viral load

Summary

Summary: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.

Top Publications

  1. Dale S, Cohen M, Weber K, Cruise R, Kelso G, BRODY L. Abuse and resilience in relation to HAART medication adherence and HIV viral load among women with HIV in the United States. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014;28:136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M...
  2. Hosseinipour M, Gupta R, van Zyl G, Eron J, Nachega J. Emergence of HIV drug resistance during first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. J Infect Dis. 2013;207 Suppl 2:S49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Optimizing adherence, performing resistance surveillance, and improving treatment monitoring are critical for long-term prevention of drug resistance. ..
  3. Estill J, Egger M, Johnson L, Gsponer T, Wandeler G, Davies M, et al. Monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and mortality in HIV programmes in Malawi, South Africa and Zambia: mathematical modelling study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57611 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether different monitoring of ART (viral load [VL] in South Africa and CD4 count in Malawi and Zambia) could explain this mortality difference...
  4. Petrie S, Guarnaccia T, Laurie K, Hurt A, McVernon J, McCaw J. Reducing uncertainty in within-host parameter estimates of influenza infection by measuring both infectious and total viral load. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64098 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the degree to which measuring both infectious (via TCID50) and total (via rRT-PCR) viral load allows within-host model parameters to be estimated with greater consistency and reduced uncertainty, compared ..
  5. Brennan C, Yamaguchi J, Vallari A, Swanson P, Hackett J. ARCHITECT® HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay: correlation of HIV-1 p24 antigen sensitivity and RNA viral load using genetically diverse virus isolates. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To directly compare the Ag sensitivity of the ARCHITECT(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay to RNA viral load using cell culture supernatants of virus isolates...
  6. Winer R, Xi L, Shen Z, Stern J, Newman L, Feng Q, et al. Viral load and short-term natural history of type-specific oncogenic human papillomavirus infections in a high-risk cohort of midadult women. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:1889-98 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load may inform the origin of newly detected infections and characterize oncogenic HPV natural history in midadult women...
  7. Parikh R, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Nitta E, Leone A, Martin J, et al. Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with lower CD4+ count and higher viral load in HIV-infected individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2013;229:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The median duration of HIV infection was 13 years, median CD4+ count was 592 cells/?L, 76% had an undetectable viral load, and 76% were on antiretroviral therapy...
  8. Johnston V, Cohen K, Wiesner L, Morris L, Ledwaba J, Fielding K, et al. Viral suppression following switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy: associations with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance and subtherapeutic drug concentrations prior to switch. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:711-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Their association with viral load (VL) <400 copies/mL by 15 months was assessed using modified Poisson regression...
  9. Miller W, Powers K, Smith M, Cohen M. Community viral load as a measure for assessment of HIV treatment as prevention. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:459-64 pubmed publisher
    Community viral load, defined as an aggregation of individual viral loads of people infected with HIV in a specific community, has been proposed as a useful measure to monitor HIV treatment uptake and quantify its effect on transmission...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Boyer S, March L, Kouanfack C, Laborde Balen G, Marino P, Aghokeng A, et al. Monitoring of HIV viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical assessment versus clinical monitoring alone for antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings (Stratall ANRS 12110/ESTHER): a cost-effectiveness analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..May 23, 2006, and Jan 31, 2008, ART-naive adults were randomly assigned (1:1) to clinical monitoring (CLIN) or viral load and CD4 cell count plus clinical monitoring (LAB) and followed up for 24 months...
  2. Chen J, Han X, An M, Liu J, Xu J, Geng W, et al. Immunological and virological benefits resulted from short-course treatment during primary HIV infection: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82461 pubmed publisher
    ..And to investigate whether treatment initiation time, treatment duration and follow-up time after treatment interruption would affect these post-treatment immunovirological outcomes...
  3. Eriksson S, Graf E, Dahl V, Strain M, Yukl S, Lysenko E, et al. Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003174 pubmed publisher
    ..A molecular understanding of the discrepancy between infected cell frequencies measured by viral outgrowth versus PCR assays is an urgent priority in HIV-1 cure research...
