virus internalization


Summary: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.

Top Publications

  1. Yamauchi Y, Helenius A. Virus entry at a glance. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1289-95 pubmed publisher
  2. Montespan C, Marvin S, Austin S, Burrage A, Roger B, Rayne F, et al. Multi-layered control of Galectin-8 mediated autophagy during adenovirus cell entry through a conserved PPxY motif in the viral capsid. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006217 pubmed publisher
    ..2 resulting in reduced antigenic presentation. Our data thus demonstrate that a short PPxY-peptide motif in the adenoviral capsid permits multi-layered viral control of autophagic processes during entry. ..
  3. Chen Q, Luo F, Lu M, Li N, Teng Y, Huang Q, et al. HTNV-induced upregulation of miR-146a in HUVECs promotes viral infection by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:807-813 pubmed publisher
  4. Anggakusuma -, Colpitts C, Schang L, Rachmawati H, Frentzen A, Pfaender S, et al. Turmeric curcumin inhibits entry of all hepatitis C virus genotypes into human liver cells. Gut. 2014;63:1137-49 pubmed
    ..Turmeric curcumin inhibits HCV entry independently of the genotype and in primary human hepatocytes by affecting membrane fluidity thereby impairing virus binding and fusion. ..
  5. Liberatore R, Mastrocola E, Powell C, Bieniasz P. Tetherin Inhibits Cell-Free Virus Dissemination and Retards Murine Leukemia Virus Pathogenesis. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The delay in disease associated with this scenario suggests a role for cell-free virus in retroviral disease progression. ..
  6. Tartour K, Nguyen X, Appourchaux R, Assil S, Barateau V, Bloyet L, et al. Interference with the production of infectious viral particles and bimodal inhibition of replication are broadly conserved antiviral properties of IFITMs. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006610 pubmed publisher
  7. Dumas F, Haanappel E. Lipids in infectious diseases - The case of AIDS and tuberculosis. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2017;1859:1636-1647 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. ..
  8. Hütter G, Allers K, Schneider T. The additional use of viral entry inhibitors during autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and HIV-1 infection. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17:586-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Drake M, Brennan B, Briley K, Bart S, Sherman E, Szemiel A, et al. A role for glycolipid biosynthesis in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus entry. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006316 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings specify a role for glucosylceramide in SFTSV entry and provide a novel target for antiviral therapies. ..

More Information


  1. Spinozzi G, Calabria A, Brasca S, Beretta S, Merelli I, Milanesi L, et al. VISPA2: a scalable pipeline for high-throughput identification and annotation of vector integration sites. BMC Bioinformatics. 2017;18:520 pubmed publisher ) ensures accessibility and ease of usage to researches of a complex analytical tool. We released the source code of VISPA2 in a public repository ( ). ..
  2. Martínez Gil L, Vera Velasco N, Mingarro I. Exploring the Human-Nipah Virus Protein-Protein Interactome. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data present a large number of putative drug targets that could be exploited for the treatment of this infection. ..
  3. Espinoza J, León M, Céspedes P, Gómez R, Canedo Marroquín G, Riquelme S, et al. Heme Oxygenase-1 Modulates Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication and Lung Pathogenesis during Infection. J Immunol. 2017;199:212-223 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in vitro data suggest that HO-1 induction can modulate the susceptibility of cells, especially the airway epithelial cells, to hRSV infection. ..
  4. Melikyan G. How entry inhibitors synergize to fight HIV. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16511-16512 pubmed publisher
  5. Tedbury P, Sarafianos S. Exposing HIV's weaknesses. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:6027-6028 pubmed publisher
    ..This work advances our understanding of host-virus interactions and provides a compelling case for considering the host immune system in studies of restriction factor mechanisms. ..
  6. Mölleken K, Hegemann J. Acquisition of Rab11 and Rab11-Fip2-A novel strategy for Chlamydia pneumoniae early survival. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006556 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize for the first time inclusion identity and inclusion-associated proteins to delineate how C. pneumoniae establishes the intracellular niche essential for its survival. ..
  7. Naranbhai V, Carrington M. Host genetic variation and HIV disease: from mapping to mechanism. Immunogenetics. 2017;69:489-498 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we describe how studies of genetically complex parts of the genome using new tools may begin revealing additional correlates. ..
