Summary: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.

Top Publications

  1. Browne G, Berry E, Kapur N, Hodges S, Smyth G, Watson P, et al. SenseCam improves memory for recent events and quality of life in a patient with memory retrieval difficulties. Memory. 2011;19:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SenseCam images provide a powerful boost to autobiographical recall, with secondary benefits for quality of life. ..
  2. Bogossian F, Kellett S, Mason B. The use of tablet PCs to access an electronic portfolio in the clinical setting: a pilot study using undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Educ Today. 2009;29:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Tablet PCs offer advantages related to and beyond portfolio use in the clinical setting. ..
  3. Aiello E, Taplin S, Reid R, Hobbs M, Seger D, Kamel H, et al. In a randomized controlled trial, patients preferred electronic data collection of breast cancer risk-factor information in a mammography setting. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59:77-81 pubmed
    ..6% vs. 6.2%, P = .04). Electronic questionnaires are feasible to use in a mammography setting, can improve data quality, and are preferred by women regardless of age. ..
  4. Krogh P, Rough S, Thomley S. Comparison of two personal-computer-based mobile devices to support pharmacists' clinical documentation. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:154-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Rothschild J, Lee T, Bae T, Bates D. Clinician use of a palmtop drug reference guide. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002;9:223-9 pubmed
    ..The clinical and practical value of using these devices in clinical settings will clearly grow further as wireless communication becomes more ubiquitous and as more applications become available. ..
  6. Jensen B, Pilegaard M, Momsen A. Vibrotactile sense and mechanical functional state of the arm and hand among computer users compared with a control group. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002;75:332-40 pubmed
    ..The +sPC group had lower pinch-grip strength when measured in the pronated hand position, and the results indicated shorter muscle endurance for +sPC than for -sPC and ctrl. ..
  7. Lu Y, Wu Z, Liu C, Wang H. Hepatic volumetry with PhotoShop in personal computer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004;3:82-5 pubmed
    ..The disadvantage of this method is the step of copying the pixel value from PhotoShop to Microsoft Excel. ..
  8. Li S, Jin X, Wu S, Jiang F, Yan C, Shen X. The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China. Sleep. 2007;30:361-7 pubmed
    ..Computer use, however, had no correlation with any sleep disorder. The presence of media in a child's bedroom and media use had a negative effect on children's sleep/wake patterns, duration of sleep, and sleep disorders. ..
  9. Abid B, Douard R, Hentati N, Ghorbel A, Delmas V, Uhl J, et al. [Computerized three-dimensional reconstruction of the retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava of a 20 mm human embryo]. Morphologie. 2013;97:59-64 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Lee W, Kim Y, Chung B, Demirci U, Khademhosseini A. Nano/Microfluidics for diagnosis of infectious diseases in developing countries. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010;62:449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we review recent advances in nano/microfluidic technologies for clinical point-of-care applications at resource-limited settings in developing countries. ..
  2. Rudolphi F, Goossen L. Electronic laboratory notebook: the academic point of view. J Chem Inf Model. 2012;52:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are stored in a highly structured form that offers substantial benefits over laboratory notebooks written on paper with regard to data retrieval, data mining, and exchange of results. ..
  3. Kretzschmar F, Pleimling D, Hosemann J, Füssel S, Bornkessel Schlesewsky I, Schlesewsky M. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56178 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices. ..
  4. Van Ooijen P, Broekema A, Oudkerk M. Design and implementation of I2Vote--an interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices. Int J Med Inform. 2011;80:562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An easy to use handheld based ARS that enables interactive, image-based, teaching is achieved. The system effectively adds an extra dimension to the use of an ARS. ..
  5. Fonseca J, Andrade A, Nicolosi D, Biscegli J, Leme J, Legendre D, et al. Cardiovascular simulator improvement: pressure versus volume loop assessment. Artif Organs. 2011;35:454-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A preliminary test with a pulsatile VAD attached to PCS system was made. ..
  6. Murchland S, Parkyn H. Using assistive technology for schoolwork: the experience of children with physical disabilities. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2010;5:438-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Issues related to ease of use, social implications and assistive technology systems are discussed. ..
  7. Xiu F, Zhang F. Materials recovery from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical methanol. J Hazard Mater. 2010;178:628-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The solid product mainly consisted of Cu, Fe, Sn, Pb and Zn, as well as lower concentrations of precious metals such as Ag and Au. ..
