viral interference


Summary: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.

Top Publications

  1. Blaney J, Matro J, Murphy B, Whitehead S. Recombinant, live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccine formulations induce a balanced, broad, and protective neutralizing antibody response against each of the four serotypes in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2005;79:5516-28 pubmed
    ..However, two doses of TV-2 or TV-3 induced protection against DEN2 challenge. Two tetravalent formulations, TV-2 and TV-3, possess properties of a successful DEN vaccine and can be considered for evaluation in clinical trials. ..
  2. Munks M, Pinto A, Doom C, Hill A. Viral interference with antigen presentation does not alter acute or chronic CD8 T cell immunodominance in murine cytomegalovirus infection. J Immunol. 2007;178:7235-41 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data indicate that the presence or absence of MHC I immune evasion genes has remarkably little impact on the size or specificity of the MCMV-specific CD8 T cell response over an entire lifetime of infection. ..
  3. Bellecave P, Gouttenoire J, Gajer M, Brass V, Koutsoudakis G, Blum H, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus coinfection: a novel model system reveals the absence of direct viral interference. Hepatology. 2009;50:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical evidence suggests reciprocal replicative suppression of the two viruses, or viral interference. However, interactions between HBV and HCV have been difficult to study due to the lack of appropriate model ..
  4. Chinchar V, Logue O, Antao A, Chinchar G. Channel catfish reovirus (CRV) inhibits replication of channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) by two distinct mechanisms: viral interference and induction of an anti-viral factor. Dis Aquat Organ. 1998;33:77-85 pubmed
  5. Miller A, Wolgamot G. Murine retroviruses use at least six different receptors for entry into Mus dunni cells. J Virol. 1997;71:4531-5 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results show that murine retroviruses use at least six different receptors for entry into M. dunni cells. ..
  6. Walker P, Hengge U, Udey M, Aksentijevich I, Vogel J. Viral interference during simultaneous transduction with two independent helper-free retroviral vectors. Hum Gene Ther. 1996;7:1131-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that there is quantifiable viral interference in sequential retroviral transductions...
  7. Volsky D, Simm M, Shahabuddin M, Li G, Chao W, Potash M. Interference to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in the absence of downmodulation of the principal virus receptor, CD4. J Virol. 1996;70:3823-33 pubmed
    ..We found that efficient viral interference is established within 24 h of infection at a multiplicity of infection of 1...
  8. Bonnichon V, Lightner D, Bonami J. Viral interference between infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:179-84 pubmed
    ..stylirostris. We report here laboratory challenge studies carried out to determine if viral interference between IHHNV and WSSV also occurs in L...
  9. Raftery M, Winau F, Kaufmann S, Schaible U, Schönrich G. CD1 antigen presentation by human dendritic cells as a target for herpes simplex virus immune evasion. J Immunol. 2006;177:6207-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate both the existence of a CD1 pathway allowing human DC to react to viral infection, as well as its blockage by a human herpesvirus. ..

More Information


  1. Seppälä E, Viskari H, Hoppu S, Honkanen H, Huhtala H, Simell O, et al. Viral interference induced by live attenuated virus vaccine (OPV) can prevent otitis media. Vaccine. 2011;29:8615-8 pubmed publisher
    ..011) and was particularly clear among children, who attended daycare (IRR 0.37 [95% CI 0.19-0.71], P=0.003). OPV provides some protection against otitis media. This effect may be mediated by viral interference with non-polio viruses.
  2. Ge S, Zheng D, Zhao Y, Liu H, Liu W, Sun Q, et al. Evaluating viral interference between Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in chicken eggs. Virol J. 2012;9:128 pubmed publisher
    ..Only if NDV were inoculated at an earlier time will NDV able to interfere with the growth of AIV. ..
  3. Eglitis M, Eiden M, Wilson C. Gibbon ape leukemia virus and the amphotropic murine leukemia virus 4070A exhibit an unusual interference pattern on E36 Chinese hamster cells. J Virol. 1993;67:5472-7 pubmed
    ..These results imply the existence of a receptor on E36 cells that interacts with both GaLV and A-MLV...
