virus replication


Summary: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.

Top Publications

  1. Ko H, Ng H, Goh E, Ren E. Reduced ADP-ribosylation by PARP1 natural polymorphism V762A and by PARP1 inhibitors enhance Hepatitis B virus replication. J Viral Hepat. 2013;20:658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, patients who are infected with HBV and are on clinical trials involving PARP1 inhibitors may be at risk from unintended side-effects such as exacerbation of HBV replication. ..
  2. Subramanian T, Zhao L, Chinnadurai G. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection. Virology. 2013;443:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells...
  3. Zhang Q, Shi J, Deng G, Guo J, Zeng X, He X, et al. H7N9 influenza viruses are transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Science. 2013;341:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, one virus isolated from humans was highly transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Our findings indicate nothing to reduce the concern that these viruses can transmit between humans. ..
  4. Young L, Melian E, Khromykh A. NS1' colocalizes with NS1 and can substitute for NS1 in West Nile virus replication. J Virol. 2013;87:9384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Using complementation analysis with NS1-deleted WNV cDNA, we demonstrated that NS1' is able to substitute for the crucial function of NS1 in virus replication.
  5. Balakrishnan M, Yant S, Tsai L, O Sullivan C, Bam R, Tsai A, et al. Non-catalytic site HIV-1 integrase inhibitors disrupt core maturation and induce a reverse transcription block in target cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74163 pubmed publisher
  6. Dan K, Akiyoshi H, Munakata K, Hasegawa H, Watanabe K. A Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, Hochuekkito, pretreatment in mice prevented influenza virus replication accompanied with GM-CSF expression and increase in several defensin mRNA levels. Pharmacology. 2013;91:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, defensin (antimicrobial peptide) mRNA levels increased by infection and were further enhanced by TJ-41 treatment. Defensin might prevent influenza virus replication.
  7. Haddadi S, Kim D, Jasmine H, van der Meer F, Czub M, Abdul Careem M. Induction of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in avian macrophages inhibits infectious laryngotracheitis virus replication in a nitric oxide dependent way. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;155:270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that LPS can be a potential innate immune stimulant that can be used against ILTV infection in chickens that require further evaluation in vivo. ..
  8. Cao Y, Zhang R, Zhang W, Zhu C, Yu Y, Song Y, et al. IL-27, a cytokine, and IFN-?1, a type III IFN, are coordinated to regulate virus replication through type I IFN. J Immunol. 2014;192:691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identified a previously unknown mechanism by which IL-27 and IFN-?1 are coordinated to regulate virus replication through type I IFN.
  9. Belser J, Gustin K, Pearce M, Maines T, Zeng H, Pappas C, et al. Pathogenesis and transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in ferrets and mice. Nature. 2013;501:556-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that H7N9 viruses have the capacity for efficient replication in mammals and human airway cells and highlight the need for continued public health surveillance of this emerging virus. ..

More Information


  1. Frensing T, Heldt F, Pflugmacher A, Behrendt I, Jordan I, Flockerzi D, et al. Continuous influenza virus production in cell culture shows a periodic accumulation of defective interfering particles. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72288 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, the continuous replication of influenza virus using a two-stage bioreactor setup is a novel tool to study aspects of viral evolution and the impact of DIPs. ..
  2. Villordo S, Gamarnik A. Differential RNA sequence requirement for dengue virus replication in mosquito and mammalian cells. J Virol. 2013;87:9365-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that single substitutions that did not alter the hairpin structure did not affect dengue virus replication in mammalian cells but abolished replication in mosquito cells...
  3. Zhou J, Wang D, Gao R, Zhao B, Song J, Qi X, et al. Biological features of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. Nature. 2013;499:500-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection. ..
  4. Bloom K, Ely A, Mussolino C, Cathomen T, Arbuthnot P. Inactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured cells and in vivo with engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Mol Ther. 2013;21:1889-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are the first to demonstrate a targeted nuclease-mediated disruption of HBV cccDNA. Efficacy in vivo also indicates that these engineered nucleases have potential for use in treatment of chronic HBV infection...
