world war ii


Summary: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.

Top Publications

  1. Fentiman I, Allen D, Ellison G. The impact of the Occupation of Guernsey 1940-1945 on breast cancer risk factors and incidence. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:937-43 pubmed
    ..30, 95% CI = 0.62-2.76). Delay in menarche among women remaining in Guernsey during the Occupation, rather than being protective, was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. ..
  2. Hollmann T, Byard R, Tsokos M. The processing of skeletonized human remains found in Berlin, Germany. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15:420-5 pubmed publisher
    During World War II, and particularly the Battle of Berlin, many thousands of civilians and soldiers from a variety of countries were killed...
  3. Utter G, Lee T, Rivers R, Montalvo L, Wen L, Chafets D, et al. Microchimerism decades after transfusion among combat-injured US veterans from the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II conflicts. Transfusion. 2008;48:1609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..MC is rare among male blood donors who did not receive transfusions, who are probably representative of individuals who have not had postnatal allogeneic exposures. ..
  4. Keinan Boker L, Vin Raviv N, Liphshitz I, Linn S, Barchana M. Cancer incidence in Israeli Jewish survivors of World War II. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1489-500 pubmed publisher
    ..have high incidence rates of all cancers, and many of them were exposed to severe famine and stress during World War II. We assessed cancer incidence in Israeli Jewish survivors of World War II...
  5. Hursting S, Forman M. Cancer risk from extreme stressors: lessons from European Jewish survivors of World War II. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1436-7 pubmed publisher
  6. Geissler E, Guillemin J. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II. Politics Life Sci. 2010;29:2-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof. ..
  7. Strauss K, Dapp U, Anders J, von Renteln Kruse W, Schmidt S. Range and specificity of war-related trauma to posttraumatic stress; depression and general health perception: displaced former World War II children in late life. J Affect Disord. 2011;128:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%)...
  8. Marjanovic D, Durmic Pasic A, Kovacevic L, Avdic J, Dzehverovic M, Haveric S, et al. Identification of skeletal remains of Communist Armed Forces victims during and after World War II: combined Y-chromosome (STR) and MiniSTR approach. Croat Med J. 2009;50:296-304 pubmed
    ..of revolutionary violence and crimes against humanity committed by the Communist Armed Forces during and after World War II in which bodies were exhumed from mass and individual graves in Slovenia...
  9. Wittekind C, Jelinek L, Kellner M, Moritz S, Muhtz C. Intergenerational transmission of biased information processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following displacement after World War II. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..bias for trauma-related stimuli in adult offspring, we compared performance of individuals displaced after World War II with (n=22) and without PTSD (n=24) to a non-displaced healthy control group (n=11) and their respective ..

More Information


  1. Sugiura Y, Ju Y, Yasuoka J, Jimba M. Rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II. Biosci Trends. 2010;4:9-16 pubmed
    Japanese life expectancy increased by about 13.7 years during the first decade after World War II, despite the country's post-war poverty...
  2. Alastalo H, Raikkonen K, Pesonen A, Osmond C, Barker D, Heinonen K, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Finnish men and women separated temporarily from their parents in childhood--a life course study. Psychosom Med. 2012;74:583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..disease over 60 years in individuals separated temporarily from their parents in childhood due to World War II. We studied 12,915 members of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born from 1934 to 1944, of whom 1726 (13...
  3. Pesonen A, Raikkonen K, Heinonen K, Kajantie E, Forsen T, Eriksson J. Reproductive traits following a parent-child separation trauma during childhood: a natural experiment during World War II. Am J Hum Biol. 2008;20:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications are relevant to the 9.2 million child refugees living throughout the world today. ..
  4. Pesonen A, Raikkonen K, Kajantie E, Heinonen K, Osmond C, Barker D, et al. Inter-generational social mobility following early life stress. Ann Med. 2011;43:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested if early life stress (ELS) due to a separation from the parents during World War II predicts adult SEP, trajectories of incomes across the entire working career, and inter-generational social ..
  5. Rebała K, Martínez Cruz B, Tonjes A, Kovacs P, Stumvoll M, Lindner I, et al. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013;21:415-22 pubmed publisher
    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages...
  6. Eichhorn S, Klauer T, Grundke E, Freyberger H, Brahler E, Kuwert P. [Coping skills and social support in German long-time survivors of rape in the end of World War II]. Psychiatr Prax. 2012;39:169-73 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of German war-raped women in World War II. Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on today's posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out...