  8. Williams A, Ekins S, Clark A, Jack J, Apodaca R. Mobile apps for chemistry in the world of drug discovery. Drug Discov Today. 2011;16:928-39 pubmed publisher
  9. Tornqvist E, Hagberg M, Hagman M, Risberg E, Toomingas A. The influence of working conditions and individual factors on the incidence of neck and upper limb symptoms among professional computer users. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009;82:689-702 pubmed publisher
  10. Lin Z, Zecca M, Sessa S, Bartolomeo L, Ishii H, Takanishi A. Development of the wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit WB-4: preliminary performance evaluation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:6927-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental results showed that the wireless ultra-miniaturized WB-4 IMU could provide high accuracy performance at the angles of roll and pitch. The yaw angle which has reasonable performance needs to be further evaluated. ..
  11. Skurvydas A, Masiulis N, Stanislovaitis A, Kamandulis S. Bi-modal recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle function after sustained maximum voluntary contraction at different muscle length. Medicina (Kaunas). 2008;44:782-90 pubmed
    ..Further dynamics of contractility can be explained by the fading influence of posttetanic potentiation and dominant effect of nonmetabolic fatigue. ..
  12. Naveros F, Luque N, Garrido J, Carrillo R, Anguita M, Ros E. A Spiking Neural Simulator Integrating Event-Driven and Time-Driven Computation Schemes Using Parallel CPU-GPU Co-Processing: A Case Study. IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst. 2015;26:1567-74 pubmed publisher
  13. Zucker A, Light D. Laptop programs for students. Science. 2009;323:82-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Research in many nations suggests that laptop programs will be most successful as part of balanced, comprehensive initiatives that address changes in education goals, curricula, teacher training, and assessment. ..
  14. Jamjumrus N, Nanthavanij S. Ergonomic intervention for improving work postures during notebook computer operation. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo). 2008;37:23-33 pubmed
    ..The results show that the NBC users' work postures are improved when their NBCs and workstations are adjusted according to the recommendations. The effectiveness of ergonomic intervention is verified both visually and objectively. ..
  15. Ermes M, Parkka J, Cluitmans L. Advancing from offline to online activity recognition with wearable sensors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:4451-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that earlier developed offline analysis methods for the acceleration data obtained from wearable sensors can be successfully implemented in an online activity recognition application. ..
  16. Yang C, Hsu Y. Development of a wearable motion detector for telemonitoring and real-time identification of physical activity. Telemed J E Health. 2009;15:62-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations regarding real-time processing and implementation of the system for telemonitoring in the home environment were also observed. ..
  17. Yeung J, Javidnia H, Heley S, Beauregard Y, Champagne S, Bromwich M. The new age of play audiometry: prospective validation testing of an iPad-based play audiometer. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;42:21 pubmed publisher
    ..3%), specificity (94.5%) and negative predictive value (98.1%). The tablet audiometer is a valid and sensitive instrument for screening and assessment of warble-tone thresholds in children. ..
  18. Bell E, Pruziner A, Wilken J, Wolf E. Performance of conventional and X2® prosthetic knees during slope descent. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2016;33:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional biomechanical improvements for existing MP users suggest potential longer-term benefits with regard to intact limb health and overuse injuries. ..
  19. Russell C, Cetingok M, Hamburger K, Owens S, Thompson D, Hathaway D, et al. Medication adherence in older renal transplant recipients. Clin Nurs Res. 2010;19:95-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Medication dose taking and timing patterns could be explored with patients so that medication adherence interventions could target specific patient patterns. ..
  20. Lin C, Neafsey P, Anderson E. Advanced practice registered nurse usability testing of a tailored computer-mediated health communication program. Comput Inform Nurs. 2010;28:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The usability-testing processes used in this study ensured an interface design adapted to APRNs' needs and preferences to allow them to effectively use the computer-mediated health-communication technology in a clinical setting. ..
  21. Riazzoli J, Nilsson J, Teleman A, Petersson I, Rantapaa Dahlqvist S, Jacobsson L, et al. Patient-reported 28 swollen and tender joint counts accurately represent RA disease activity and can be used to assess therapy responses at the group level. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:2098-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Patient-derived SJC and TJC may also make it possible for rheumatologists to obtain quantitative joint count recordings much more frequently than is feasible for traditional joint counts. ..