  8. Sobhy H. A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3567-3585 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell types that are frequently used to study viral entry are also reviewed, along with other factors that affect virus-host cell interactions. ..
  9. Fukuhara T, Tamura T, Ono C, Shiokawa M, Mori H, Uemura K, et al. Host-derived apolipoproteins play comparable roles with viral secretory proteins Erns and NS1 in the infectious particle formation of Flaviviridae. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006475 pubmed publisher
  10. He S, Li K, Lin B, Hu Z, Xiao J, Hu X, et al. Development of an Aryloxazole Class of Hepatitis C Virus Inhibitors Targeting the Entry Stage of the Viral Replication Cycle. J Med Chem. 2017;60:6364-6383 pubmed publisher
    ..The lead compounds are promising as preclinical candidates for the treatment of HCV infection and as molecular probes to study HCV pathogenesis. ..
  11. Boldescu V, Behnam M, Vasilakis N, Klein C. Broad-spectrum agents for flaviviral infections: dengue, Zika and beyond. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2017;16:565-586 pubmed publisher
    ..For other compounds, broad-spectrum activity can be anticipated because of their mode of action and molecular targets. ..
  12. Vallbracht M, Rehwaldt S, Klupp B, Mettenleiter T, Fuchs W. Functional Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein gH. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate a modulatory but nonessential role of N-glycans for gH function. ..
  13. Cossart P, Helenius A. Endocytosis of viruses and bacteria. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6: pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the endocytic entry processes used by viruses and bacteria and compare the strategies used by these dissimilar classes of pathogens. ..
  14. Guillot C, Martel N, Berby F, Bordes I, Hantz O, Blanchet M, et al. Inhibition of hepatitis B viral entry by nucleic acid polymers in HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179697 pubmed publisher
    ..This inhibition of HBV entry by NAPs was impaired by 2'O-methyl ribose modification. NAP treatment after viral inoculation did not elicit any antiviral activity. ..
  15. Park J, Gallagher T. Lipidation increases antiviral activities of coronavirus fusion-inhibiting peptides. Virology. 2017;511:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that lipidations localize antiviral peptides to protease-rich sites of CoV fusion, thereby protecting cells from diverse CoVs. ..
  16. Hughes M, Tucker W, Reddy S, Brier M, Koch D, McClain C, et al. Rate of hepatitis C viral clearance by human livers in human patients: Liver transplantation modeling primary infection and implications for studying entry inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180719 pubmed publisher
    ..With approximately 90% of clearance occurring in the first 90 minutes of reperfusion, studies of HCV entry inhibition could utilize rate of clearance during this early period as an outcome measure. ..
  17. Arif M, Hunter J, Léda A, Zukurov J, Samer S, Camargo M, et al. Pace of Coreceptor Tropism Switch in HIV-1-Infected Individuals after Recent Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated here that a low baseline FPR determined by the Geno2pheno[coreceptor] algorithm can predict tropism evolution from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use. ..
  18. Roman Sosa G, Karger A, Kraatz F, Aebischer A, Wernike K, Maksimov P, et al. The amino terminal subdomain of glycoprotein Gc of Schmallenberg virus: disulfide bonding and structural determinants of neutralization. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1259-1273 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel information about the role and structure of the amino terminal region of SBV Gc is of general relevance for the design of antivirals and vaccines against this virus. ..
  19. Reinke L, Spiegel M, Plegge T, Hartleib A, Nehlmeier I, Gierer S, et al. Different residues in the SARS-CoV spike protein determine cleavage and activation by the host cell protease TMPRSS2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179177 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results show that different residues in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2, suggesting that these processes are more complex than initially appreciated. ..
  20. Qiu S, Leung A, Bo Y, Kozak R, Anand S, Warkentin C, et al. Ebola virus requires phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bisphosphate production for efficient viral entry. Virology. 2018;513:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires PtdIns(3,5)P2 production in cells to promote efficient delivery to NPC1. ..
  21. Schäfer G, Graham L, Lang D, Blumenthal M, Bergant Marušič M, Katz A. Vimentin Modulates Infectious Internalization of Human Papillomavirus 16 Pseudovirions. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..These results importantly contribute to our current understanding of the molecular events during the infectious internalization of HPV16 and open a new direction in the development of alternative drugs to prevent HPV infection. ..
