Summary: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.

Top Publications

  1. Goodger W. Dairy Comp 305 program. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 1987;3:553-9 pubmed
    ..A flexible dairy database program, Dairy Comp 305, is described to illustrate how a dairy database can support the decisions of a dairy producer and provide data for veterinarians to plan their production management programs. ..
  2. Peters T, Clark J, Pike B, Drangova M, Olivier A. Stereotactic surgical planning with magnetic resonance imaging, digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography. Appl Neurophysiol. 1987;50:33-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to routine tasks for stereotactic planning, the package also supports dosimetry planning for stereotactic radiosurgery. ..
  3. Studnicka G. Quantitative computer analysis of signal sequence homologies in DNA. Comput Appl Biosci. 1986;2:269-75 pubmed
    ..No arbitrary 'cutoff score' can distinguish active recognition sites from inactive homologies; experiments must determine why certain weak homologies are able to function while others are not. ..
  4. Xander L, Wagner J, Hahn H. Improved computer-assisted reading of identification and shortened MIC data for reporting on urine specimens at a Berlin university hospital. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1988;268:295-305 pubmed
    ..The results are printed on self-adhesive labels, which are returned to the senders of specimens on the conventional request forms. ..
  5. Appleyard R, Campbell K, Ringo J. Area of the aortic pressure-flow loop measures energy storage by the proximal arteries. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:H1405-12 pubmed
    ..This reflects the dependence of pulsatile energy storage on these variables and indicates that APQ cannot serve as an index for changes in just the reactive properties of the proximal arteries. ..
  6. Klis J, Prijs V, Latour J, Smoorenburg G. Modulation of cochlear tuning by low-frequency sound. Hear Res. 1988;36:163-73 pubmed
    ..The relationship of these phenomena with the pathophysiology of Ménière's disease and with possible active mechanisms in cochlear transduction is discussed...
  7. Maes R. Concerns: Choosing a radiology workstation. Radiology. 2008;246:335-6; author reply 335-6 pubmed
  8. Jost S, Deckers J, Nellessen U, Rafflenbeul W, Hecker H, Reiber J, et al. [Computer-assisted geometric measuring technic in coronary angiography interval studies: results of initial angiograms of the International Nifedipine Trial of Anti-atherosclerotic Therapy (INTACT) study]. Z Kardiol. 1989;78:23-32 pubmed
  9. Brown J. A new computer memory for biology and medicine using the laser card. Comput Biol Med. 1989;19:375-83 pubmed
    ..The system has been tested in an outpatient clinic with considerable success. ..

More Information


  1. Shih C, Chang M, Shih C. A new limb movement detector enabling people with multiple disabilities to control environmental stimulation through limb swing with a gyration air mouse. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31:875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. ..
  2. Staden R. Computer methods to locate signals in nucleic acid sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:505-19 pubmed
    ..The methods are of use both to those trying to interpret the function of newly determined sequences and to those studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the recognition of these special signal sequences. ..
  3. Landais P, Frutiger P. ARCANE. A new medical patient information system. Med Inform (Lond). 1988;13:105-16 pubmed
    ..This system, devoted to daily practice, is also conceived as a clinical research aid and an activity analysis tool. ..
  4. Burnett L, Basten A, Hensley W. The SEQANAL and SEQTALK programs: a new method of access to high-resolution nucleotide sequence comparison and analysis programs from a remote laboratory mini- or microcomputer. Comput Appl Biosci. 1985;1:241-7 pubmed
  5. Zhang M, Red S, Lin A, Patel S, Sereno A. Evidence of cognitive dysfunction after soccer playing with ball heading using a novel tablet-based approach. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57364 pubmed publisher
    ..There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction. ..
  6. Kimhy D, Delespaul P, Ahn H, Cai S, Shikhman M, Lieberman J, et al. Concurrent measurement of "real-world" stress and arousal in individuals with psychosis: assessing the feasibility and validity of a novel methodology. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36:1131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors discuss the methodology's potential applications and future research directions. ..
  7. Pince H, Verberckmoes R, Willems J. Computer aided interpretation of acid-base disorders. Int J Biomed Comput. 1990;25:177-92 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of a learning set (N = 202) and a test set (N = 194) has proved that the system's accuracy is acceptable. As a result, the program has recently been put in routine clinical practice. ..