  22. Valdastri P, Quaglia C, Susilo E, Menciassi A, Dario P, Ho C, et al. Wireless therapeutic endoscopic capsule: in vivo experiment. Endoscopy. 2008;40:979-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports the first successful in vivo surgical experiment using a wireless endoscopic capsule, paving the way to a new generation of capsule devices able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic tasks. ..
  23. Dawson J, Kushniruk A. Improving the efficiency and accuracy of a tablet PC interface for computerized provider order entry through usability evaluation and provision of data entry strategies. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009;143:447-52 pubmed
    ..Field-specific data entry strategies introduced during user training were adopted 77.6% of the time and resulted in improved efficiency. ..
  24. Murphy F, Barnard P, Terry K, Carthery Goulart M, Holmes E. SenseCam, imagery and bias in memory for wellbeing. Memory. 2011;19:768-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Further refinements are necessary before similar methods can be applied to individuals suffering from subclinical and clinical depression. ..
  25. Camargo C, Faust R, Merino E, Stefani C. The technological obsolescence of the Brazilian eletronic ballot box. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, their operational systems features allow for the development of highly secure applications, suitable to the requirements of a voting process. ..
  26. Ciccarelli M, Portsmouth L, Harris C, Jacobs K. Promoting healthy computer use among middle school students: a pilot school-based health promotion program. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments. ..
  27. Siegenthaler E, Bochud Y, Bergamin P, Wurtz P. Reading on LCD vs e-Ink displays: effects on fatigue and visual strain. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32:367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the visual display units used in the previous few decades, these more recent electronic displays allow for good and comfortable reading, even for extended periods of time. ..
  28. Zhou S, Zhang Z, Gu J. Time-domain ECG signal analysis based on smart-phone. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:2582-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed system provides fairly good performance when applied to the MIT-BIH Database. This algorithm architecture can be efficiently used on the mobile platform. ..
  29. Jang Y, Noh H, Lee I, Jung J, Song Y, Lee S, et al. Development of a patch type embedded cardiac function monitoring system using dual microprocessor for arrhythmia detection in heart disease patient. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:2162-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual microprocessor strategy minimizes power consumption and size, and guarantees the resources of embedded software programs. The developed software was verified with standard DB, and showed good performance. ..
  30. Borowski M, Poppe B, Looe H, von Boetticher H. [Is it really not possible to use electronic personal dosimeters in clinical exposure situations?]. Rofo. 2010;182:773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerable measurement errors can only arise in radiation fields that are not realistic under regular conditions and even in connection with most accidents. ..
  31. Farshchi S, Pesterev A, Nuyujukian P, Guenterberg E, Mody I, Judy J. Embedded neural recording with TinyOS-based wireless-enabled processor modules. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2010;18:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5-microm CMOS process. In addition to browsing acquired neural data, the client application enables the user to remotely toggle modes of operation (real-time or spike-only), as well as amplifier gain and high-pass corner frequency. ..
  32. Gerard P, Kapadia N, Acharya J, Chang P, Lefkovitz Z. Cybersecurity in radiology: Access of public hot spots and public Wi-Fi and prevention of cybercrimes and HIPAA violations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201:1186-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As the role of information technology in modern radiology practice becomes more critical, these safety mechanisms must be addressed when viewing studies on any mobile device. ..
  33. Krul M, van Leeuwen Y. The role of television viewing and education in decreased body mass indexes in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162:899; author reply 899-900 pubmed publisher
  34. Wing J. Computational thinking and thinking about computing. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2008;366:3717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. ..
  35. Chen T, Ma T, Chen Y, Chen L. Low power and high accuracy spike sorting microprocessor with on-line interpolation and re-alignment in 90 nm CMOS process. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:4485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 k samples per second (sps) can outperform the one not having interpolation at 25 ksps on both accuracy and power. ..
  36. To Miles F, Shaw L. Knowledge transfer with children and adolescents in promoting comfort, health, and safety in technology use: Strategies and opportunities. Work. 2012;43:387-97 pubmed
    ..This paper concludes the need for a call for future research in the area of knowledge transfer to promote healthy and safe use of technology, in the population of children and adolescents. ..