  5. Watanabe T, Kiso M, Fukuyama S, Nakajima N, Imai M, Yamada S, et al. Characterization of H7N9 influenza A viruses isolated from humans. Nature. 2013;501:551-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The robust replicative ability in mice, ferrets and nonhuman primates and the limited transmissibility in ferrets of Anhui/1 suggest that A(H7N9) viruses have pandemic potential. ..
  6. Nandakumar R, Finsterbusch K, Lipps C, Neumann B, Grashoff M, Nair S, et al. Hepatitis C virus replication in mouse cells is restricted by IFN-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:1414-23.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..However, direct, IFN-independent antiviral processes also might help control HCV replication. We examined the role of IFN-independent responses against HCV replication...
  7. Liu K, Liao X, Zhou B, Yao H, Fan S, Chen P, et al. Porcine alpha interferon inhibit Japanese encephalitis virus replication by different ISGs in vitro. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:950-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mx2 and OAS L exhibited strong anti-JEV effects in PK-15 cells. Based on these novel results, alpha interferon (IFN-?) should be considered to be a potential drug against JEV in pigs. ..
  8. Qiu M, Chen Y, Chu Y, Song S, Yang N, Gao J, et al. Zinc ionophores pyrithione inhibits herpes simplex virus replication through interfering with proteasome function and NF-?B activation. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..UPS inhibition by PT caused disruption of I?B-? degradation and NF-?B activation thus leading to marked reduction of viral titer. ..
  9. York A, Fodor E. Biogenesis, assembly, and export of viral messenger ribonucleoproteins in the influenza A virus infected cell. RNA Biol. 2013;10:1274-82 pubmed publisher
  10. Sun H, Sun Y, Pu J, Zhang Y, Zhu Q, Li J, et al. Comparative virus replication and host innate responses in human cells infected with three prevalent clades (2.3.4, 2.3.2, and 7) of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. J Virol. 2014;88:725-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3.4 viruses produced significantly more viruses than those infected with the other two clades. Likewise, clade 2.3.4-infected macrophages caused the most severe cellular damage and strongest proinflammatory response. ..
  11. Glebe D, Bremer C. The molecular virology of hepatitis B virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2013;33:103-12 pubmed publisher
  12. Atkinson N, Witteveldt J, Evans D, Simmonds P. The influence of CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies on RNA virus replication and characterization of the innate cellular pathways underlying virus attenuation and enhanced replication. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:4527-45 pubmed publisher
  13. Youn S, Ambrose R, Mackenzie J, Diamond M. Non-structural protein-1 is required for West Nile virus replication complex formation and viral RNA synthesis. Virol J. 2013;10:339 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand on prior studies with yellow fever and Kunjin viruses to show that flavivirus NS1 has an essential co-factor role in regulating replication complex formation and viral RNA synthesis...
  14. Hofmann H, Norton T, Schultz M, Polsky S, Sunseri N, Landau N. Inhibition of CUL4A Neddylation causes a reversible block to SAMHD1-mediated restriction of HIV-1. J Virol. 2013;87:11741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings support deoxynucleoside triphosphate pool depletion as the primary mechanism of SAMHD1 restriction and argue against a nucleolytic mechanism, which would not be reversible. ..
  15. Ali N, Allam H, Bader T, May R, Basalingappa K, Berry W, et al. Fluvastatin interferes with hepatitis C virus replication via microtubule bundling and a doublecortin-like kinase-mediated mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80304 pubmed publisher
  16. Marimani M, Ely A, Buff M, Bernhardt S, Engels J, Arbuthnot P. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured cells and in vivo using 2'-O-guanidinopropyl modified siRNAs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:6145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence for improved efficacy, reduced off target effects and good silencing in vivo indicate that GP-modifications of siRNAs may be used to enhance their therapeutic utility. ..