  8. Chappard D, Alexandre C, Riffat G. [Relations between trabecular bone mass and the configuration in the space of the trabeculae of bone. Histomorphometric study of a population of 145 osteoporotic women]. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic. 1988;55:19-25 pubmed
    ..Alterations of the spatial configuration of the trabecules or the mechanical resistance of the bony matrix are additional factors, the role of which might have been underestimated. ..
  9. Hammond W. How the past teaches the future: ACMI distinguished lecture. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2001;8:222-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, changes in technology move the challenges but do not eliminate them. ..
  10. Toutain P, Laurentie M, Autefage A, Alvinerie M. Hydrocortisone secretion: production rate and pulse characterization by numerical deconvolution. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:E688-95 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 1.41 but their mean duration was much longer, i.e., 105.25 +/- 21.24 min. The origin of these differences and the advantages and limits of deconvolution analysis are discussed. ..
  11. Posen M, Reed C, Braida L. Intelligibility of frequency-lowered speech produced by a channel vocoder. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1993;30:26-38 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study also indicated that training is an important consideration when evaluating frequency-lowering systems...
  12. Lal S, Smith F, Davis J, Castro H, Smith D, Chinkes D, et al. Palm computer demonstrates a fast and accurate means of burn data collection. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000;21:559-61; discussion 558 pubmed
    ..05), and 58% fewer errors were generated with the Palm method.) The Palm is a faster and more accurate means of data collection than a handwritten technique. ..
  13. Thumfart W, Pototschnig C, Simandi T. [Automated assessment of cranial nerve paralyses using computerized electromyography]. HNO. 1988;36:206-11 pubmed
    ..The results provide a basis for the routine use of the computer program in routine clinical diagnosis. ..
  14. Macfarlane P, Pahlm O. Bedside serial comparison of electrocardiograms. J Electrocardiol. 1988;21 Suppl:S159-62 pubmed
    ..Serial comparison logic has been incorporated into the diagnostic program inside the 440 and 740 so that immediate serial comparison can be undertaken at the bedside or in the clinic. ..
  15. Kreiter A, Aertsen A, Gerstein G. A low-cost single-board solution for real-time, unsupervised waveform classification of multineuron recordings. J Neurosci Methods. 1989;30:59-69 pubmed
    ..For typical firing rates as measured in the mammalian central nervous system, this set-up will accommodate up to some 10 parallel spike sorters for as many separate microelectrodes. ..
  16. Williamson R, Andrews B. Gait event detection for FES using accelerometers and supervised machine learning. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 2000;8:312-9 pubmed
    ..When implemented on a microcontroller, the RS-based detector executed ten times faster and required one tenth of the memory than the ALN-based detector. ..
  17. Flanigan D. Computerization of academic vascular surgery. Surgery. 1989;106:911-9 pubmed
    ..An electronic mail and messaging system provides for paperless communication between surgeons, research personnel, and clerical staff. ..
  18. Ahmed K, Mahony J, Stiles C, Castriciano S, Chernesky M. A clinical virology database for a regional virology service. J Virol Methods. 1989;26:255-67 pubmed
    ..The database is used to identify patients, store patient test results, minimize clerical work and improve accuracy of reported results. The database also serves as a patient registry for use in education and research. ..
  19. Sharma V, Kapoor S. Personal computer based teletherapy CT-RT treatment planning system (TSG-RADPLAN). J Med Syst. 1990;14:49-57 pubmed
    ..The system has high performance with speed and accuracy during dose calculations. A dot-matrix printer/plotter is used to print the final dose distribution results in text or graphics for permanent records. ..
  20. Shih C, Shih C, Chu C. Assisting people with multiple disabilities actively correct abnormal standing posture with a Nintendo Wii balance board through controlling environmental stimulation. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31:936-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed. ..
  21. Cristina V, Barar A, Gârceag V, Brumaru G, Ion D. [The applications of informatics in ophthalmology]. Oftalmologia. 1991;35:5-8 pubmed
    ..The Romanian made computers Felix, Independent, Coral, Cobra, etc. were used. ..
  22. Shih C, Chang M, Shih C. A limb action detector enabling people with multiple disabilities to control environmental stimulation through limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31:1047-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. ..
  23. Pratkanis A, Greenwald A, Leippe M, Baumgardner M. In search of reliable persuasion effects: III. The sleeper effect is dead. Long live the sleeper effect. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;54:203-18 pubmed
    ..The effect occurs, then, if the impact of the discounting cue decays faster than that of the message. ..