  7. Zupanic Pajnic I, Gornjak Pogorelc B, Balazic J, Zupanc T, Stefanic B. Highly efficient nuclear DNA typing of the World War II skeletal remains using three new autosomal short tandem repeat amplification kits with the extended European Standard Set of loci. Croat Med J. 2012;53:17-23 pubmed
    ..Set (ESS) of loci for autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) typing of skeletal remains excavated from the World War II mass graves in Slovenia...
  8. Pesonen A, Raikkonen K, Feldt K, Heinonen K, Osmond C, Phillips D, et al. Childhood separation experience predicts HPA axis hormonal responses in late adulthood: a natural experiment of World War II. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The Finnish experience in World War II created a natural experiment to test whether separation from a father serving in the armed forces or from both ..
  9. Zupanic Pajnic I, Gornjak Pogorelc B, Balazic J. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Int J Legal Med. 2010;124:307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%). ..
  10. Glaesmer H, Gunzelmann T, Braehler E, Forstmeier S, Maercker A. Traumatic experiences and post-traumatic stress disorder among elderly Germans: results of a representative population-based survey. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the existing studies are from the U.S.A. Against the background of World War II, the extent and long-term effects of war-related traumatic experiences in the German elderly population are of ..
  11. Definis Gojanovic M, Sutlovic D. Skeletal remains from World War II mass grave: from discovery to identification. Croat Med J. 2007;48:520-7 pubmed
    ..mountain-range in 2005, which allegedly contained the remains of civilians from Herzegovina killed in the World War II, including a group of 8 Franciscan monks...
  12. Ravona Springer R, Beeri M, Goldbourt U. Exposure to the Holocaust and World War II concentration camps during late adolescence and adulthood is not associated with increased risk for dementia at old age. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;23:709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals who survived concentration camps and then lived into old age may carry survival advantages that are associated with protection from dementia and mortality. ..
  13. Palo J, Hedman M, Söderholm N, Sajantila A. Repatriation and identification of the Finnish World War II soldiers. Croat Med J. 2007;48:528-35 pubmed
    ..examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for ..
  14. Alastalo H, Raikkonen K, Pesonen A, Osmond C, Barker D, Kajantie E, et al. Cardiovascular health of Finnish war evacuees 60 years later. Ann Med. 2009;41:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..disease and diabetes in later life among individuals exposed to traumatic separation in early childhood due to World War II. Of the participants of the Helsinki Birth Cohort 1934-44 Study (n=2003), 320 had been evacuated abroad to ..
  15. Marjanovic D, Durmic Pasic A, Bakal N, Haveric S, Kalamujic B, Kovacevic L, et al. DNA identification of skeletal remains from the World War II mass graves uncovered in Slovenia. Croat Med J. 2007;48:513-9 pubmed
    To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Skofja Loka, Slovenia...
  16. Böwing G, Schmidt K, Juckel G, Schröder S. [Psychosis in elderly post-traumatic stress disorder patients]. Nervenarzt. 2008;79:73-9 pubmed
    Late-onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with traumatic experiences from World War II often present psychotic features...
  17. Forstmeier S, Kuwert P, Spitzer C, Freyberger H, Maercker A. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17:1030-9 pubmed publisher
    ..University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma...
  18. Ma M, Li J, McClane B. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from Darmbrand cases in post-World War II Germany. Infect Immun. 2012;80:4354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..They are responsible for enteritis necroticans, which was termed Darmbrand when occurring in post-World War II Germany...
  19. Von Heuft G, Schneider G, Klaiberg A, Brahler E. [Bombed out--psychic and psychosomatic long term consequences of World War II for the cohort born until 1945 in the year 2004]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2007;53:228-43 pubmed
    ..specific war experiences of the cohort born up to 1945, exemplified through the fate of those bombed out during World War II, can be proven...
  20. Pesonen A, Raikkonen K, Heinonen K, Kajantie E, Forsen T, Eriksson J. Depressive symptoms in adults separated from their parents as children: a natural experiment during World War II. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:1126-33 pubmed
    ..b>World War II created a unique natural experiment that allowed the authors to test whether 1) evacuation to temporary foster ..
  21. Rusby J, Tasker F. Childhood temporary separation: long-term effects of the British evacuation of children during World War 2 on older adults' attachment styles. Attach Hum Dev. 2008;10:207-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical implications of the study are briefly discussed. ..
