Summary: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.

Top Publications

  1. Hermoso J, Garcia J, Garcia P. Taking aim on bacterial pathogens: from phage therapy to enzybiotics. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:461-72 pubmed
    ..These results allow endolysins to be considered as effective antimicrobials with potentially important applications in medicine and biotechnology. ..
  2. Rashel M, Uchiyama J, Takemura I, Hoshiba H, Ujihara T, Takatsuji H, et al. Tail-associated structural protein gp61 of Staphylococcus aureus phage phi MR11 has bifunctional lytic activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;284:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the presence of a tail-associated virion protein that acts as a lysin, in an S. aureus phage...
  3. Wang X, Kim Y, Wood T. Control and benefits of CP4-57 prophage excision in Escherichia coli biofilms. ISME J. 2009;3:1164-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, defective prophages are involved in host physiology through Hha and in biofilm formation by generating a diversified population with specialized functions in terms of motility and nutrient metabolism. ..
  4. Putrins M, Ilves H, Kivisaar M, Hõrak R. ColRS two-component system prevents lysis of subpopulation of glucose-grown Pseudomonas putida. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:2886-93 pubmed publisher
  5. Wang S, Kong J, Zhang X. Identification and characterization of the two-component cell lysis cassette encoded by temperate bacteriophage phiPYB5 of Lactobacillus fermentum. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:1939-44 pubmed publisher
  6. Knezevic P, Kostanjsek R, Obreht D, Petrovic O. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa specific phages with broad activity spectra. Curr Microbiol. 2009;59:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Digested DNA of the phages delta and I showed similar patterns, indicating the prevalence and success of this phage type in the environment...
  7. Park T, Struck D, Dankenbring C, Young R. The pinholin of lambdoid phage 21: control of lysis by membrane depolarization. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:9135-9 pubmed
    ..Pinholins require secreted SAR endolysins, a pairing that may represent an intermediate in the evolution of canonical holin-endolysin systems. ..
  8. Fischetti V. Bacteriophage lysins as effective antibacterials. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2008;11:393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, lysins may be a much needed anti-infective in an age of mounting antibiotic resistance. ..
  9. Lee C, Tseng T, Lin J, Fu Y, Weng S, Tseng Y. Lytic myophage Abp53 encodes several proteins similar to those encoded by host Acinetobacter baumannii and phage phiKO2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6755-62 pubmed publisher
    ..As phages can expand the host range by domain duplication in tail fiber proteins, repeated domains in ORF1176 might have a similar significance in Abp53. ..

More Information


  1. Soni K, Nannapaneni R. Removal of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms with bacteriophage P100. J Food Prot. 2010;73:1519-24 pubmed
    ..5- to 5.4-log/cm2 reduction in L. monocytogenes cells by phage treatment. These findings illustrate that phage P100 is active against a wide range of L. monocytogenes strains in biofilm conditions. ..
  2. Ryan G, Rutenberg A. Clocking out: modeling phage-induced lysis of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4749-55 pubmed
    ..Antiholin reduces the delay between membrane depolarization and lysis and leads to an earlier time after which triggered lysis is possible. ..
  3. Claverys J, Martin B, Havarstein L. Competence-induced fratricide in streptococci. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1423-33 pubmed
  4. Pang T, Savva C, Fleming K, Struck D, Young R. Structure of the lethal phage pinhole. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18966-71 pubmed publisher
  5. Serwer P, Hayes S, Thomas J, Hardies S. Propagating the missing bacteriophages: a large bacteriophage in a new class. Virol J. 2007;4:21 pubmed
    ..Bacteriophage 0305phi8-36 is in a new genomic class, based on genes for both structural components and DNA packaging ATPase. Thus, knowledge of environmental virus diversity is expanded with prospect of greater future expansion...
  6. Zhu T, Lou Q, Wu Y, Hu J, Yu F, Qu D. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:287 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria...
  7. Steen A, Buist G, Kramer N, Jalving R, Benus G, Venema G, et al. Reduced lysis upon growth of Lactococcus lactis on galactose is a consequence of decreased binding of the autolysin AcmA. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, growth of L. lactis on galactose changes the LTA composition in the cell wall in such a way that less AcmA is able to bind to the peptidoglycan, resulting in a decrease in autolysis. ..
  8. Yu S, Peng W, Si W, Yin L, Liu S, Liu H, et al. Enhancement of bacteriolysis of shuffled phage PhiX174 gene E. Virol J. 2011;8:206 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results may provide a promising avenue for the development of bacterial ghost vaccines. ..