  4. Kim G, Kang C. Utilization of homotypic and heterotypic proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus by defective interfering particle genomes for RNA replication and virion assembly: implications for the mechanism of homologous viral interference. J Virol. 2005;79:9588-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, we concluded that both efficient RNA replication and assembly of DI particles are required for the heterotypic interference by VSV DI particles. ..
  5. Hiraga N, Imamura M, Hatakeyama T, Kitamura S, Mitsui F, Tanaka S, et al. Absence of viral interference and different susceptibility to interferon between hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human hepatocyte chimeric mice. J Hepatol. 2009;51:1046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..No interference between the two hepatitis viruses exists in the liver in the absence of hepatitis. The mechanisms of IFN resistance of the two viruses target different areas of the IFN system. ..
  6. Guy B, Barban V, Mantel N, Aguirre M, Gulia S, Pontvianne J, et al. Evaluation of interferences between dengue vaccine serotypes in a monkey model. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:302-11 pubmed
    ..The applicability of these data to human responses is discussed. ..
  7. Shimazu Y, Takao S, Irie T, Kiyotani K, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T. Contribution of the leader sequence to homologous viral interference among Sendai virus strains. Virology. 2008;372:64-71 pubmed
    ..and A(24)U related to viral adaptation from mice to chicken eggs significantly affected the capacity for viral interference, especially through genome amplification...
  8. Limjoco T, Dickie P, Ikeda H, Silver J. Transgenic Fv-4 mice resistant to Friend virus. J Virol. 1993;67:4163-8 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of recovery from viremia in Fv4-11 mice was unexpected and suggests that low levels of expression of the Fv-4 gene enhance the effectiveness of the immune response. ..
  9. Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Tian J, Parroche P, Schickli J, Monks B, et al. Cell type-specific recognition of human metapneumoviruses (HMPVs) by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and TLR7 and viral interference of RIG-I ligand recognition by HMPV-B1 phosphoprotein. J Immunol. 2010;184:1168-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data reveal differential mechanisms of sensing for two closely related viruses, which operate in cell type-specific manners...
  10. Horst D, Geerdink R, Gram A, Stoppelenburg A, Ressing M. Hiding lipid presentation: viral interference with CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell activation. Viruses. 2012;4:2379-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, viruses have recently been found to use sophisticated strategies to withstand iNKT cell-mediated elimination. This review focuses on CD1d-restricted lipid presentation and the strategies viruses deploy to subvert this pathway. ..
  11. Khanam S, Rajendra P, Khanna N, Swaminathan S. An adenovirus prime/plasmid boost strategy for induction of equipotent immune responses to two dengue virus serotypes. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:10 pubmed mixing together four monovalent live attenuated vaccine viruses has revealed the phenomenon of viral interference leading to the manifestation of immune responses biased towards a single serotype...
  12. Silvera P, Wade Evans A, Rud E, Hull R, Silvera K, Sangster R, et al. Mechanisms of protection induced by live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus: III. Viral interference and the role of CD8+ T-cells and beta-chemokines in the inhibition of virus infection of PBMCs in vitro. J Med Primatol. 2001;30:1-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings do not support the hypothesis that retroviral interference is the mechanism by which live attenuated SIVC8 induces protection. ..
  13. Tscherne D, Evans M, von Hahn T, Jones C, Stamataki Z, McKeating J, et al. Superinfection exclusion in cells infected with hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2007;81:3693-703 pubmed
    ..Thus, HCV establishes superinfection exclusion at a postentry step, and this effect is reversible by treatment of infected cells with antiviral compounds. ..
  14. Isaacs A, Lindenmann J. Pillars Article: Virus Interference. I. The Interferon. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1957. 147: 258-267. J Immunol. 2015;195:1911-20 pubmed
  15. Du N, Li W, Li Y, Liu S, Sui Y, Qu Z, et al. Generation and evaluation of the trivalent inactivated reassortant vaccine using human, avian, and swine influenza A viruses. Vaccine. 2008;26:2912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This kind of multivalent inactivated reassortant influenza vaccine maybe enlightens the pandemic influenza preparedness as the emergency measure. ..