  4. Hunt P, Shulman N, Hayes T, Dahl V, Somsouk M, Funderburg N, et al. The immunologic effects of maraviroc intensification in treated HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery: a randomized trial. Blood. 2013;121:4635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may have relevance for trials of maraviroc for HIV preexposure prophylaxis and graft-versus-host disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00735072. ..
  5. Huang C, Wu C, Lan C, Sung F, Lin C, Liu C, et al. Impact of genetic heterogeneity in polymerase of hepatitis B virus on dynamics of viral load and hepatitis B progression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70169 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether genetic variation in the polymerase region determined long-term dynamics of viral load and the risk of hepatitis B progression in a population-based cohort study.
  6. Duskova K, Nagilla P, Le H, Iyer P, Thalamuthu A, Martinson J, et al. MicroRNA regulation and its effects on cellular transcriptome in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals with distinct viral load and CD4 cell counts. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:250 pubmed publisher
    ..a comparative miRNA and mRNA microarray analysis using PBMCs obtained from infected individuals with distinct viral load and CD4 counts...
  7. Tsuzura H, Genda T, Sato S, Hirano K, Kanemitsu Y, Narita Y, et al. Association of visceral obesity with high viral load and histological findings in elderly patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Intern Med. 2013;52:1665-73 pubmed
    ..was independently associated with metabolic syndrome, platelet count, high-density lipoprotein level, and serum viral load in elderly patients (?65 years)...
  8. Hu J, Hu Z, Mo Y, Wu Q, Cui Z, Duan Z, et al. The PA and HA gene-mediated high viral load and intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza virus in mallard ducks. J Virol. 2013;87:11063-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the PA and HA gene-mediated high virus replication and the intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high virulence of H5N1 virus in ducks. ..
  9. Estill J, Egger M, Blaser N, Vizcaya L, Garone D, Wood R, et al. Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care viral load monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: mathematical modelling study. AIDS. 2013;27:1483-92 pubmed publisher
    Monitoring of HIV viral load in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not generally available in resource-limited settings...
  10. Wong P, Li M, Chong C, Ng L, Tan C. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2348 pubmed publisher
    ..The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV...
  11. Rusine J, Asiimwe Kateera B, van de Wijgert J, Boer K, Mukantwali E, Karita E, et al. Low primary and secondary HIV drug-resistance after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy in human immune-deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals from Kigali, Rwanda. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64345 pubmed publisher
    Treatment outcomes of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Rwanda are scarcely documented. HIV viral load (VL) and HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) outcomes at month 12 were determined in a prospective cohort study of ..
  12. Min K, Lee J, Lee S, Kim M. Alcohol consumption and viral load are synergistically associated with CIN1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72142 pubmed publisher
    ..CIN) and cervical cancer, and determined whether these associations were modified by human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load in high-risk HPV-positive women participating in the Korean HPV cohort study (KHPV)...
  13. Xia C, Liu W, Zeng D, Zhu L, Sun X, Sun X. Effect of hydrogen-rich water on oxidative stress, liver function, and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Clin Transl Sci. 2013;6:372-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on oxidative stress, liver function and HBV DNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
  14. Villar L, Del Campo J, Ranchal I, Lampe E, Romero Gomez M. Association between vitamin D and hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:5917-24 pubmed publisher
    ..43 ng/mL in the studies selected, and most of the HCV infected individuals had genotype 1 (1068/1575) with mean viral load varying from log 4.5-5.9 UI/mL...
  15. Lowenthal E, Ellenberg J, Machine E, Sagdeo A, Boiditswe S, Steenhoff A, et al. Association between efavirenz-based compared with nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimens and virological failure in HIV-infected children. JAMA. 2013;309:1803-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cox regression controlled for age, sex, baseline immunologic category, baseline clinical category, baseline viral load, nutritional status, NRTIs used, receipt of single-dose nevirapine, and treatment for tuberculosis...
  16. Khowawisetsut L, Pattanapanyasat K, Onlamoon N, Mayne A, Little D, Villinger F, et al. Relationships between IL-17(+) subsets, Tregs and pDCs that distinguish among SIV infected elite controllers, low, medium and high viral load rhesus macaques. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61264 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4(+) Tregs, CD8(+) Tregs, total and IFN-? synthesizing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) relative to plasma viral load in SIV infection has been lacking...