  22. Kuwert P, Brahler E, Glaesmer H, Freyberger H, Decker O. Impact of forced displacement during World War II on the present-day mental health of the elderly: a population-based study. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21:748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Roughly 12 million German people were displaced in World War II (WWII) and to our knowledge there has been no representative study investigating the mental health outcomes of ..
  23. Koupil I, Shestov D, Sparen P, Plavinskaja S, Parfenova N, Vågerö D. Blood pressure, hypertension and mortality from circulatory disease in men and women who survived the siege of Leningrad. Eur J Epidemiol. 2007;22:223-34 pubmed
  24. Sabin A. Research on dengue during World War II. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1952;1:30-50 pubmed
  25. O Donnell C, Cook J, Thompson R, Riley K, Neria Y. Verbal and physical aggression in World War II former prisoners of war: role of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19:859-66 pubmed
    ..stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and intimate partner relationship aggression in a community sample of World War II (WWII) male military former prisoners of war (POWs)...
  26. Ellison G, Kelly M. Growth of Jersey schoolchildren during the 1940-1945 German occupation: comparison with schoolchildren on mainland Britain. Hum Biol. 2005;77:761-72 pubmed
    ..As such, these analyses provide a somewhat conservative estimate of the decline in childhood growth rates that occurred on Jersey during the 1940-45 German occupation. ..
  27. Berntsen D, Rubin D. Flashbulb memories and posttraumatic stress reactions across the life span: age-related effects of the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. Psychol Aging. 2006;21:127-39 pubmed
    ..sample of older Danes were interviewed about experiences from the German occupation of Denmark in World War II. The number of participants with flashbulb memories for the German invasion (1940) and capitulation (1945) ..
  28. Berntsen D, Thomsen D. Personal memories for remote historical events: accuracy and clarity of flashbulb memories related to World War II. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2005;134:242-57 pubmed
    ..April 1940) and liberation (May 1945) and for their most negative and most positive personal memories from World War II. Almost all reported memories for the invasion and liberation. Their answers to factual questions (e.g...
  29. Sekikawa A, Ueshima H, Kadowaki T, El Saed A, Okamura T, Takamiya T, et al. Less subclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese men in Japan than in White men in the United States in the post-World War II birth cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:617-24 pubmed
    ..616 mm (standard error, 0.005) vs. 0.672 (standard error, 0.005) mm, p < 0.01). Both associations remained significant after adjusting for risk factors. The findings warrant further investigations. ..
  30. Ngauy V, Lemeshev Y, Sadkowski L, Crawford G. Cutaneous melioidosis in a man who was taken as a prisoner of war by the Japanese during World War II. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:970-2 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a man who was taken as a prisoner of war by the Japanese during World War II who presented with a nonhealing ulcer on his right hand 62 years after the initial exposure.
  31. Bramsen I, Deeg D, van der Ploeg E, Fransman S. Wartime stressors and mental health symptoms as predictors of late-life mortality in World War II survivors. J Affect Disord. 2007;103:121-9 pubmed
    ..The current study examines wartime stress in relation to late-life mortality among 1448 World War II survivors, and potential mediating effects of mental health symptoms that were assessed in 1992...
  32. Jankowski M, Schnurr P, Adams G, Green B, Ford J, Friedman M. A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas. J Trauma Stress. 2004;17:303-10 pubmed support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305)...
  33. Kuwert P, Spitzer C, Träder A, Freyberger H, Ermann M. Sixty years later: post-traumatic stress symptoms and current psychopathology in former German children of World War II. Int Psychogeriatr. 2007;19:955-61 pubmed stress symptoms and current psychopathological distress in a sample of former German children of World War II. 93 participants were recruited through the local press, and assessed using the modified Post-traumatic ..
  34. Surov A, Taege C, Behrmann C. A delayed complication after injury in World War II. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1963-4 pubmed
  35. Hedley Whyte J. Epidemic jaundice: Harvard's 5th General Hospital at Musgrave Park in World War II. Ulster Med J. 2005;74:122-5 pubmed
  36. Kang H, Bullman T, Taylor J. Risk of selected cardiovascular diseases and posttraumatic stress disorder among former World War II prisoners of war. Ann Epidemiol. 2006;16:381-6 pubmed
    American World War II (WWII) prisoners of war (POWs) suffered both mental and physical deprivation while interned...