  22. Risselada H. Membrane Fusion Stalks and Lipid Rafts: A Love-Hate Relationship. Biophys J. 2017;112:2475-2478 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights may explain why modeled viral fusion occurs preferentially near the lo/ld phase boundary. ..
  23. Boubaker Elandalousi R, Mekni Toujani M, Kaabi B, Larbi I, Diouani M, Gharbi M, et al. Non-cytotoxic Thymus capitata extracts prevent Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in cell cultures. BMC Vet Res. 2014;10:231 pubmed publisher
    ..T. capitata extracts inhibit the viral replication by interfering with the early stages of viral adsorption and replication. Thus, T. capitata is a potential candidate for anti-herpesvirus treatment. ..
  24. Yoshida T, Hamano A, Ueda A, Takeuchi H, Yamaoka S. Human SMOOTHENED inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:132-138 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SMO inhibits HIV-1 replication after completion of reverse transcription but before integration. ..
  25. Jeon J, Lee C. Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3753-3767 pubmed publisher
  26. Andrade A, Rodrigues R, Oliveira G, Andrade K, Bonjardim C, La Scola B, et al. Filling Knowledge Gaps for Mimivirus Entry, Uncoating, and Morphogenesis. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that atypical virion morphologies can occur even in the absence of virophages. Our results, along with previous data, allow us to present an ultimate model for the mimivirus replication cycle. ..
  27. Inoue T, Tsai B. Regulated Erlin-dependent release of the B12 transmembrane J-protein promotes ER membrane penetration of a non-enveloped virus. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006439 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus reveal how a non-enveloped virus promotes its own membrane translocation by triggering the release and recruitment of a critical transport factor to the membrane penetration site. ..
  28. Sims B, Farrow A, Williams S, Bansal A, Krendelchtchikov A, Gu L, et al. Role of TIM-4 in exosome-dependent entry of HIV-1 into human immune cells. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:4823-4833 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is supported by our findings that exosomes from multiple sources increased HIV-1 entry into T cells and macrophages, and viral entry was potently blocked with anti-TIM-4 antibodies. ..
  29. Petrović B, Gianni T, Gatta V, Campadelli Fiume G. Insertion of a ligand to HER2 in gB retargets HSV tropism and obviates the need for activation of the other entry glycoproteins. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006352 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that (i) gB can be modified and become the major determinant of HSV tropism; (ii) the chimeric gBHER2 bypasses the requirement for receptor-mediated activation of other essential entry glycoproteins. ..
  30. Wang M, Yang F, Huang D, Huang Y, Zhang X, Wang C, et al. Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to prM Monoantibody Prevent Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:157 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirmed that our prM-AIDs could prevent ADE not only in vitro but also in vivo, suggested that anti-idiotypic antibodies might be a new choice to be considered to treat DENV infection. ..
  31. Mainou B, Dermody T. In search of cathepsins: how reovirus enters host cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2012;31:1646-9 pubmed publisher
  32. Lin D, Luo Y, Yang G, Li F, Xie X, Chen D, et al. Potent influenza A virus entry inhibitors targeting a conserved region of hemagglutinin. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;144:35-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, in addition to providing a strategy for designing broad-spectrum anti-IAV agents, these results indicate that S-KKWK and its derivatives are prospective candidates for potent antivirals. ..
  33. Li S, Fu B, Wang L, Dorf M. ZMPSTE24 Is Downstream Effector of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Antiviral Activity. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:513-517 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo studies with zmpste24-deficient mice demonstrate the importance of ZMPSTE24 for antiviral defense. ..
  34. Decalf J, Desdouits M, Rodrigues V, Gobert F, Gentili M, Marques Ladeira S, et al. Sensing of HIV-1 Entry Triggers a Type I Interferon Response in Human Primary Macrophages. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..This triggers a low interferon response, which activates an antiviral program protecting cells against further viral challenge and thus potentially limiting the spread of the infection. ..
