bacterial translocation


Summary: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.

Top Publications

  1. Scarpellini E, Valenza V, Gabrielli M, Lauritano E, Perotti G, Merra G, et al. Intestinal permeability in cirrhotic patients with and without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: is the ring closed?. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:323-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to assess (51)Cr-EDTA urine and ascite cutoffs to set up SBP preventive strategies. ..
  2. Ilan Y. Leaky gut and the liver: a role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:2609-18 pubmed publisher
    Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and its complications...
  3. Bellot P, Garcia Pagan J, Francés R, Abraldes J, Navasa M, Perez Mateo M, et al. Bacterial DNA translocation is associated with systemic circulatory abnormalities and intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2010;52:2044-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of bacterial DNA, a marker of bacterial translocation, is associated with aggravation of peripheral vasodilation and with worsening of intrahepatic endothelial ..
  4. Teltschik Z, Wiest R, Beisner J, Nuding S, Hofmann C, Schoelmerich J, et al. Intestinal bacterial translocation in rats with cirrhosis is related to compromised Paneth cell antimicrobial host defense. Hepatology. 2012;55:1154-63 pubmed publisher
    Liver cirrhosis is associated with bacterial translocation (BT) and endotoxemia. Most translocating bacteria belong to the common intestinal microbiota, suggesting a breakdown of intestinal barrier function...
  5. D Ettorre G, Paiardini M, Zaffiri L, Andreotti M, Ceccarelli G, Rizza C, et al. HIV persistence in the gut mucosa of HIV-infected subjects undergoing antiretroviral therapy correlates with immune activation and increased levels of LPS. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:148-53 pubmed
    ..We concluded that in ART-treated individuals, higher levels of gut-associated HIV-DNA are associated with persistent immune activation and microbial translocation. ..
  6. Martínez Moya P, Ortega González M, Gonzalez R, Anzola A, Ocón B, Hernández Chirlaque C, et al. Exogenous alkaline phosphatase treatment complements endogenous enzyme protection in colonic inflammation and reduces bacterial translocation in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2012;66:144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Both oral and intrarectal AP counteracted bacterial translocation effectively (78 and 100%, respectively, p<0...
  7. Lu Y, Wu C, Huang Y, Huang C, Yang C, Lee T, et al. Neutrophil priming by hypoxic preconditioning protects against epithelial barrier damage and enteric bacterial translocation in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. Lab Invest. 2012;92:783-96 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation (BT)...
  8. Louis K, Netea M, Carrer D, Kotsaki A, Mylona V, Pistiki A, et al. Bacterial translocation in an experimental model of multiple organ dysfunctions. J Surg Res. 2013;183:686-94 pubmed publisher
    In order to investigate the hypothesis that bacterial translocation from the intestine contributes to death after multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a sterile MODS model was studied...
  9. Bergstrom K, Kissoon Singh V, Gibson D, Ma C, Montero M, Sham H, et al. Muc2 protects against lethal infectious colitis by disassociating pathogenic and commensal bacteria from the colonic mucosa. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000902 pubmed publisher
    ..Such actions limit tissue damage and translocation of pathogenic and commensal bacteria across the epithelium...

More Information


  1. Ancuta P, Monteiro P, SEKALY R. Th17 lineage commitment and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:158-65 pubmed publisher
  2. Chege D, Sheth P, Kain T, Kim C, Kovacs C, Loutfy M, et al. Sigmoid Th17 populations, the HIV latent reservoir, and microbial translocation in men on long-term antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2011;25:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite overall CD4(+) T-cell reconstitution, sigmoid Th17 frequencies after long-term ART were heterogeneous and higher frequencies were correlated with reduced microbial translocation. ..
  3. Peyrin Biroulet L, Gonzalez F, Dubuquoy L, Rousseaux C, Dubuquoy C, Decourcelle C, et al. Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease. Gut. 2012;61:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bacterial translocation to mesenteric fat was studied in experimental models of colitis and ileitis and in patients with CD...