  17. Paton N, Kityo C, Hoppe A, Reid A, Kambugu A, Lugemwa A, et al. Assessment of second-line antiretroviral regimens for HIV therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:234-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Removing the NRTIs or replacing them with raltegravir may provide a benefit...
  18. Jourdain G, Le Cœur S, Ngo Giang Huong N, Traisathit P, Cressey T, Fregonese F, et al. Switching HIV treatment in adults based on CD4 count versus viral load monitoring: a randomized, non-inferiority trial in Thailand. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001494 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral load (VL) is recommended for monitoring the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) but is not routinely available in most low- and middle-income countries...
  19. Torres T, Cardoso S, Velasque L, Marins L, Oliveira M, Veloso V, et al. Aging with HIV: an overview of an urban cohort in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) across decades of life. Braz J Infect Dis. 2013;17:324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Longitudinal studies on the impact of aging on the HIV/AIDS population are still necessary, especially in resource-limited countries. ..
  20. Chohan B, Tapia K, Merkel M, Kariuki A, Khasimwa B, Olago A, et al. Pooled HIV-1 RNA viral load testing for detection of antiretroviral treatment failure in Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:e87-93 pubmed publisher
    Pooled viral load (VL) testing with 2 different testing strategies was evaluated as a potential cost saving method to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children receiving ART in a resource-limited setting...
  21. Aitken S, Kliphuis A, Bronze M, Wallis C, Kityo C, Balinda S, et al. Development and evaluation of an affordable real-time qualitative assay for determining HIV-1 virological failure in plasma and dried blood spots. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Compatibility with DBS extends access of sampling and thus access to this test to remote settings. ..
  22. Cobb B, Pockros P, Vilchez R, Vierling J. HCV RNA viral load assessments in the era of direct-acting antivirals. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes terms used to report HCV RNA viral load results, explains the analytical performance of the PCR assay used in the clinical trials of boceprevir and ..
  23. Buckheit R, Siliciano R, Blankson J. Primary CD8+ T cells from elite suppressors effectively eliminate non-productively HIV-1 infected resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Retrovirology. 2013;10:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a vaccine strategy that elicits early and potent CD8+ T cell responses may have the capacity to limit the seeding of the latent reservoir in HIV-1 infection. ..
  24. Hirsch H, Randhawa P. BK polyomavirus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13 Suppl 4:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Retransplantation after PyVAN is largely successful, but requires close monitoring for recurrent BKV viremia...
  25. Lee I, Lin C, Huang Y, Huo T, Su C, Hou M, et al. IL28B polymorphism correlates with active hepatitis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58071 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, 87.4%, 88.4% and 70.9%, respectively. In HBeAg-positive patients (n?=?48), HBV viral load correlated with active hepatitis, while in HBeAg-negative patients (n?=?67), rs10853728 CC genotype (p?=?0...
  26. Korva M, Saksida A, Kejzar N, Schmaljohn C, Avsic Zupanc T. Viral load and immune response dynamics in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:E358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..the wide spectrum of disease observed among HFRS patients might be related to differing immune responses and viral load kinetics...
  27. Coetzer M, Westley B, DeLong A, Tray C, Sophearin D, Nerrienet E, et al. Extensive drug resistance in HIV-infected Cambodian children who are undetected as failing first-line antiretroviral therapy by WHO 2010 guidelines. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..first-line failure are limited, particularly when the 2010-WHO pediatric guidelines are used without routine viral load monitoring...
  28. Schoffelen A, Wensing A, Tempelman H, Geelen S, Hoepelman A, Barth R. Sustained virological response on second-line antiretroviral therapy following virological failure in HIV-infected patients in rural South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58526 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed viro-immunological dissociation emphasizes the need for virological monitoring. ..
  29. Uebel K, Lombard C, Joubert G, Fairall L, Bachmann M, Mollentze W, et al. Integration of HIV care into primary care in South Africa: effect on survival of patients needing antiretroviral treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:e94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97; P = 0.007). In a context of task shifting and decentralization of care, integration of HIV care into primary care is associated with improved survival of HIV-positive patients needing ART. ..