  35. Rydell G, Prakash K, Norder H, Lindh M. Hepatitis B surface antigen on subviral particles reduces the neutralizing effect of anti-HBs antibodies on hepatitis B viral particles in vitro. Virology. 2017;509:67-70 pubmed publisher
  36. McGee T, Yi H, Allen W, Jacobs A, Rizzo R. Structure-based identification of inhibitors targeting obstruction of the HIVgp41 N-heptad repeat trimer. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3177-3184 pubmed publisher
  37. Wang J, Zeng L, Zhang L, Guo Z, Lu S, Ming S, et al. Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase acts as a host restriction factor on pseudorabies virus replication. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1467-1476 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate that CH25H is an intrinsic host restriction factor in PRV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages. ..
  38. Campos G, Bittar C, Jardim A, Shimizu J, Batista M, Paganini E, et al. Hepatitis C virus in vitro replication is efficiently inhibited by acridone Fac4. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1693-1701 pubmed publisher
    ..Although its mode of action is partly understood, Fac4 presents significant inhibition of HCV replication and can therefore be considered as a candidate for the development of a future anti-HCV treatment. ..
  39. Yang Z, Chambers H, Dicaprio E, Gao G, Li J. Internalization and dissemination of human norovirus and Tulane virus in fresh produce is plant dependent. Food Microbiol. 2018;69:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..i. Overall, we found that the type of plant, growth matrix, and the inoculum level influences the internalization and dissemination of human NoV and TV. ..
  40. Grigorov B, Molle J, Rubinstein E, Zoulim F, Bartosch B. CD81 large extracellular loop-containing fusion proteins with a dominant negative effect on HCV cell spread and replication. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1646-1657 pubmed publisher
    ..Their expression in the hepatoma cell line Huh7.5 blocks HCV uptake, transmission and replication. These molecules will be useful to decipher the various roles of CD81 in the HCV life cycle and transmission in more detail. ..
  41. Zhang Y, Huang Y, Li Q, Li X, Zhou Y, Guo F, et al. A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006625 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data reveal the structural role of the highly conserved VP1A107 in regulating EV71 maturation. Characterization of this novel determinant of EV71 virulence would promote the study on pathogenesis of Enteroviruses...
  42. Chong H, Xue J, Xiong S, Cong Z, Ding X, Zhu Y, et al. A Lipopeptide HIV-1/2 Fusion Inhibitor with Highly Potent In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Antiviral Activity. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  43. Pei Y, Wang C, Yan S, Liu G. Past, Current, and Future Developments of Therapeutic Agents for Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. J Med Chem. 2017;60:6461-6479 pubmed publisher
  44. Wang Z, Wang Z, Zhen Z, Feng K, Guo J, Gao N, et al. Axl is not an indispensable factor for Zika virus infection in mice. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2061-2068 pubmed publisher
    ..These results therefore indicate that Axl is not an indispensable factor for ZIKV infection in mice. ..
  45. Earnest J, Hantak M, Li K, McCray P, Perlman S, Gallagher T. The tetraspanin CD9 facilitates MERS-coronavirus entry by scaffolding host cell receptors and proteases. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006546 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the S proteins of virulent mouse-adapted MERS-CoVs acquired a CD9-dependent cell entry character, suggesting that CD9 is a selective agent in the evolution of CoV virulence. ..
  46. Cain M, Salimi H, Gong Y, Yang L, Hamilton S, Heffernan J, et al. Virus entry and replication in the brain precedes blood-brain barrier disruption during intranasal alphavirus infection. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;308:118-130 pubmed publisher
  47. Majdoul S, Cosette J, Seye A, Bernard E, Frin S, Holic N, et al. Peptides derived from evolutionarily conserved domains in Beclin-1 and Beclin-2 enhance the entry of lentiviral vectors into human cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:18672-18681 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that the TB1 and TB2 peptides enhance the viral entry step. Tat-Beclin peptides therefore represent a new family of viral transduction enhancers for potential use in gene therapy. ..
  48. Sousa I, Carvalho C, Mendes Y, Weissmuller G, Oliveira A, Gomes A. Fusion of a New World Alphavirus with Membrane Microdomains Involving Partially Reversible Conformational Changes in the Viral Spike Proteins. Biochemistry. 2017;56:5823-5830 pubmed publisher
  49. Nahabedian J, Sharma A, Kaczmarek M, Wilkerson G, Sawyer S, Overbaugh J. Owl monkey CCR5 reveals synergism between CD4 and CCR5 in HIV-1 entry. Virology. 2017;512:180-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of the human residues 15Y and 16T within a sulfation motif into owl monkey CCR5 resulted in a gain of function. These findings suggest there is cross-talk between CD4 and CCR5 involving the sulfation motif. ..