  16. Soh J, Donnelly R, Kotenko S, Mariano T, Cook J, Wang N, et al. Identification and sequence of an accessory factor required for activation of the human interferon gamma receptor. Cell. 1994;76:793-802 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this accessory factor belongs to a family of such accessory factors responsible for different actions of IFN-gamma. ..
  17. Marcus P. Time, travels, and travails with the interferon system. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007;27:971-83 pubmed publisher
  18. Parisien J, Bamming D, Komuro A, Ramachandran A, Rodriguez J, Barber G, et al. A shared interface mediates paramyxovirus interference with antiviral RNA helicases MDA5 and LGP2. J Virol. 2009;83:7252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a potential mechanistic basis for V protein-mediated helicase interference and identify LGP2 as a second cellular RNA helicase targeted by paramyxovirus V proteins. ..
  19. Berencsi G, Kapusinszky B, Rigó Z, Szomor K. Interference among viruses circulating and administered in Hungary from 1931 to 2008. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2010;57:73-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral interference was discovered about 60 years ago...
  20. Rowley D, Popham H, Harrison R. Genetic variation and virulence of nucleopolyhedroviruses isolated worldwide from the heliothine pests Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea, and Heliothis virescens. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:112-26 pubmed publisher
  21. Ruiz Silva M, Aguilar Briseño J, Upasani V, van der Ende Metselaar H, Smit J, Rodenhuis Zybert I. Suppression of chikungunya virus replication and differential innate responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells during co-infection with dengue virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005712 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study reveals the interplay of DENV/CHIKV during concomitant infection and provides a framework to investigate viral interaction during co-infections. ..
  22. Sundin D, Beaty B. Interference to oral superinfection of Aedes triseriatus infected with La Crosse virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;38:428-32 pubmed
    ..Mosquitoes challenged at 7 days or thereafter were refractory to superinfection with La Crosse or Tahyna virus. The onset of interference was correlated with virus titer and antigen expression in midgut cells. ..
  23. Russell Harde D, Wagner T, Rani M, Vogel D, Colamonici O, Ransohoff R, et al. Role of the intracellular domain of the human type I interferon receptor 2 chain (IFNAR2c) in interferon signaling. Expression of IFNAR2c truncation mutants in U5A cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:23981-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, human and murine cells appear to require different regions of the cytoplasmic domain of IFNAR2c for regulation of IFN responses. ..
  24. Ito J, Watanabe S, Hiratsuka T, Kuse K, Odahara Y, Ochi H, et al. Refrex-1, a soluble restriction factor against feline endogenous and exogenous retroviruses. J Virol. 2013;87:12029-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Refrex-1 may have been acquired during endogenization of ERV-DCs and may play an important role in retroviral restriction and antiviral defense in cats. ..
  25. Marschall M, Meier Ewert H, Herrler G, Zimmer G, Maassab H. The cell receptor level is reduced during persistent infection with influenza C virus. Arch Virol. 1997;142:1155-64 pubmed
    ..In accordance to related virus systems, these findings on influenza C virus suggest a role of cell receptor concentrations in the regulation of long-term persistence. ..
  26. Nesper J, Blass J, Fountoulakis M, Reidl J. Characterization of the major control region of Vibrio cholerae bacteriophage K139: immunity, exclusion, and integration. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:2902-13 pubmed
    ..Upon analysis of the corresponding attB site within the V. cholerae chromosome, it became evident that phage K139 is integrated between the flagellin genes flaA and flaC of O1 El Tor and O139 V. cholerae lysogenic strains...
  27. Sloutskin A, Yee M, Kinchington P, Goldstein R. Varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus 1 can infect and replicate in the same neurons whether co- or superinfected. J Virol. 2014;88:5079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of multiple VZV strains to productively infect the same neurons has important implications in terms of recombination of both wild-type and vaccine strains in patients. ..
  28. van der Meide P, Dubbeld M, Schellekens H. Monoclonal antibodies to human immune interferon and their use in a sensitive solid-phase ELISA. J Immunol Methods. 1985;79:293-305 pubmed
    ..A radioimmunoassay using MD-2 coated on polystyrene balls and 125I-labeled MD-1 as the second antibody showed a sensitivity comparable to that of the enzyme immunoassay. ..