  17. Adams S, Xing Z, Li J, Mendoza K, Perez D, Reed K, et al. The effect of avian influenza virus NS1 allele on virus replication and innate gene expression in avian cells. Mol Immunol. 2013;56:358-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, chimeric constructs were used to identify a region of the NS1 gene that conferred the statistically significant differences in expression and replication observed between the alleles...
  18. Nikonov A, Mölder T, Sikut R, Kiiver K, Männik A, Toots U, et al. RIG-I and MDA-5 detection of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity restricts positive-strand RNA virus replication. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003610 pubmed publisher
    ..a non-pathogenic mutant replicase triggers increased IFN-? production, which leads to a shutdown of virus replication. These results suggest that host cells can restrict RNA virus replication by detecting the products of ..
  19. Paul D, Hoppe S, Saher G, Krijnse Locker J, Bartenschlager R. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the membranous hepatitis C virus replication compartment. J Virol. 2013;87:10612-27 pubmed publisher
  20. Zheng Y, Kielian M. Imaging of the alphavirus capsid protein during virus replication. J Virol. 2013;87:9579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies provide the first dynamic views of the alphavirus capsid protein in living cells and a system to define detailed mechanisms during alphavirus infection. ..
  21. de Chassey B, Aublin Gex A, Ruggieri A, Meyniel Schicklin L, Pradezynski F, Davoust N, et al. The interactomes of influenza virus NS1 and NS2 proteins identify new host factors and provide insights for ADAR1 playing a supportive role in virus replication. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003440 pubmed publisher
    ..cycle revealed that 7 of the 79 NS1 and/or NS2-interacting proteins positively or negatively controlled virus replication. One of the main factors targeted by NS1 of all virus strains was double-stranded RNA binding domain protein ..
  22. Mao R, Nie H, Cai D, Zhang J, Liu H, Yan R, et al. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by the host zinc finger antiviral protein. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003494 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus shed light on virus-host interaction, viral pathogenesis, and antiviral approaches. ..
  23. Pang I, Pillai P, Iwasaki A. Efficient influenza A virus replication in the respiratory tract requires signals from TLR7 and RIG-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that IAV uses physiological levels of inflammatory responses for its replicative advantage and highlight the complex interplay between viruses and the host innate-immune responses. ..
  24. Perwitasari O, Torrecilhas A, Yan X, Johnson S, White C, Tompkins S, et al. Targeting cell division cycle 25 homolog B to regulate influenza virus replication. J Virol. 2013;87:13775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to screen host genes required for influenza virus replication. One pro-influenza virus host gene identified was dual-specificity phosphatase cell division cycle 25 B (..
  25. Yu L, Takeda K, Markoff L. Protein-protein interactions among West Nile non-structural proteins and transmembrane complex formation in mammalian cells. Virology. 2013;446:365-77 pubmed publisher
    ..NS2B protein seems to play a key role in bringing the TPs together on the ER membrane and in bridging the TPs with non-membrane-associated proteins (NS3 and NS5). ..
  26. Kimura T, Katoh H, Kayama H, Saiga H, Okuyama M, Okamoto T, et al. Ifit1 inhibits Japanese encephalitis virus replication through binding to 5' capped 2'-O unmethylated RNA. J Virol. 2013;87:9997-10003 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Ifit1 inhibits replication of MTase-defective JEV by inhibiting mRNA translation through direct binding to mRNA 5' structures. ..
  27. Huys A, Thibault P, Wilson J. Modulation of hepatitis C virus RNA accumulation and translation by DDX6 and miR-122 are mediated by separate mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67437 pubmed publisher
  28. Wilson J, Huys A. miR-122 promotion of the hepatitis C virus life cycle: sound in the silence. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2013;4:665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Used alone or in combination with other antiviral drugs, miR-122 antagonists could be useful to both inhibit the virus and provide selective pressure to inhibit the development of resistance...