  4. Sandler N, Douek D. Microbial translocation in HIV infection: causes, consequences and treatment opportunities. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012;10:655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss novel therapies that disrupt the translocation of microbial products and the downstream effects of microbial translocation. ..
  5. Dandekar S, George M, BAUMLER A. Th17 cells, HIV and the gut mucosal barrier. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:173-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Balagopal A, Gama L, Franco V, Russell J, Quinn J, Higgins Y, et al. Detection of microbial translocation in HIV and SIV infection using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay is masked by serum and plasma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41258 pubmed
    ..2% plasma and with diazo-coupling was closely correlated between the first and second samples (R?=?0.66, p<0.05). Undiluted serum and plasma mask LPS detection. The extent of MT may be substantially underestimated. ..
  7. Nowroozalizadeh S, Månsson F, da Silva Z, Repits J, Dabo B, Pereira C, et al. Microbial translocation correlates with the severity of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that microbial translocation may contribute to loss of CD4+ T cells, increase in viral load, and defective immune stimuli responsiveness during both HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 infections. ..
  8. Roberts C, Keita A, Duncan S, O Kennedy N, Soderholm J, Rhodes J, et al. Translocation of Crohn's disease Escherichia coli across M-cells: contrasting effects of soluble plant fibres and emulsifiers. Gut. 2010;59:1331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects occur at relevant concentrations and may contribute to the impact of dietary factors on Crohn's disease pathogenesis. ..
  9. Wang F, Zhang P, Jiang H, Cheng S. Gut bacterial translocation contributes to microinflammation in experimental uremia. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:2856-62 pubmed publisher
    Microinflammation frequently develops in chronic uremia with pathological intestinal changes. However, the relationship between gut bacterial translocation and microinflammation in uremia has not been widely investigated.
  10. Zhao Y, Zhang S, Jiang L, Jiang J, Liu H. Preventive effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis and bacterial translocation in mice. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:1775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of Schistosoma japonicum ova on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and bacterial translocation in mice...
  11. Louwen R, Nieuwenhuis E, van Marrewijk L, Horst Kreft D, de Ruiter L, Heikema A, et al. Campylobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..jejuni ganglioside-like LOS-expressing isolates are linked with severe gastroenteritis and bloody stools in C. jejuni-infected patients. ..
  12. Costa K, Soares A, Wanner S, Santos R, Fernandes S, Martins F, et al. L-arginine supplementation prevents increases in intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in male Swiss mice subjected to physical exercise under environmental heat stress. J Nutr. 2014;144:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the effects of arginine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation (BT) induced by prolonged physical exercise under heat stress...
  13. Maes M, Kubera M, Leunis J, Berk M. Increased IgA and IgM responses against gut commensals in chronic depression: further evidence for increased bacterial translocation or leaky gut. J Affect Disord. 2012;141:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that increased bacterial translocation with immune responses to the LPS of commensal bacteria may play a role in the pathophysiology of ..
  14. Batra A, Heimesaat M, Bereswill S, Fischer A, Glauben R, Kunkel D, et al. Mesenteric fat - control site for bacterial translocation in colitis?. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5:580-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to define effector responses of this compartment induced by bacterial translocation during intestinal inflammation...
  15. Medina Contreras O, Geem D, Laur O, Williams I, Lira S, Nusrat A, et al. CX3CR1 regulates intestinal macrophage homeostasis, bacterial translocation, and colitogenic Th17 responses in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus suggest key roles for the CX3CR1/CX3CL1 axis in the intestinal mucosa; further clarification of CX3CR1 function will likely direct efforts toward therapeutic intervention for mucosal inflammatory disorders such as IBD. ..
  16. de Oca Arjona M, Marquez M, Soto M, Rodriguez Ramos C, Terrón A, Vergara A, et al. Bacterial translocation in HIV-infected patients with HCV cirrhosis: implication in hemodynamic alterations and mortality. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:420-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6) are prognostic markers of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients with decompensated cirrhosis. ..