  29. Ellenberg P, Edreira M, Scolaro L. Resistance to superinfection of Vero cells persistently infected with Junin virus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:507-22 pubmed
    ..Thermal treated cells cultured at 37 degrees C resumed the expression of N in association to the recovery of resistance. Results strongly suggest a correlation between the presence of the viral nucleoprotein and superinfection exclusion...
  30. Rossier C, Raju R, Kolakofsky D. LaCrosse virus gene expression in mammalian and mosquito cells. Virology. 1988;165:539-48 pubmed
    ..DI genomes could not be detected during this time. The self-limiting nature of the mosquito cell infection appears to be due the translational control of N protein synthesis. ..
  31. Huang I, Li W, Sui J, Marasco W, Choe H, Farzan M. Influenza A virus neuraminidase limits viral superinfection. J Virol. 2008;82:4834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that NA alone among viral proteins limits influenza A virus superinfection. ..
  32. Valle R, Wickner R. Elimination of L-A double-stranded RNA virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of gag and gag-pol from an L-A cDNA clone. J Virol. 1993;67:2764-71 pubmed
    ..Our hypotheses on exclusion of L-A proteins may also apply to resistance to plant viruses produced by expression of viral replicases in transgenic plants. ..
  33. HALL G, Little D. Within-host competition between barley yellow dwarf-PAV and -PAS. Virus Res. 2013;174:148-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, within-host interactions between PAV and PAS create conditions that promote both the competitive exclusion of PAS, as well as co-existence between species and the maintenance of genetic diversity in the host community...
  34. Palli S, Caputo G, Sohi S, Brownwright A, Ladd T, Cook B, et al. CfMNPV blocks AcMNPV-induced apoptosis in a continuous midgut cell line. Virology. 1996;222:201-13 pubmed
  35. Duhaut S, Dimmock N. Defective segment 1 RNAs that interfere with production of infectious influenza A virus require at least 150 nucleotides of 5' sequence: evidence from a plasmid-driven system. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:403-11 pubmed
    ..In summary, a critical length of 5'-end sequence is essential for the interfering properties of defective influenza virus RNAs, which indicates that this plays some vital role in the virus life cycle...
  36. Hackett K, Boore A, Deming C, Buckley E, Camp M, Shapiro M. Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus interference with progression of H. zea nucleopolyhedrovirus disease in H. zea larvae. J Invertebr Pathol. 2000;75:99-106 pubmed
    ..We also observed that H. zea larvae treated with high dosages of HaGV (> or =3x10(-5) g GVC) were initially stunted but had survival times similar to those of larvae treated with lower dosages. ..
  37. Melchjorsen J, Sirén J, Julkunen I, Paludan S, Matikainen S. Induction of cytokine expression by herpes simplex virus in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells is dependent on virus replication and is counteracted by ICP27 targeting NF-kappaB and IRF-3. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1099-108 pubmed
    ..It is further identified that viral IE-gene expression interferes with the antiviral response in human macrophages and ICP27 is identified as an important viral protein counteracting the early innate immune response. ..
  38. Buller R, Sitbon M, Portis J. The endogenous mink cell focus-forming (MCF) gp70 linked to the Rmcf gene restricts MCF virus replication in vivo and provides partial resistance to erythroleukemia induced by Friend murine leukemia virus. J Exp Med. 1988;167:1535-46 pubmed
    ..Since in this study all unlinked genes segregated independently, this is direct evidence that MCF viruses participate in the induction of erythroleukemia...
  39. Anestad G, Nordbø S. Virus interference. Did rhinoviruses activity hamper the progress of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Norway?. Med Hypotheses. 2011;77:1132-4 pubmed publisher
    ..If so, cytokines, in particular interferon, are the most probable executor of this effect. ..
  40. Sunshine M, Kelly B. Extent of host deletions associated with bacteriophage P2-mediated eduction. J Bacteriol. 1971;108:695-704 pubmed
    ..One end of the deletion, the P2 prophage end, appears to be the same for all eductants. The other end, however, can be located before, within, and after the mglP locus. ..