  30. Kumarasamy N, Krishnan S. Beyond first-line HIV treatment regimens: the current state of antiretroviral regimens, viral load monitoring, and resistance testing in resource-limited settings. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2013;8:586-90 pubmed publisher
    ..With the availability of antiretroviral drugs in resource-limited settings, there is a rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in developing countries...
  31. Moyers B, Secemsky E, Vittinghoff E, Wong J, Havlir D, Hsue P, et al. Effect of left ventricular dysfunction and viral load on risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:1260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is needed to thoroughly evaluate the effect of low EF and HIV factors on SCD incidence and the potential benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in this high-risk population. ..
  32. Esqueda D, Xu F, Moore Y, Yang Z, Huang G, Lennon P, et al. Lack of correlation between HERV-K expression and HIV-1 viral load in plasma specimens. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2013;43:122-5 pubmed
    ..We also found that levels of HERV-K expression did not correlate with HIV-1 viral load. Our study is in agreement with the published studies on HERV-K activation in HIV-1 positive plasma specimens, ..
  33. Tseng K, Tseng C, Hsieh Y, Chang C, Lai N, Hung T, et al. Effect of human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles on hepatitis C viral load among chronic hepatitis C patients in Southern Taiwan. Hum Immunol. 2013;74:978-82 pubmed publisher
    The viral load of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronic hepatitis C patients affects clinical outcomes and response to interferon treatment. Various factors may be involved in determining the viral load, including host genetic factors...
  34. Pugliese P, Delpierre C, Cuzin L, Poizot Martin I, Rey D, Saune K, et al. An undetectable polymerase chain reaction signal in routine HIV plasma viral load monitoring is associated with better virological outcomes in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2013;14:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..with undetectable viraemia [a negative polymerase chain reaction result (PCR(neg) )] and those with plasma viral load (PVL)?<?40 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL but a detectable (positive) PCR signal (PCR(pos) ) had different outcomes in ..
  35. Petravic J, Vanderford T, Silvestri G, Davenport M. Estimating the contribution of the gut to plasma viral load in early SIV infection. Retrovirology. 2013;10:105 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we aimed to estimate the contribution of the gut to the total virus observed in plasma, by comparing the frequency of different viral mutants in plasma and gut in SIV infection...
  36. Chan J, Chan K, Choi G, To K, Tse H, Cai J, et al. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012: implications for disease pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Huh-7), and histiocytes (malignant histiocytoma cell line His-1), as evident by detection of high or increasing viral load in culture supernatants, detection of viral nucleoprotein expression by immunostaining, and/or detection of ..
  37. Styer L, Miller T, Parker M. Validation and clinical use of a sensitive HIV-2 viral load assay that uses a whole virus internal control. J Clin Virol. 2013;58 Suppl 1:e127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Although HIV-2 infection is rare in the U.S., cases are concentrated in the Northeast. No FDA-approved HIV-2 viral load assays exist. A clinically validated laboratory-developed assay is currently available in the U.S...
  38. Kennedy J, Shaker M, McMeen V, Gern J, Carper H, Murphy D, et al. Comparison of viral load in individuals with and without asthma during infections with rhinovirus. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;189:532-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most virus-induced attacks of asthma are caused by rhinoviruses (RVs)...
  39. Igumbor J, Stewart A, Holzemer W. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa. SAHARA J. 2013;10:25-31 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the level of CD4 count, viral load and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between treatment-naïve AIDS patients and a cohort of people living with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months...
  40. Poizot Martin I, Faucher O, Obry Roguet V, Nicolino Brunet C, Ronot Bregigeon S, Dignat George F, et al. Lack of correlation between the size of HIV proviral DNA reservoir and the level of immune activation in HIV-infected patients with a sustained undetectable HIV viral load for 10 years. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:351-5 pubmed publisher
    The persistence of HIV residual replication in patients with an undetectable plasma viral load (pVL) may limit immune recovery and facilitate inflammation-induced comorbidities...
  41. Bonner K, Mezochow A, Roberts T, Ford N, Cohn J. Viral load monitoring as a tool to reinforce adherence: a systematic review. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;64:74-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral load monitoring has been proposed as a tool to reinforce adherence, but outcomes have never been systematically assessed...