  37. Song A, Liao Q, Li X, Deng L. [A flexion loading system for knee biomechanics research]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2012;29:710-5 pubmed
  38. Li Y, Wang H, Zhang X, Tang L. [Establishment and application of mechanical strain loading system of multi-channel cells]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2012;29:93-6 pubmed
    ..The system ran stably and completely achieved design aims, and provided a method to study the biological behavior of cultured cells attached to the surface of the elastic membrane under mechanical strain in vitro. ..
  39. Sakaguchi H, Abe E, Abe M, Anraku S, Higuchi T, Ishida T. [A central monitoring system capturing the screen of an anesthesia monitor]. Masui. 2010;59:1452-5 pubmed
    ..jp/firefox/) and other web browsers.The system, with a screen capturing function, was designed to comply with all monitor display of all medical equipment manufacturers, with possible expansion to the operating rooms. ..
  40. Morton M, Levy J. Challenges in disaster data collection during recent disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011;26:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of these and other innovative techniques shows promise for surmounting formidable challenges to disaster data collection. ..
  41. Oikawa M, Shimobaba T, Yoda T, Nakayama H, Shiraki A, Masuda N, et al. Time-division color electroholography using one-chip RGB LED and synchronizing controller. Opt Express. 2011;19:12008-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The one-chip LED allows us to decrease the development cost and to facilitate optical-axis alignment. Using this method, we observed a multi-color 3D reconstructed movie at a frame rate of 20 Hz. ..
  42. Jacobs K, Johnson P, Dennerlein J, Peterson D, Kaufman J, Gold J, et al. University students' notebook computer use. Appl Ergon. 2009;40:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed however to determine the most effective ergonomics intervention for university students. ..
  43. Hopper A, Rice A. Computing for the future of the planet. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2008;366:3685-97 pubmed publisher
  44. Chang N, Chiang C, Chen T, Chen L. Cubic spline interpolation with overlapped window and data reuse for on-line Hilbert Huang transform biomedical microprocessor. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:7091-4 pubmed publisher
    ..58% multiplication and 73% division of CSI are saved after the data reuse between the data windows. ..
  45. Li X, Cheng X, Yan K, Gong P. A monitoring system for vegetable greenhouses based on a wireless sensor network. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:8963-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The whole system has been tested for over one year and satisfactory results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very useful for greenhouse environment monitoring. ..
  46. Gold J, Driban J, Yingling V, Komaroff E. Characterization of posture and comfort in laptop users in non-desk settings. Appl Ergon. 2012;43:392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is recommended that the prone posture only be assumed briefly during laptop use. Exposure to laptops outside of the office setting should be assessed in future epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal complaints and computer use. ..
  47. Shuicai W, Peijie J, Chunlan Y, Haomin L, Yanping B. The development of a tele-monitoring system for physiological parameters based on the B/S model. Comput Biol Med. 2010;40:883-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental results show that the system is stable, reliable and operates in real time. The system is suitable for use in physiological multi-parameter remote monitoring for family and community healthcare. ..
  48. Herzog B, Buechel R, Katz R, Brueckner M, Husmann L, Burger I, et al. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector technique: optimized protocol for scan time reduction. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:46-51 pubmed publisher
  49. Parker J, Sakla A, Donovan F, Beam D, Chekuri A, Al Khatib M, et al. A microprocessor-controlled tracheal insufflation-assisted total liquid ventilation system. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2009;47:931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of tracheal insufflation flow significantly improved the blood gases and enhanced clearance of instilled albumin solution during simulated edema. ..
  50. Siomos K, Paradeisioti A, Hadjimarcou M, Mappouras D, Kalakouta O, Avagianou P, et al. The impact of Internet and PC addiction in school performance of Cypriot adolescents. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;191:90-4 pubmed
  51. Ravizza S, Uitvlugt M, Fenn K. Logged In and Zoned Out. Psychol Sci. 2017;28:171-180 pubmed publisher
    ..This relationship was upheld after we accounted for motivation, interest, and intelligence. Class-related Internet use was not associated with a benefit to classroom performance. ..
  52. Loveday C, Conway M. Using SenseCam with an amnesic patient: accessing inaccessible everyday memories. Memory. 2011;19:697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..We comment on the considerable potential of SC for therapeutic purposes. ..
  53. Mallick Z, Siddiquee A, Haleem A. Mobile computing with special reference to readability task under the impact of vibration, colour combination and gender. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo). 2008;37:57-66 pubmed
    ..However, the second order interaction was found to be statistically non-significant. These findings are discussed in light of the previous studies undertaken on the topic. ..