  17. Kawasaki T, Kawasaki C, Sata T, Chaudry I. Lidocaine suppresses mouse Peyer's Patch T cell functions and induces bacterial translocation. Surgery. 2011;149:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Although local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, it remains unclear whether local anesthetics such as lidocaine affect PP T cell functions...
  18. Hunt P. Th17, gut, and HIV: therapeutic implications. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:189-93 pubmed publisher
  19. Seki E, Schnabl B. Role of innate immunity and the microbiota in liver fibrosis: crosstalk between the liver and gut. J Physiol. 2012;590:447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes recent studies investigating the role of TLRs, intestinal microbiota and bacterial translocation in liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
  20. Yue C, Ma B, Zhao Y, Li Q, Li J. Lipopolysaccharide-induced bacterial translocation is intestine site-specific and associates with intestinal mucosal inflammation. Inflammation. 2012;35:1880-8 pubmed publisher
    ..whether any specific intestinal site or intestinal mucosal inflammation is highly correlated with bacterial translocation (BT)...
  21. Kaya O, Ozdemir F, Atli M, Aslan V, Cağatay M, Anlar M, et al. The effects of ciprofloxacin and ursodeoxycholic acid on bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2009;20:186-91 pubmed
    We aimed to search the effects of two different drugs in bacterial translocation, both in combination and alone: ursodeoxycholic acid, the effectiveness of which was evidenced previously, and ciprofloxacin, which had not been used before,..
  22. Viana M, dos Santos R, Generoso S, Nicoli J, Martins F, Nogueira Machado J, et al. The role of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in bacterial translocation. Amino Acids. 2013;45:1089-96 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the nitric oxide (NO) role as a mediator of arginine on bacterial translocation (BT) and gut damage in mice after intestinal obstruction (IO)...
  23. Chevalier M, Petitjean G, Dunyach Remy C, Didier C, Girard P, Manea M, et al. The Th17/Treg ratio, IL-1RA and sCD14 levels in primary HIV infection predict the T-cell activation set point in the absence of systemic microbial translocation. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003453 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the "innate immune set point" defined by the early levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA might be powerful early surrogate markers for disease progression and should be considered for use in clinical practice. ..
  24. Fouts D, Torralba M, Nelson K, Brenner D, Schnabl B. Bacterial translocation and changes in the intestinal microbiome in mouse models of liver disease. J Hepatol. 2012;56:1283-92 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial translocation are common in patients with advanced liver disease, and there is strong evidence that the translocation of bacteria and their products across the epithelial barrier drives experimental ..
  25. Snoek S, Dhawan S, van Bree S, Cailotto C, van Diest S, Duarte J, et al. Mast cells trigger epithelial barrier dysfunction, bacterial translocation and postoperative ileus in a mouse model. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:172-84, e91 pubmed publisher Ussing chambers, by measuring transport of luminal particles to the vena mesenterica, and by assessing bacterial translocation. In WT mice, IM resulted in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil ..
  26. Martins F, Vieira A, Elian S, Arantes R, Tiago F, Sousa L, et al. Inhibition of tissue inflammation and bacterial translocation as one of the protective mechanisms of Saccharomyces boulardii against Salmonella infection in mice. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At days 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 post-challenge, animals were euthanized and tissues collected to analyze bacterial translocation, cytokines, signaling pathways and histological analysis...
  27. Liberatore A, Moreira F, Gomes T, Menchaca Diaz J, Koh I. Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bacterial translocation associated with tissue hypoperfusion in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:1018-24 pubmed
    ..b>Bacterial translocation (BT) was induced in female Wistar-EPM rats (200-250 g) by oroduodenal catheterization and inoculation of ..
  28. Burkholder K, Bhunia A. Listeria monocytogenes uses Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) to promote bacterial transepithelial translocation and induces expression of LAP receptor Hsp60. Infect Immun. 2010;78:5062-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide insight into the role of LAP as a virulence factor during intestinal epithelial infection and pose new questions regarding the dynamics between the host stress response and pathogen infection. ..