  24. Wang S, Chen G, Lin W, Kao C, Tsai S. A comparison study of ultrasound and Xenon-133 hepatic retention ratio in fatty liver. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49:1036-8 pubmed
    ..We compared ultrasound and Xenon-133 hepatic retention ratio to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing fatty liver...
  25. Garcia J, Martínez I, Sornmo L, Olmos S, Mur A, Laguna P. Remote processing server for ECG-based clinical diagnosis support. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2002;6:277-84 pubmed
    ..The centralized structure of the system permits unique and user-independent update and management of the software and, therefore, is especially suitable for remote or rural regions to have access to the new ECG information techniques. ..
  26. Payne K, Tahim A, Goodson A, Delaney M, Fan K. A review of current clinical photography guidelines in relation to smartphone publishing of medical images. J Vis Commun Med. 2012;35:188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the issues surrounding consent and provide practical tips for obtaining informed consent from patients to publish medical images in smartphone apps. ..
  27. Allen A, Shane H. Autism spectrum disorders in the era of mobile technologies: impact on caregivers. Dev Neurorehabil. 2014;17:110-4 pubmed publisher
  28. Gouveia Oliveira A, Raposo V, Azevedo A, Salgado N, Almeida I, Silva A, et al. SISCOPE: a multiuser information system for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopy. 1991;23:272-7 pubmed system for use in gastrointestinal endoscopy units which operates in the multiuser mode on UNIX minicomputers or MS-DOS personal computers and can be used for patient bookings, endoscopic data entry and retrieval, and ..
  29. Bianchi R, Hanozet G, Seneci A, Simonetta M. A new implemented version of program MIR (MIR II): analysis and identification of mathematical models in enzyme and transport kinetic studies. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1988;27:189-96 pubmed
    ..An algorithm for fitting a straight line taking into account errors in both x and y is also provided. ..
  30. Jung R, Scott A, Chong P, Browning M, Waugh N. A new Pick based computer thyroid register based on the national SAFUR requirements for local usage. Health Bull (Edinb). 1991;49:244-9 pubmed
    ..Audit, clinical and financial, may now be more efficiently achieved, allowing local needs to direct the service provision. ..
  31. Cook D, Manning D, Holland D, Prinsen S, Rudzik S, Roger V, et al. Patient engagement and reported outcomes in surgical recovery: effectiveness of an e-health platform. J Am Coll Surg. 2013;217:648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, patient self-reported data are predictive of length of stay and discharge disposition. ..
  32. Woodard J, Chow E, Farrar D. Isolated ventricular systolic interaction during transient reductions in left ventricular pressure. Circ Res. 1992;70:944-51 pubmed
    ..042 +/- 0.014 mm Hg/mm Hg at normalized time 0.70 of the systolic duration and a maximum of 0.079 +/- 0.029 at the end of RV ejection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  33. George P, Dumenco L, Doyle R, Dollase R. Incorporating iPads into a preclinical curriculum: a pilot study. Med Teach. 2013;35:226-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The iPad provides some benefits in undergraduate medical education. More studies are necessary to determine how the iPad is best incorporated into medical education. ..
  34. Gentine A, Conraux C, Kalfane K, Eichhorn J, Kopp C. [Vestibular test in Menière's disease]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 1991;112:113-5 pubmed
    ..The vestibulo-oculogram, on the other hand, suggests the presence of hydrops, according to the mechanical model. ..
  35. Linney A, Grindrod S, Arridge S, Moss J. Three-dimensional visualization of computerized tomography and laser scan data for the simulation of maxillo-facial surgery. Med Inform (Lond). 1989;14:109-21 pubmed
    ..3D measurements can be made on the images for pre- and post-surgical analysis. An example of the clinical use of the system in the planning of surgery and the prediction of post-surgical facial appearance is given. ..
  36. Breitbart E, Mohsenian F, Roser M, Schiers C, Wiebecke G, Reimitz P, et al. [Clinical recognition of early forms of malignant melanoma]. Onkologie. 1989;12:264-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, image analysis may be very helpful in determining the dignity of melanocytic lesions. ..
  37. Hübner U. [Electronic health record--(not) a topic for nursing? Nurses need access to all data (interview by Katrin Balzer)]. Pflege Z. 2005;58:163 pubmed
  38. Shalitin S, Phillip M. Closing the loop: combining insulin pumps and glucose sensors in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2006;7 Suppl 4:45-9 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the steps towards closing the loop in the attempts to develop an artificial pancreas and on recent ongoing research and future directions in this field. ..