  9. Tattoli I, Lembo Fazio L, Nigro G, Carneiro L, Ferraro E, Rossi G, et al. Intracellular bacteriolysis triggers a massive apoptotic cell death in Shigella-infected epithelial cells. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1114-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This intracellular bacteriolysis-mediated apoptotic death (IBAD) was characterized by the specific involvement of the mitochondrial-dependent ..
  10. Renzoni A, Barras C, Francois P, Charbonnier Y, Huggler E, Garzoni C, et al. Transcriptomic and functional analysis of an autolysis-deficient, teicoplanin-resistant derivative of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3048-61 pubmed
    ..Instead, our analysis points to alternate regulatory mechanisms that impact autolysis effectors which may include changes in posttranscriptional processing or export...
  11. Peng K, Broz P, Jones J, Joubert L, Monack D. Elevated AIM2-mediated pyroptosis triggered by hypercytotoxic Francisella mutant strains is attributed to increased intracellular bacteriolysis. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1586-600 pubmed publisher
  12. Becker S, Dong S, Baker J, Foster Frey J, Pritchard D, Donovan D. LysK CHAP endopeptidase domain is required for lysis of live staphylococcal cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;294:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus and the coagulase-negative strains. In the checkerboard assay, the CHAP-SH3b fusion achieves the same level of antimicrobial synergy with lysostaphin as the full-length LysK...
  13. Sauer J, Witte C, Zemansky J, Hanson B, Lauer P, Portnoy D. Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..identified a mutation in lmo2473 that caused hyperstimulation of IL-1beta secretion and pyroptosis following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol...
  14. Catalão M, Gil F, Moniz Pereira J, Pimentel M. Functional analysis of the holin-like proteins of mycobacteriophage Ms6. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2793-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that in Ms6 infection, the correct and programmed timing of lysis is achieved by the combined action of Gp4 and Gp5. ..
  15. Bayles K. The biological role of death and lysis in biofilm development. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:721-6 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis that the differential regulation of these processes during biofilm development contributes to the antibiotic tolerance of biofilm cells is also explored. ..
  16. Michel A, Agerer F, Hauck C, Herrmann M, Ullrich J, Hacker J, et al. Global regulatory impact of ClpP protease of Staphylococcus aureus on regulons involved in virulence, oxidative stress response, autolysis, and DNA repair. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5783-96 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a strong impact of ClpP proteolytic activity on virulence, stress response, and physiology in S. aureus. ..
  17. Krupovic M, Bamford D. Holin of bacteriophage lambda: structural insights into a membrane lesion. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:781-3 pubmed publisher this issue of Molecular Microbiology invites us to take a closer look at this membrane lesion. For the first time, a structural characterization of large-diameter rings formed by these peculiar membrane proteins is presented...
  18. Martner A, Skovbjerg S, Paton J, Wold A. Streptococcus pneumoniae autolysis prevents phagocytosis and production of phagocyte-activating cytokines. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3826-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that fragments generated by autolysis of bacteria with reduced viability interfere with phagocyte-mediated elimination of live pneumococci. ..
  19. Thomas V, Hiromasa Y, Harms N, Thurlow L, Tomich J, Hancock L. A fratricidal mechanism is responsible for eDNA release and contributes to biofilm development of Enterococcus faecalis. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:1022-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we address a mechanism by which GelE and SprE may modify the cell wall affinity of proteolytically processed AtlA resulting in either a pro- or anti-lytic outcome. ..
  20. Horgan M, O Flynn G, Garry J, Cooney J, Coffey A, Fitzgerald G, et al. Phage lysin LysK can be truncated to its CHAP domain and retain lytic activity against live antibiotic-resistant staphylococci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:872-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first known report of a truncated phage lysin which retains high lytic activity against live staphylococcal cells. ..
  21. Berry J, Summer E, Struck D, Young R. The final step in the phage infection cycle: the Rz and Rz1 lysis proteins link the inner and outer membranes. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:341-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion of the two membranes removes the last physical barrier to efficient release of progeny virions...
  22. Wegrzyn G, Licznerska K, Wegrzyn A. Phage ?--new insights into regulatory circuits. Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:155-78 pubmed publisher
  23. Shimizu T, Ohta Y, Noda M. Shiga toxin 2 is specifically released from bacterial cells by two different mechanisms. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2813-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we present evidence that specific Stx2 release from bacterial cells is involved in both the Stx2-encoding phage induction system and another Stx2 release system...
  24. Tanaka J, Nakae T, Onoe T, Horiuchi Y, Miyamoto H, Adan Kubo J, et al. Complement-mediated bacteriolysis after binding of specific antibodies to drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: morphological changes observed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope. J Infect Chemother. 2010;16:383-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IVIG may help patients with less IgG against bacteria to overcome severe infection. ..
