuccoli G, Ferrozzi F, Troiso A, Ubaldi A, Ghizzoni L. An unusual MR presentation of the neurohypophyseal "bright spot" in pituitary dwarfism. Clin Imaging. 2001;25:9-11 pubmed
    ..Abnormalities of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis are frequently associated with pituitary deficiency. We describe a previously unknown morphological presentation of the ectopic posterior neurohypophyseal "bright spot."..
  82. Hsieh C, DeFord J, Flurkey K, Harrison D, Papaconstantinou J. Effects of the Pit1 mutation on the insulin signaling pathway: implications on the longevity of the long-lived Snell dwarf mouse. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002;123:1245-55 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that the Pit1 mutation results in a decreased activity of the insulin/IGF-1 pathway; that this plays a key role in the longevity of the Snell dwarf mouse and conforms to the nematode longevity paradigm...
  83. Li Y, Chen L, Liang L. [Effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on bone metabolism in children with GH deficiency]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;34:312-5 pubmed
    ..To study the changes of bone turnover markers and bone mass in children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency before and after recombinant human GH replacement therapy...
  84. Juul A. IGF-I measurements. Epidemiological and clinical aspects. Front Horm Res. 2005;33:45-67 pubmed
  85. Funatsu M, Sato K, Mitani H. Effects of growth hormone on craniofacial growth. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:970-7 pubmed
    ..This study determined the effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy on craniofacial growth in idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD)...
  86. Clemmons D. Value of insulin-like growth factor system markers in the assessment of growth hormone status. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007;36:109-29 pubmed
    ..Free IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3, or acid-labile subunit may provide useful information regarding GH secretion in specific conditions but are not superior to IGF-I for making the diagnosis of GH deficiency or acromegaly...
  87. Stochholm K, Laursen T, Green A, Laurberg P, Andersen M, Kristensen L, et al. Morbidity and GH deficiency: a nationwide study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD)...
  88. Kennedy M, Davis D, Smith N, Gaedigk A, Pearce R, Kearns G. Six-month, prospective, longitudinal, open-label caffeine and dextromethorphan phenotyping study in children with growth hormone deficiency receiving recombinant human growth hormone replacement. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1687-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Although growth hormone (GH) may alter the clearance of concomitantly administered medications, its effects on individual drug-metabolizing enzymes in children have not been characterized...
  89. Lebl J, Sediva A, Snajderova M, Pruhova S, Rakosnikova V. Immune system in adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency: effect of growth hormone therapy. Endocr Regul. 2000;34:169-73 pubmed
    ..To investigate the impact of growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency on immune system...
  90. Conceicao F, Fisker S, Vahl N, Hansen T, Jørgensen J, Christiansen J. Growth hormone treatment in adults: is there a true gender difference?. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2001;11 Suppl A:S43-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we start with a short review of the possible role of GH in sexual development and sexual life...
  91. Piersanti M. Growth hormone replacement for patients with adult onset growth hormone deficiency--what have we learned. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16:E12 pubmed
  92. Carel J. Can we increase adolescent growth?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151 Suppl 3:U101-8 pubmed
    ..However, we still have a long way to go before we truly evaluate the factors affecting the variable individual responses to these treatments, their clinical significance and their cost-benefit balance...