  42. Barry O, Powell J, Renner L, Bonney E, Prin M, Ampofo W, et al. Effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy and correlates of longitudinal changes in CD4 and viral load among HIV-infected children in Ghana. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:476 pubmed publisher
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in resource-limited countries, with limited capacity for CD4 and HIV viral load monitoring, presents a unique challenge...
  43. Soares F, Costa I. Treatment of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy: impact on infection progression assessed by viral load and CD4 count. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88:570-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of FL treatment using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implants on disease progression, assessed by viral load and CD4 cell count. This was a prospective study of 44 patients treated from July 2009 to December 2010...
  44. Torres T, Cardoso S, Velasque L, Veloso V, Grinsztejn B. Incidence rate of modifying or discontinuing first combined antiretroviral therapy regimen due to toxicity during the first year of treatment stratified by age. Braz J Infect Dis. 2014;18:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the safety profile of first line combined antiretroviral therapy on elderly individuals, especially in resource-limited countries, where initial regimens are mostly NNRTI-based. ..
  45. Nishijima T, Gatanaga H, Shimbo T, Komatsu H, Endo T, Horiba M, et al. Switching tenofovir/emtricitabine plus lopinavir/r to raltegravir plus Darunavir/r in patients with suppressed viral load did not result in improvement of renal function but could sustain viral suppression: a randomized multicenter trial. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73639 pubmed publisher
    ..on the viral efficacy of raltegravir (RAL) plus ritonavir-boosted Darunavir (DRV/r) in patients with suppressed viral load. This multicenter, randomized trial compared renal function and viral efficacy in patients with suppressed viral ..
  46. Chang H, Lin Y, Ho H, Lin M, Liu C, Shao H, et al. Protective efficacy of VP1-specific neutralizing antibody associated with a reduction of viral load and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human SCARB2-transgenic mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69858 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate N3 could be useful in treating severe EV71 infections and the hSCARB2-transgenic mouse could be used to evaluate the protective efficacy of potential anti-enterovirus agent candidates. ..
  47. Pearlman B, Ehleben C. Hepatitis C genotype 1 virus with low viral load and rapid virologic response to peginterferon/ribavirin obviates a protease inhibitor. Hepatology. 2014;59:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment-naïve, noncirrhosis patients infected with genotype-1 HCV and a low viral load at baseline were considered for inclusion (n?=?233)...
  48. Chen G, Pan H, Xie W, Wang S, Wu Q, Fang Y, et al. Virus infection of a weed increases vector attraction to and vector fitness on the weed. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2253 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that TYLCV is indirectly mutualistic to B. tabaci Q. The mutually beneficial interaction between TYLCV and B. tabaci Q may help explain the concurrent outbreaks of TYLCV and B. tabaci Q in China. ..
  49. Gallant J, Mehta S, Sugarman J. Universal antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: should US treatment guidelines be applied to resource-limited settings?. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:884-7 pubmed publisher
  50. Zhao B, Yu X, Wang C, Teng Z, Wang C, Shen J, et al. High human bocavirus viral load is associated with disease severity in children under five years of age. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62318 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a direct correlation of high viral load with increasing disease severity in patients co-infected with HBoV1 and at least one other respiratory virus...
  51. Kranzer K, Lawn S, Johnson L, Bekker L, Wood R. Community viral load and CD4 count distribution among people living with HIV in a South African Township: implications for treatment as prevention. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:498-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Morbidity and mortality risk are associated with CD4 count; transmission risk depends on plasma viral load (VL)...
  52. Jiao Y, Chen G, Zhu W, Huang H, Fu J, Chen W, et al. Higher viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in seminal compartments than in blood of seven Chinese men who have sex with men and have early HIV-1 infection. Microbiol Immunol. 2017;61:239-246 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, genetic diversity and viral load of HIV-1 in the seminal compartments and blood of Chinese MSM with early HIV-1 infection were examined...
  53. Merci N, Emerence U, Augustin N, Habtu M, Julie I, Angelique T, et al. CD4+ cells recovery in HIV positive patients with severe immunosuppression at HAART initiation at Centre Medico-Social Cor-Unum, Kigali. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;26:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Baseline Age, sex, CD4 count and viral load were extracted from the patient's database...