  25. Golec P, Wiczk A, Majchrzyk A, o J, W grzyn G, o M. A role for accessory genes rI.-1 and rI.1 in the regulation of lysis inhibition by bacteriophage T4. Virus Genes. 2010;41:459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we demonstrate the results of genetic experiments which suggest a synergistic action of two accessory proteins of bacteriophage T4, RI.-1, and RI.1 with RIII in the regulation of LIN...
  26. Son J, Lee S, Jun S, Yoon S, Kang S, Paik H, et al. Antibacterial and biofilm removal activity of a podoviridae Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage SAP-2 and a derived recombinant cell-wall-degrading enzyme. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:1439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus biofilms. Thus, the cell-wall-degrading enzyme SAL-2 can be used to prevent and treat biofilm-associated S. aureus infections either on its own or in combination with other cell-wall-degrading enzymes with anti-S. aureus activity...
  27. Antignac A, Sieradzki K, Tomasz A. Perturbation of cell wall synthesis suppresses autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for coregulation of cell wall synthetic and hydrolytic enzymes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7573-80 pubmed
    ..aureus induces strong repression of the autolytic system and provide evidence for transcriptional regulation between cell wall synthetic and hydrolytic enzymes. ..
  28. Barnes A, Ballering K, Leibman R, Wells C, Dunny G. Enterococcus faecalis produces abundant extracellular structures containing DNA in the absence of cell lysis during early biofilm formation. MBio. 2012;3:e00193-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous models of biofilm formation in enterococci and related species propose cell lysis as the mechanism of DNA release. ..
  29. Ahn S, Rice K, Oleas J, Bayles K, Burne R. The Streptococcus mutans Cid and Lrg systems modulate virulence traits in response to multiple environmental signals. Microbiology. 2010;156:3136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..mutans, and its expression is controlled by two major environmental signals, oxygen and glucose. Moreover, cid/lrg expression is tightly regulated by LytST and CcpA. ..
  30. Amir A, Kobiler O, Rokney A, Oppenheim A, Stavans J. Noise in timing and precision of gene activities in a genetic cascade. Mol Syst Biol. 2007;3:71 pubmed
    ..Evidence for the independence of regulatory modules in the network is presented. ..
  31. Cheng Q, Fischetti V. Mutagenesis of a bacteriophage lytic enzyme PlyGBS significantly increases its antibacterial activity against group B streptococci. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:1284-91 pubmed
    ..A reduction in GBS colonization before delivery should significantly reduce neonatal GBS infection providing a safe alternative to IAP. ..
  32. Giuntini S, Reason D, Granoff D. Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of anti-factor H binding protein monoclonal antibodies against the meningococcus relies upon blocking factor H binding. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3751-9 pubmed publisher sparsely exposed fHbp on the bacterial surface, there appears to be insufficient complement activation for bacteriolysis unless fH binding also is inhibited...
  33. Vollmer W, Joris B, Charlier P, Foster S. Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:259-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also review the current view on the regulation of autolysins and on the role of cytoplasm hydrolases in peptidoglycan recycling and induction of beta-lactamase. ..
  34. Rodríguez Rubio L, Gutiérrez D, Martinez B, Rodriguez A, Garcia P. Lytic activity of LysH5 endolysin secreted by Lactococcus lactis using the secretion signal sequence of bacteriocin Lcn972. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Up to 80 U/mg of extracellular active endolysin was detected in culture supernatants, but most of the protein (up to 323 U/mg) remained in the cell extracts...
  35. Guenther S, Huwyler D, Richard S, Loessner M. Virulent bacteriophage for efficient biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data demonstrate that virulent broad-host-range phages, such as A511 and P100, can be very effective for specific biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in contamination-sensitive RTE foods. ..
  36. Erickson M, Newman D, Helm R, Dino A, Calcutt M, French W, et al. Competition among isolates of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium: role of prophage/phage in archived cultures. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;294:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in competitions of an archived strain with S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, phage emerged that had a DNA base sequence segment of prophage ST64B but the sequence differed from the reported homologous segment in ST64B. ..
  37. Stapleton M, Horsburgh M, Hayhurst E, Wright L, Jonsson I, Tarkowski A, et al. Characterization of IsaA and SceD, two putative lytic transglycosylases of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..An isaA sceD mutant is attenuated for virulence, while SceD is essential for nasal colonization in cotton rats, thus demonstrating the importance of cell wall dynamics in host-pathogen interactions...
  38. Rae C, Geissler A, Adamson P, Portnoy D. Mutations of the Listeria monocytogenes peptidoglycan N-deacetylase and O-acetylase result in enhanced lysozyme sensitivity, bacteriolysis, and hyperinduction of innate immune pathways. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3596-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysozyme-sensitive mutants underwent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol, resulting in AIM2-dependent pyroptosis...