  29. Zhang W, Gu Y, Chen Y, Deng H, Chen L, Chen S, et al. Intestinal flora imbalance results in altered bacterial translocation and liver function in rats with experimental cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:1481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal flora imbalances are seen in clinical settings, such as cirrhosis, in which bacterial translocation (BT) results in migration of bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal ..
  30. Qiao Z, Li Z, Li J, Lu L, Lv Y, Li J. Bacterial translocation and change in intestinal permeability in patients after abdominal surgery. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:486-91 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial translocation and change in intestinal permeability in patients after abdominal surgery. Sixty-three patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study...
  31. Clarke T, Francella N, Huegel A, Weiser J. Invasive bacterial pathogens exploit TLR-mediated downregulation of tight junction components to facilitate translocation across the epithelium. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:404-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, downregulation of SNAIL1 expression inhibited bacterial translocation across the epithelium...
  32. Heimesaat M, Boelke S, Fischer A, Haag L, Loddenkemper C, Kuhl A, et al. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40758 pubmed publisher, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination...
  33. Monaco M, Kashtanov D, Wang M, Walker D, Rai D, Jouni Z, et al. Addition of polydextrose and galactooligosaccharide to formula does not affect bacterial translocation in the neonatal piglet. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;52:210-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on bacterial translocation (BT) in neonatal piglets...
  34. Generoso S, Viana M, Santos R, Arantes R, Martins F, Nicoli J, et al. Protection against increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation induced by intestinal obstruction in mice treated with viable and heat-killed Saccharomyces boulardii. Eur J Nutr. 2011;50:261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of oral treatment with viable or heat-killed cells of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) on bacterial translocation, intestinal permeability, histological aspect of the ileum, and some immunological parameters were ..
  35. Petersson J, Schreiber O, Hansson G, Gendler S, Velcich A, Lundberg J, et al. Importance and regulation of the colonic mucus barrier in a mouse model of colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the ability of bacteria to regulate the thickness of the colonic mucus was demonstrated. ..
  36. Maes M, Kubera M, Leunis J, Berk M, Geffard M, Bosmans E. In depression, bacterial translocation may drive inflammatory responses, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and autoimmune responses directed against O&NS-damaged neoepitopes. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013;127:344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter suggests that bacterial translocation has caused IgM/IgA responses directed against LPS. Bacterial translocation may drive IO&NS responses...
  37. Generoso S, Viana M, Santos R, Martins F, Machado J, Arantes R, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model. Arch Microbiol. 2010;192:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) ..
  38. Santos Oliveira J, Regis E, Leal C, Cunha R, Bozza P, Da Cruz A. Evidence that lipopolisaccharide may contribute to the cytokine storm and cellular activation in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1198 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to possible benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis in conjunction with anti-Leishmania therapy. ..
  39. Nakao T, Kurita N, Komatsu M, Yoshikawa K, Iwata T, Utusnomiya T, et al. Irinotecan injures tight junction and causes bacterial translocation in rat. J Surg Res. 2012;173:341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether irinotecan induces bacterial translocation in rats, and thus elucidate the relationship between tight junction and bacterial translocation...
  40. Zhang C, Xu Y, Duan X, Liu Y, Zhao J, Xu L, et al. Role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in paclitaxel-induced intestinal barrier breakdown and bacterial translocation in rats. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:1870-5 pubmed
    Chemotherapy causes breakdown of the intestinal barrier, which may lead to bacterial translocation. Paclitaxel, an anti-tubulin agent, has many side effects; however, its effect on the intestinal barrier is unknown...
  41. Bou Ghanem E, Jones G, Myers Morales T, Patil P, Hidayatullah A, D Orazio S. InlA promotes dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes to the mesenteric lymph nodes during food borne infection of mice. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003015 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these studies revealed a previously uncharacterized role for InlA in facilitating systemic spread via the lymphatic system after invasion of the gut mucosa. ..
  42. Pallikkuth S, Micci L, Ende Z, Iriele R, Cervasi B, Lawson B, et al. Maintenance of intestinal Th17 cells and reduced microbial translocation in SIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with interleukin (IL)-21. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003471 pubmed publisher
    ..Further preclinical studies of IL-21 may be warranted to test its potential use during chronic infection in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy...