  39. Degreef G, Ashtari M, Bogerts B, Bilder R, Jody D, Alvir J, et al. Volumes of ventricular system subdivisions measured from magnetic resonance images in first-episode schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:531-7 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that anomalies of limbic structures in the medial temporal lobe surrounding the temporal horn play a crucial pathophysiologic role in schizophrenia. ..
  40. Galley N, Fritz A. [Eye movements of children with cerebral function disorders diagnosed by different methods]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr. 1987;15:342-54 pubmed
    ..The conclusion was therefore drawn that their poor performance was the result of deficits in cognitive abilities prerequisite to the task. ..
  41. La Canna G, Giubbini R, Metra M, Arosio G, Curnis A, Cicogna R, et al. Assessment of myocardial perfusion with thallium-201 scintigraphy in exercise-induced left bundle branch block: diagnostic value and clinical significance. Eur Heart J. 1992;13:942-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, follow-up showed a relatively low rate of major cardiac events. ..
  42. Lee K, Raman K. Application of computers in clinics in Singapore: status and doctors' perceptions. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1990;19:580-94 pubmed
    ..Further analysis of the data has identified some interesting correlations among clinic variables and among doctors' perception variables. ..
  43. Curran B. Remote site treatment planning. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 1989;13:275-9 pubmed
    ..Recent developments in the computer industry, such as the use of networks and distributed computer processing, may lead to a resurgence of interest in remote computer systems for treatment planning. ..
  44. Schmittling G. Computer use by family physicians in the United States. J Fam Pract. 1989;29:198-200 pubmed
    ..Approximately two in five indicated that they have a personal or home computer. It is estimated that approximately 65% of AAFP active members have access to a computer either at home or at their office. ..
  45. Simpson D, Dallal G. BUMP: a FORTRAN program for identifying dose-response curves subject to downturns. Comput Biomed Res. 1989;22:36-43 pubmed
    ..The FORTRAN 77 source code is available for those who would like to run BUMP on other machines. ..
  46. Sjoberg S, Carlsson P, Enerback S, Bjursell G. A compact, flexible and cheap system for acquiring sequence data from autoradiograms with a digitizer and transferring it to an arbitrary host computer. Comput Appl Biosci. 1989;5:41-6 pubmed
    ..The gel reading algorithm described is fast, accurate and simple and the file transfer relies on the safe and well-known Kermit programs. ..
  47. Butler B. Nucleic acid sequence analysis software packages. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1994;5:19-23 pubmed
    ..Increased network access from within software packages will also make more databases, and more frequently updated databases, available to a larger research community. ..
  48. Clas W, Brennecke R, Zotz R, Erbel R, Jung D, Meyer J. Color superposition: a new modality for contrast echocardiography. Int J Card Imaging. 1987;2:111-6 pubmed
    ..Results of volume estimations of the left ventricle by different examiners using several imaging modes including color superposition display are presented. ..
  49. Kass D, Maughan W, Guo Z, Kono A, Sunagawa K, Sagawa K. Comparative influence of load versus inotropic states on indexes of ventricular contractility: experimental and theoretical analysis based on pressure-volume relationships. Circulation. 1987;76:1422-36 pubmed
    ..Any advantage of the ESPVR will derive not from the magnitude of its response to inotropic change, which is smaller than most other indexes, but from its relative insensitivity to load alteration over a wider range of load. ..
  50. Blankenship H, Wallace F, Pacifico A. Clinical application of closed-loop postoperative autotransfusion. Med Prog Technol. 1990;16:89-93 pubmed
    ..The fully automated system promotes greater hemodynamic stability than other techniques of postoperative autotransfusion. Closed-loop autotransfusion is less labor-intensive than manual methods and has proved to be cost-effective. ..
  51. Wang J, Hsu J, Bhatia A. Expanding the role of the iPad and tablet devices to cosmetic patient consultations. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012;31:200-2 pubmed publisher
  52. Furnell S, Gaunt P, Pangalos G, Sanders P, Warren M. A generic methodology for health care data security. Med Inform (Lond). 1994;19:229-45 pubmed
  53. Bo P, Cosi V, Introzzi G, Scelsi R, Taccola A, Romani A, et al. Quantified EEG, somatosensory evoked potentials and cerebral blood flow in monitoring experimental brain ischemia. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1987;8:549-59 pubmed
    ..The site and extent of the lesions were verified by histological examinations. Results obtained and physiopathological implications are discussed. ..