  37. Fitzpatrick A, Reed T, Goldberg J, Buchwald D. The association between prolonged fatigue and cardiovascular disease in World War II veteran twins. Twin Res. 2004;7:571-7 pubmed
    ..for genetic confounding, we investigated prolonged fatigue and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of World War II veteran twins...
  38. Tormey C, Fisk J, Stack G. Red blood cell alloantibody frequency, specificity, and properties in a population of male military veterans. Transfusion. 2008;48:2069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Alloantibody prevalence was highest in World War II veterans...
  39. Pocivavsek M. Tradition of the pharmacies of Celje. Acta Med Hist Adriat. 2009;7:237-52 pubmed
    ..After World War II, all private pharmacies were nationalized; in 1968 a public institute The pharmacies of Celje was established...
  40. Rahlf S. [The use of skin grafting for the treatment of burn wounds in Denmark 1870-1960]. Dan Medicinhist Arbog. 2009;37:99-116 pubmed
    ..Tannic acid was one of the substances used as ointment in this period. During World War II, however, tannic acid treatment was linked to liver damage due to absorption from the wound...
  41. Innerhofer R, Rothe K. [Regulation of behavior in the period between the world wars: Robert Musil and Kurt Lewin]. Ber Wiss. 2010;33:365-81 pubmed
    ..As a notable result, this 'literary test' of behavioral self-regulation revealed the violence and imbalance of power inherent in this concept of self-regulation and its practical implementation. ..
  42. Scull A. The mental health sector and the social sciences in post-World War II USA. Part I: total war and its aftermath . Hist Psychiatry. 2011;22:3-19 pubmed
  43. Toppinen M, Perdomo M, Palo J, Simmonds P, Lycett S, Soderlund Venermo M, et al. Bones hold the key to DNA virus history and epidemiology. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17226 pubmed publisher
    ..We searched ca. 70-year-old long bones of putative Finnish casualties from World War II for parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA, and found a remarkable prevalence of 45%...
  44. Fussinger C. 'Therapeutic community', psychiatry's reformers and antipsychiatrists: reconsidering changes in the field of psychiatry after World War II. Hist Psychiatry. 2011;22:146-63 pubmed
    In addition to outlining some core characteristics of the therapeutic community--an approach developed during World War II--this article describes the achievements of reformist psychiatrists in the field of the therapeutic community ..
  45. Lemov R. X-rays of inner worlds: the mid-twentieth-century American projective test movement. J Hist Behav Sci. 2011;47:251-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The essay argues for an off-kilter centrality in the movement itself, shedding light on the would-be unified social sciences after World War II and the "subjective turn" they took.
  46. Sakaguchi A, Kawai K, Steier P, Imanaka T, Hoshi M, Endo S, et al. Feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:5392-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Gromulska M. [National Institute of Hygiene during the World War 1939-1944]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62:719-25 pubmed
  48. Lis Turlejska M, Luszczynska A, Plichta A, Benight C. Jewish and non-Jewish World War II child and adolescent survivors at 60 years after war: effects of parental loss and age at exposure on well-being. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2008;78:369-77 pubmed publisher
    The study investigated the effects of World War II (WWII) on psychological and social functioning of Jewish and non-Jewish survivors 60 years after the war...
  49. Aldous C. Transforming public health?: a critical review of progress made against enteric diseases during the American-led occupation of Japan (1945-52). Nihon Ishigaku Zasshi. 2008;54:3-17 pubmed
  50. Sefer E. The courage to care: nurses facing the moral extreme. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2004;21:28-34 pubmed
    ..Data collection was through oral interviews, archival documents and literature. The conclusion is that these nurses provide powerful role models of care that are as significant today as they were then. ..
  51. Jovanović A, Ivkovic M, Gašić M. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a World War II concentration camp survivor caused by the attack of two German shepherd dogs: case report and review of the literature. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;208:e15-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Kuwert P, Knaevelsrud C, Rosenthal J, Dudeck M, Freyberger H, Spitzer C. [Quality of life and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II]. Psychiatr Prax. 2008;35:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..was to determine the quality of life and the sense of coherence in a sample of former German child soldiers of World War II. 103 participants were recruited by the press, then administered a Short-Form-Health-Survey (SF-12), a sense-of-..
  53. Casper S. The origins of the Anglo-American Research Alliance and the incidence of civilian neuroses in Second World War Britain. Med Hist. 2008;52:327-46 pubmed