  50. Ji Y, Liu T, Jia Y, Liu B, Yu Q, Cui X, et al. Two single mutations in the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus confer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase independent fusion promotion and attenuate the pathogenicity in chickens. Virology. 2017;509:146-151 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased fusogenic activity may disrupt the cellular machinery and consequently decrease the virus replication and pathogenicity in chickens. ..
  51. Rajsbaum R, Garcia Sastre A. Virology. Unanchored ubiquitin in virus uncoating. Science. 2014;346:427-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Quan Y, Xu H, Han Y, Mesplède T, Wainberg M. JAK-STAT Signaling Pathways and Inhibitors Affect Reversion of Envelope-Mutated HIV-1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..JAK-STAT signaling pathways are able to play major roles in these processes. This work sheds new light on factors that can govern HIV infection of target cells. ..
  53. Ruedas J, Ladner J, Ettinger C, Gummuluru S, Palacios G, Connor J. Spontaneous Mutation at Amino Acid 544 of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Potentiates Virus Entry and Selection in Tissue Culture. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanism behind this mutation can provide insight into functional differences that exist in culture conditions and among ebolavirus glycoproteins. ..
  54. Li J, Liu Y, Kim T, Min R, Zhang Z. Gene expression variability within and between human populations and implications toward disease susceptibility. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6: pubmed publisher
  55. Tran T, Kim M, Jang Y, Lee H, Nguyen H, Nguyen T, et al. Characterization and mechanisms of anti-influenza virus metabolites isolated from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Polygonum chinense. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:162 pubmed publisher
    ..The botanical materials of P. chinense could be a promising multitargeted inhibitor of influenza A and B viruses and applied to development of a novel herbal medicine. ..
  56. Hu K, He S, Xiao J, Li M, Luo S, Zhang M, et al. Interaction between herpesvirus entry mediator and HSV-2 glycoproteins mediates HIV-1 entry of HSV-2-infected epithelial cells. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2351-2361 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a potential new mechanism underlying HSV-2 infection-enhanced HIV-1 mucosal transmission and may shed light on HIV-1 prevention. ..
  57. Iwasaki M, Sharma S, Marro B, de la Torre J. Resistance of human plasmacytoid dendritic CAL-1 cells to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is caused by restricted virus cell entry, which is overcome by contact of CAL-1 cells with LCMV-infected cells. Virology. 2017;511:106-113 pubmed publisher
    ..This cell-to-cell spread required direct cell-cell contact and did not involve exosome pathway. Our findings indicate the presence of a novel entry pathway utilized by LCMV to infect pDC. ..
  58. Zheng Y, Han G, Abagyan R, Wu B, Stevens R, Cherezov V, et al. Structure of CC Chemokine Receptor 5 with a Potent Chemokine Antagonist Reveals Mechanisms of Chemokine Recognition and Molecular Mimicry by HIV. Immunity. 2017;46:1005-1017.e5 pubmed publisher
  59. Calton C, Bronnimann M, Manson A, Li S, Chapman J, Suarez Berumen M, et al. Translocation of the papillomavirus L2/vDNA complex across the limiting membrane requires the onset of mitosis. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006200 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents the first time a virus has been shown to functionally couple the penetration of limiting membranes to cellular mitosis, explaining in part the tropism of HPV for mitotic basal keratinocytes. ..
  60. Deschamps T, Dogrammatzis C, Mullick R, Kalamvoki M. Cbl E3 Ligase Mediates the Removal of Nectin-1 from the Surface of Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Infected Cells. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The diversion of the Cbl/CIN85 endocytic machinery may be a strategy utilized by the virus to alter the cell surface pattern to prevent detrimental host responses. ..