  41. Wintermantel W, Cortez A, Anchieta A, Gulati Sakhuja A, Hladky L. Co-infection by two criniviruses alters accumulation of each virus in a host-specific manner and influences efficiency of virus transmission. Phytopathology. 2008;98:1340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This illustrates that Crinivirus epidemiology is impacted not only by vector transmission specificity and incidence of hosts but also by interactions between viruses and efficiency of accumulation in host plants...
  42. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K. [Virus interference with the host interferon-induction system]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2004;49:511-6 pubmed
  43. Tzeng W, Frey T. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage. Virology. 2006;356:198-207 pubmed
  44. Chuang W, Dai C, Chang W, Lee L, Lin Z, Chen S, et al. Viral interaction and responses in chronic hepatitis C and B coinfected patients with interferon-alpha plus ribavirin combination therapy. Antivir Ther. 2005;10:125-33 pubmed
    ..Reciprocal viral interference was noted between HCV and HBV after IFN-alpha/ribavirin therapy...
  45. Kewalramani V, Panganiban A, Emerman M. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian immunosuppressive retrovirus, shares a receptor with the type D simian retroviruses. J Virol. 1992;66:3026-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, interference assays show that the receptor for SNV is the same as the receptor for the type D simian retroviruses. We propose that adaptation of a mammalian type C virus to an avian host provided the REV progenitor...
  46. Friedman D, Mozola C, Beeri K, Ko C, Reynolds J. Activation of a prophage-encoded tyrosine kinase by a heterologous infecting phage results in a self-inflicted abortive infection. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Exclusion of HK97 appears to be specific since other phages tested, ?, ?80, H-19B, ?-P22dis and T4rII, were not excluded. Infection of the 933W lysogen with a non-excluded phage fails to induce Stk-determined phosphorylation...
  47. Rolland M, Delaunay A, Baldwin T, Kerlan C, Jacquot E. Complementations and exclusions between mutated versions of a potato virus Y genotype during mixed infections of Nicotiana hosts. Virus Res. 2010;153:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the collected data indicate that mutation of the nucleotide 2213 in the PVY(N)-605 sequence could lead to the prevalence, both in N. tabacum cv. Xanthi and in N. clevelandii, of the non-necrotic PVY(KR) genotype. ..
  48. Dropulic B, Hermankova M, Pitha P. A conditionally replicating HIV-1 vector interferes with wild-type HIV-1 replication and spread. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11103-8 pubmed
    ..The application of defective interfering crHIV vectors may result in competition with wt-HIVs and decrease pathogenic viral loads in vivo...
  49. Pichichero M. New combination vaccines. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000;47:407-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, physicians must make room for all of the new vaccines on the horizon. To accomplish that task, combinations will be necessary. Progress toward that goal is occurring...
  50. Kitagawa M, Aizawa S, Sado T, Yamaguchi S, Suzuki T, Hirokawa K, et al. A gene therapy model for retrovirus-induced disease with a viral env gene: expression-dependent resistance in immunosuppressed hosts. Leukemia. 2001;15:1779-84 pubmed
    ..These chimeras also resisted FLV-induced leukemogenesis, indicating that receptor interference-based gene therapy could become a therapeutic basis for immunodeficiency virus-induced diseases in vivo. ..
  51. Razonable R, Burak K, van Cruijsen H, Brown R, Charlton M, Smith T, et al. The pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus is influenced by cytomegalovirus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:974-81 pubmed
    ..05) and had a trend toward a higher hepatitis activity index (P=.10) and HCV load (P=.10) at 16 weeks after liver transplantation. The pathogenesis of HCV is influenced by its interaction with CMV but not with HHV-6. ..
  52. Geib T, Sauder C, Venturelli S, Hässler C, Staeheli P, Schwemmle M. Selective virus resistance conferred by expression of Borna disease virus nucleocapsid components. J Virol. 2003;77:4283-90 pubmed
  53. Duerst R, Morrison L. Herpes simplex virus 2 virion host shutoff protein interferes with type I interferon production and responsiveness. Virology. 2004;322:158-67 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations indicate that HSV-2 vhs is a broad and potent countermeasure to the IFN-mediated antiviral response in IFN-naïve and -sensitized MEFs. ..