  29. Johannsen E, Lambert P. Epigenetics of human papillomaviruses. Virology. 2013;445:205-12 pubmed publisher
  30. Rocha Pereira J, Jochmans D, Debing Y, Verbeken E, Nascimento M, Neyts J. The viral polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine inhibits Norwalk virus replication and protects against norovirus-induced diarrhea and mortality in a mouse model. J Virol. 2013;87:11798-805 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings pave the way for the development of potent and safe antivirals as prophylaxis and therapy of norovirus infection. ..
  31. Li C, Ge L, Li P, Wang Y, Dai J, Sun M, et al. Cellular DDX3 regulates Japanese encephalitis virus replication by interacting with viral un-translated regions. Virology. 2014;449:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we identified that DDX3 is necessary for JEV infection, suggesting that DDX3 might be a novel target to design new antiviral agents against JEV or other flavivirus infections. ..
  32. Xia M, Gonzalez P, Li C, Meng G, Jiang A, Wang H, et al. Mitophagy enhances oncolytic measles virus replication by mitigating DDX58/RIG-I-like receptor signaling. J Virol. 2014;88:5152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important since they may not only indicate that inducers of autophagy could enhance the efficacy of oncolytic therapies but also provide clues for antiviral therapy by targeting SQSTM1/p62-mediated mitophagy. ..
  33. Wagner T, McLaughlin S, Garg K, Cheung C, Larsen B, Styrchak S, et al. HIV latency. Proliferation of cells with HIV integrated into cancer genes contributes to persistent infection. Science. 2014;345:570-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Over time on ART, a greater proportion of persisting proviruses were in proliferating cells. HIV integration into specific genes may promote proliferation of HIV-infected cells, slowing viral decay during ART...
  34. Gastaldello S, Chen X, Callegari S, Masucci M. Caspase-1 promotes Epstein-Barr virus replication by targeting the large tegument protein deneddylase to the nucleus of productively infected cells. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003664 pubmed publisher
    ..with potent ubiquitin and NEDD8-specific deconjugase activities, but the function of the enzymes during virus replication remains largely unknown...
  35. Carroll K, Hastings C, Miller C. Amino acids 78 and 79 of Mammalian Orthoreovirus protein µNS are necessary for stress granule localization, core protein ?2 interaction, and de novo virus replication. Virology. 2014;448:133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ?NS association with SGs, ?2, or both play roles in MRV replication...
  36. Sami Saribas A, Abou Gharbia M, Childers W, Sariyer I, White M, Safak M. Essential roles of Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain of JC virus agnoprotein in dimer/oligomer formation, protein stability and splicing of viral transcripts. Virology. 2013;443:161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain plays critical roles in agnoprotein function and thus represents a potential target for developing novel therapeutics against JCV infections...
  37. Das A, Dinh P, Panda D, Pattnaik A. Interferon-inducible protein IFI35 negatively regulates RIG-I antiviral signaling and supports vesicular stomatitis virus replication. J Virol. 2014;88:3103-13 pubmed publisher
  38. Ayala Nuñez N, Jarupathirun P, Kaptein S, Neyts J, Smit J. Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection is inhibited by SA-17, a doxorubicin derivative. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, molecules with the characteristics of SA-17 may be attractive antiviral agents since they can be used both to block DENV2 entry during primary and secondary infection and to inhibit ADE of standard and immature virus. ..
  39. Wang Y, Yang X, Xing L, Kong W. Effects of SAHA on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hepatitis B virus replication. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:5159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..59 (P = 0.029). SAHA inhibits HepG2.2.15 cell proliferation, promotes apoptosis, and stimulates HBV replication. In combination with anti-HBV drugs, SAHA may potentially be used cautiously for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  40. Dinh P, Das A, Franco R, Pattnaik A. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K supports vesicular stomatitis virus replication by regulating cell survival and cellular gene expression. J Virol. 2013;87:10059-69 pubmed publisher
  41. Li Y, Masaki T, Lemon S. miR-122 and the Hepatitis C RNA genome: more than just stability. RNA Biol. 2013;10:919-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we consider the role of miR-122 in the viral lifecycle, and explore the possibility that it might function directly in viral RNA synthesis. ..