  61. Popp L, Gomez E, Orji W, Ho M, Suh J, Segatori L. TFEB-mediated activation of the lysosome-autophagy system affects the transduction efficiency of adeno-associated virus 2. Virology. 2017;510:1-8 pubmed publisher
  62. Maghsoodi A, Chatterjee A, Andricioaei I, Perkins N. Dynamic Model Exposes the Energetics and Dynamics of the Injection Machinery for Bacteriophage T4. Biophys J. 2017;113:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..It also reveals the large and highly nonlinear conformational changes of the sheath whose elastic energy drives the injection process. ..
  63. Ke W, Fang L, Jing H, Tao R, Wang T, Li Y, et al. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication through Enzyme Activity-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..However, PRRSV infection appears to actively decrease CH25H expression to promote viral replication, highlighting the complex game between PRRSV and its host. ..
  64. Palus M, Vancova M, Sirmarová J, Elsterová J, Perner J, Ruzek D. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity. Virology. 2017;507:110-122 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that HBMECs may support TBEV entry into the brain without altering BBB integrity. ..
  65. Tian Z, Si L, Meng K, Zhou X, Zhang Y, Zhou D, et al. Inhibition of influenza virus infection by multivalent pentacyclic triterpene-functionalized per-O-methylated cyclodextrin conjugates. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;134:133-139 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated a strategy of using per-O-methylated ?-CD as a scaffold for designing multivalent compounds to disrupt influenza HA protein-host receptor protein interaction and thus block influenza virus entry into host cells. ..
  66. Liu C, Zhang Y, Li Z, Hou J, Zhou J, Kan L, et al. Rab5 and Rab11 Are Required for Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in BHK-21 Cells. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides a detailed picture of the entry of JEV into BHK-21 cells and the cellular events that follow. ..
  67. Nasir W, Frank M, Kunze A, Bally M, Parra F, Nyholm P, et al. Histo-Blood Group Antigen Presentation Is Critical for Binding of Norovirus VLP to Glycosphingolipids in Model Membranes. ACS Chem Biol. 2017;12:1288-1296 pubmed publisher
  68. Serfass J, Takahashi Y, Zhou Z, Kawasawa Y, Liu Y, Tsotakos N, et al. Endophilin B2 facilitates endosome maturation in response to growth factor stimulation, autophagy induction, and influenza A virus infection. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10097-10111 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that endophilin B2 positively regulates the endocytic pathway in response to growth factor signaling, autophagy induction, and viral entry. ..
  69. Pancera M, Lai Y, Bylund T, Druz A, Narpala S, O Dell S, et al. Crystal structures of trimeric HIV envelope with entry inhibitors BMS-378806 and BMS-626529. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:1115-1122 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with biophysical and antigenicity characterizations, the structures illuminate the allosteric and competitive mechanisms by which these small-molecule leads inhibit CD4-induced structural changes in Env. ..
  70. Zhang N, Huang H, Tan B, Wei Y, Xiong Q, Yan Y, et al. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16527-16538 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. ..
  71. Edwards R, Longnecker R. Herpesvirus Entry Mediator and Ocular Herpesvirus Infection: More than Meets the Eye. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..We hope that by understanding the complex range of effects mediated by this receptor, we can offer insights applicable to a wide variety of disease states. ..
  72. Wang X, Zou Z, Deng Z, Liang D, Zhou X, Sun R, et al. Male hormones activate EphA2 to facilitate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection: Implications for gender disparity in Kaposi's sarcoma. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006580 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, membrane-localized AR was identified as a KSHV entry factor that cooperatively activates Src/RSK1/EphA2 signaling, which subsequently promotes KSHV infection of both endothelial and epithelial cells. ..
  73. Ma Q, Liang D, Song S, Yu Q, Shi C, Xing X, et al. Comparative Study on the Antivirus Activity of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injectable Powder and Its Bioactive Compound Mixture against Human Adenovirus III In Vitro. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SHL is much more effective and slightly less toxic than CBF. ..
  74. Zeippen C, Javaux J, Xiao X, Ledecq M, Mast J, Farnir F, et al. The Major Envelope Glycoprotein of Murid Herpesvirus 4 Promotes Sexual Transmission. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Key among these is viral transmission. Here we show that the major envelope glycoprotein of murid herpesvirus 4 functions not in entry or dissemination but in virion release to allow sexual transmission to new hosts. ..