  39. Thomas V, Thurlow L, Boyle D, Hancock L. Regulation of autolysis-dependent extracellular DNA release by Enterococcus faecalis extracellular proteases influences biofilm development. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis biofilms. ..
  40. Sozhamannan S, McKinstry M, Lentz S, Jalasvuori M, Mcafee F, Smith A, et al. Molecular characterization of a variant of Bacillus anthracis-specific phage AP50 with improved bacteriolytic activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6792-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous AP50c-resistant B. anthracis mutants exhibit a mucoid colony phenotype...
  41. Uchiyama J, Takemura I, Hayashi I, Matsuzaki S, Satoh M, Ujihara T, et al. Characterization of lytic enzyme open reading frame 9 (ORF9) derived from Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage phiEF24C. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that ORF9 is an endolysin of phage ?EF24C and can be a therapeutic alternative to antibiotics. ..
  42. Donovan D, Foster Frey J. LambdaSa2 prophage endolysin requires Cpl-7-binding domains and amidase-5 domain for antimicrobial lysis of streptococci. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;287:22-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The truncated constructs harboring the glycosidase domain are virtually inactive, showing only minimal activity on plate lysis assays...
  43. Martner A, Dahlgren C, Paton J, Wold A. Pneumolysin released during Streptococcus pneumoniae autolysis is a potent activator of intracellular oxygen radical production in neutrophils. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4079-87 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS released intracellularly may function as signaling molecules, modifying the function of neutrophils in bacterial defense. ..
  44. Hatfull G. The secret lives of mycobacteriophages. Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:179-288 pubmed publisher
    ..As the number of sequenced genomes continues to grow, their mysteries continue to thicken, and the time has come to learn more about the secret lives of mycobacteriophages...
  45. Visweswaran G, Steen A, Leenhouts K, Szeliga M, Ruban B, Hesseling Meinders A, et al. AcmD, a homolog of the major autolysin AcmA of Lactococcus lactis, binds to the cell wall and contributes to cell separation and autolysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72167 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas binding of the LysM domain of AcmA took place at pHs ranging from 4 to 8, LysM domain of AcmD seems to bind strongest at pH 4...
  46. Zeng L, Skinner S, Zong C, Sippy J, Feiss M, Golding I. Decision making at a subcellular level determines the outcome of bacteriophage infection. Cell. 2010;141:682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..By detecting and integrating over the subcellular "hidden variables," we are able to predict the level of noise measured at the single-cell level...
  47. Eldholm V, Johnsborg O, Haugen K, Ohnstad H, H varstein L. Fratricide in Streptococcus pneumoniae: contributions and role of the cell wall hydrolases CbpD, LytA and LytC. Microbiology. 2009;155:2223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the presence of 1 mM EDTA, the fraction of target cells lysed directly by CbpD increased dramatically, indicating that divalent cations are involved in the regulation of fratricide under natural conditions...
  48. Wang Y, Sun J, Lu C. Purified recombinant phage lysin LySMP: an extensive spectrum of lytic activity for swine streptococci. Curr Microbiol. 2009;58:609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..2. The turbidity of bacterium investigated was observed to decrease by 1.2-68% in 30 min. Result indicated that putative LySMP could be a candidate antimicrobial agent in controlling S. suis infection...
  49. Rice K, Bayles K. Molecular control of bacterial death and lysis. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2008;72:85-109, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..Further study in this exciting field of bacterial research may provide new insight into the potential evolutionary link between control of cell death in bacteria and programmed cell death (apoptosis) in eukaryotes. ..
  50. Srividhya K, Krishnaswamy S. Subclassification and targeted characterization of prophage-encoded two-component cell lysis cassette. J Biosci. 2007;32:979-90 pubmed
    ..coli and Salmonella typhi cell wall substrate. Such targeted sequence- structure-function characterization of proteins encoded by cryptic prophages will help understand the contribution of prophage proteins to bacterial evolution...
  51. Sass P, Bierbaum G. Lytic activity of recombinant bacteriophage phi11 and phi12 endolysins on whole cells and biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:347-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the phi12 endolysin was inactive and caused aggregation of the cells...
  52. Wittmann J, Eichenlaub R, Dreiseikelmann B. The endolysins of bacteriophages CMP1 and CN77 are specific for the lysis of Clavibacter michiganensis strains. Microbiology. 2010;156:2366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the high specificity of the CMP1 and CN77 endolysins they may be useful tools for biocontrol of plant-pathogenic C. michiganensis without affecting other bacteria in the soil. ..
  53. Zheng L, Yu C, Bayles K, Lasa I, Ji Y. Conditional mutation of an essential putative glycoprotease eliminates autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2734-42 pubmed publisher