  42. Perreira J, Chin C, Feeley E, Brass A. IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:4937-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITM's molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. ..
  43. Iwai A, Shiozaki T, Miyazaki T. Relevance of signaling molecules for apoptosis induction on influenza A virus replication. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..molecules involved in regulation of induction of apoptosis are modulated by IAV proteins to enable effective virus replication. The modulation of the intracellular signaling pathway inducing apoptosis by the IAV infection also affects ..
  44. Li C, Ge L, Li P, Wang Y, Sun M, Huang L, et al. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 acts as a positive regulator of Japanese encephalitis virus replication by binding to viral 3' UTR. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:487-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we confirmed the role of DDX5 in JEV RNA replication using JEV-replicon system. In conclusion, we identified DDX5 as a positive regulator for JEV replication. ..
  45. Le Sage V, Mouland A. Viral subversion of the nuclear pore complex. Viruses. 2013;5:2019-42 pubmed publisher
    ..regulate trafficking of viral proteins, genomes and even capsids into and out of the nucleus thus promoting virus replication. The present review examines the different strategies and the specific nucleoporins utilized during viral ..
  46. Martrus G, Nevot M, Andrés C, Clotet B, Martinez M. Changes in codon-pair bias of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have profound effects on virus replication in cell culture. Retrovirology. 2013;10:78 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleotide sequence of HIV-1 that is observed today, or to what extent the actual encoding contributes to virus replication capacity, evolvability and pathogenesis...
  47. Ouyang P, Rakus K, Boutier M, Reschner A, Leroy B, Ronsmans M, et al. The IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo. Vet Res. 2013;44:53 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp. ..
  48. Duan Z, Hu Z, Zhu J, Xu H, Chen J, Liu H, et al. Mutations in the FPIV motif of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein attenuate virus replication and reduce virus budding. Arch Virol. 2014;159:1813-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that the FPIV motif, especially the residues F and P, within the NDV M protein, plays a critical role in NDV replication and budding, and this budding process likely involves the cellular MVB pathway. ..
  49. Lott W, Doran M. Do RNA viruses require genome cyclisation for replication?. Trends Biochem Sci. 2013;38:350-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Concatemers provide a plausible mechanism for the dengue virus to overcome the single-stranded (+)-sense RNA virus dilemma, and can potentially assist genome transport from the virus-induced vesicles into the cytosol. ..
  50. Jones J, Baranovich T, Marathe B, Danner A, Seiler J, Franks J, et al. Risk assessment of H2N2 influenza viruses from the avian reservoir. J Virol. 2014;88:1175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, the sustained pathogenicity of avian H2N2 viruses in multiple mammalian models elevates their risk potential for human infections and stresses the need for continual surveillance as a component of prepandemic planning. ..
  51. Xing Y, Liqi Z, Jian L, Qinghua Y, Qian Y. Doxycycline Induces Mitophagy and Suppresses Production of Interferon-? in IPEC-J2 Cells. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:21 pubmed publisher
    ..As DOX is used extensively in pig husbandry, uncontrolled application poses a significant threat of viral infection, so stricter policies on its usage should be required. ..
  52. Rustanti L, Jin H, Lor M, Lin M, Rawle D, Harrich D. A mutant Tat protein inhibits infection of human cells by strains from diverse HIV-1 subtypes. Virol J. 2017;14:52 pubmed publisher
    ..fusion protein activity against the HIV-1 strains in TZM-bl cell lines for inhibition of transactivation and virus replication. We also examined antiviral activity of Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 (NB-ZSG1) fusion protein against the same strains ..
  53. Miller C, Akiyama H, Agosto L, Emery A, Ettinger C, SWANSTROM R, et al. Virion-Associated Vpr Alleviates a Postintegration Block to HIV-1 Infection of Dendritic Cells. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we characterize a significant restriction of Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC-CD4+ T cell cocultures...