  43. Wang F, Jiang H, Shi K, Ren Y, Zhang P, Cheng S. Gut bacterial translocation is associated with microinflammation in end-stage renal disease patients. Nephrology (Carlton). 2012;17:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The control group showed the same results as that of patients without bacterial DNA. Bacterial translocation occurs in ESRD patients and is associated with microinflammation in end stage renal disease.
  44. Sozen S, Topuz O, Uzun A, Cetinkünar S, Das K. Prevention of bacterial translocation using glutamine and melatonin in small bowel ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Ann Ital Chir. 2012;83:143-8 pubmed
    ..The incidence of bacterial translocation was decreased in all treatment groups as compared to the control group...
  45. Gómez Hurtado I, Santacruz A, Peiro G, Zapater P, Gutierrez A, Perez Mateo M, et al. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with inflammation and bacterial translocation in mice with CCl4-induced fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23037 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been described in cirrhosis and account for an increased bacterial translocation rate...
  46. Mizuno T, Yokoyama Y, Nishio H, Ebata T, Sugawara G, Asahara T, et al. Intraoperative bacterial translocation detected by bacterium-specific ribosomal rna-targeted reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the mesenteric lymph node strongly predicts postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectom. Ann Surg. 2010;252:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    There is little evidence indicating a causal linkage between bacterial translocation and postoperative infectious complication (POIC) in human studies...
  47. Cunningham Rundles S, Ahrne S, Johann Liang R, Abuav R, Dunn Navarra A, Grassey C, et al. Effect of probiotic bacteria on microbial host defense, growth, and immune function in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Nutrients. 2011;3:1042-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Probiotic bacteria may stabilize CD4+ T cell numbers in HIV-1 infected children and are likely to have protective effects against inflammation and chronic immune activation of the gastrointestinal immune system. ..
  48. Page E, Nelson M, Kelleher P. HIV and hepatitis C coinfection: pathogenesis and microbial translocation. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011;6:472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..If microbial translocation is a significant contributory factor to hepatic fibrosis, targeted interventions against microbial products may improve clinical outcomes. ..
  49. Fritz S, Hackert T, Hartwig W, Rossmanith F, Strobel O, Schneider L, et al. Bacterial translocation and infected pancreatic necrosis in acute necrotizing pancreatitis derives from small bowel rather than from colon. Am J Surg. 2010;200:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, the pathophysiology of the underlying bacterial translocation is poorly understood. The present study investigated the bacterial source of translocation...
  50. Hunninghake G, Doerschug K, Nymon A, Schmidt G, Meyerholz D, Ashare A. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels contribute to the development of bacterial translocation in sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that decreased IGF-1 levels in sepsis contributes to the development of bacterial translocation. Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 mice via intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  51. Alemka A, Clyne M, Shanahan F, Tompkins T, Corcionivoschi N, Bourke B. Probiotic colonization of the adherent mucus layer of HT29MTXE12 cells attenuates Campylobacter jejuni virulence properties. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2812-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the potential for E12 cells as a model of mucosal pathogenesis and provide a rationale for the further investigation of probiotics as prophylaxis against human campylobacteriosis. ..
  52. Arce R, Diaz P, Barros S, Galloway P, Bobetsis Y, Threadgill D, et al. Characterization of the invasive and inflammatory traits of oral Campylobacter rectus in a murine model of fetoplacental growth restriction and in trophoblast cultures. J Reprod Immunol. 2010;84:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the trophoblast-invasive trait of C. rectus that appears limited to human trophoblasts may play a role in facilitating bacterial translocation and placental inflammation during early gestation.
  53. Güler O, Akturan S, Kisli E, Dolapci I, Caydere M, Akova A. Acute pancreatitis, bacterial translocation, and different octreotide regimens: an experimental study. Surg Today. 2009;39:876-83 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effect of octreotide, octreotide with zinc, levamisole, and misoprostol on the bacterial translocation that develops in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP)...