polyadenylation

Summary

Summary: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.

Top Publications

  1. Szczesny R, Borowski L, Brzezniak L, Dmochowska A, Gewartowski K, Bartnik E, et al. Human mitochondrial RNA turnover caught in flagranti: involvement of hSuv3p helicase in RNA surveillance. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:279-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we present data indicating that hSuv3p co-purifies with PNPase; this may suggest participation of both proteins in mtRNA metabolism. ..
  2. Kondrashov A, Meijer H, Barthet Barateig A, Parker H, Khurshid A, Tessier S, et al. Inhibition of polyadenylation reduces inflammatory gene induction. RNA. 2012;18:2236-50 pubmed publisher
    Cordycepin (3' deoxyadenosine) has long been used in the study of in vitro assembled polyadenylation complexes, because it terminates the poly(A) tail and arrests the cleavage complex...
  3. Lianoglou S, Garg V, Yang J, Leslie C, Mayr C. Ubiquitously transcribed genes use alternative polyadenylation to achieve tissue-specific expression. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2380-96 pubmed publisher
    More than half of human genes use alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (ApA) to generate mRNA transcripts that differ in the lengths of their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), thus altering the post-transcriptional fate of the message ..
  4. Fu Y, Sun Y, Li Y, Li J, Rao X, Chen C, et al. Differential genome-wide profiling of tandem 3' UTRs among human breast cancer and normal cells by high-throughput sequencing. Genome Res. 2011;21:741-7 pubmed publisher
    Tandem 3' UTRs produced by alternative polyadenylation (APA) play an important role in gene expression by impacting mRNA stability, translation, and translocation in cells...
  5. Katahira J, Okuzaki D, Inoue H, Yoneda Y, Maehara K, Ohkawa Y. Human TREX component Thoc5 affects alternative polyadenylation site choice by recruiting mammalian cleavage factor I. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:7060-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of a heterotetrameric protein complex mammalian cleavage factor I (CFIm), which is implicated in alternative polyadenylation site choice, co-purified with Thoc5, a component of human TREX...
  6. Sun Y, Fu Y, Li Y, Xu A. Genome-wide alternative polyadenylation in animals: insights from high-throughput technologies. J Mol Cell Biol. 2012;4:352-61 pubmed publisher
    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays an important role in gene expression by affecting mRNA stability, translation, and translocation in cells...
  7. Langemeier J, Schrom E, Rabner A, Radtke M, Zychlinski D, Saborowski A, et al. A complex immunodeficiency is based on U1 snRNP-mediated poly(A) site suppression. EMBO J. 2012;31:4035-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data endorse the recently described role of U1 snRNP in suppression of intronic poly(A) sites, which is here deleterious for p14 mRNA biogenesis. ..
  8. Millevoi S, Moine H, Vagner S. G-quadruplexes in RNA biology. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2012;3:495-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, RNA G-quadruplexes appear as important regulators of pre-mRNA processing (splicing and polyadenylation), RNA turnover, mRNA targeting and translation...
  9. Haenni S, Ji Z, Hoque M, Rust N, Sharpe H, Eberhard R, et al. Analysis of C. elegans intestinal gene expression and polyadenylation by fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting and 3'-end-seq. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:6304-18 pubmed
    ..elegans intestine and used this to analyse tissue-specific cleavage and polyadenylation. In agreement with intestinal-specific gene expression, highly expressed genes have enriched GATA-elements in ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Boutet S, Cheung T, Quach N, Liu L, Prescott S, Edalati A, et al. Alternative polyadenylation mediates microRNA regulation of muscle stem cell function. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In these QSCs, Pax3 transcripts are subject to alternative polyadenylation, resulting in transcripts with shorter 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) that render them resistant to ..
  2. Spies N, Nielsen C, Padgett R, Burge C. Biased chromatin signatures around polyadenylation sites and exons. Mol Cell. 2009;36:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed strong nucleosome depletion around human polyadenylation sites (PAS) and nucleosome enrichment just downstream of PAS...
  3. Macisaac J, Bogutz A, Morrissy A, Lefebvre L. Tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation at the imprinted gene Mest regulates allelic usage at Copg2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..development MestXL is produced exclusively in the developing central nervous system (CNS) by alternative polyadenylation. Copg2 is biallelically expressed in the embryo except in MestXL-expressing tissues, where we observed ..
  4. Haddad R, Maurice F, Viphakone N, Voisinet Hakil F, Fribourg S, Minvielle Sebastia L. An essential role for Clp1 in assembly of polyadenylation complex CF IA and Pol II transcription termination. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1226-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyadenylation is a co-transcriptional process that modifies mRNA 3'-ends in eukaryotes. In yeast, CF IA and CPF constitute the core 3'-end maturation complex. CF IA comprises Rna14p, Rna15p, Pcf11p and Clp1p...
  5. Eckmann C, Rammelt C, Wahle E. Control of poly(A) tail length. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2011;2:348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, destabilizing oligoadenylation does not appear to have inherent length control. Rather, average tail length results from the balance between polyadenylation and deadenylation.
  6. Luo W, Ji Z, Pan Z, You B, Hoque M, Li W, et al. The conserved intronic cleavage and polyadenylation site of CstF-77 gene imparts control of 3' end processing activity through feedback autoregulation and by U1 snRNP. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003613 pubmed publisher
    The human gene encoding the cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P) factor CstF-77 contains 21 exons...
  7. Neilson J, Sandberg R. Heterogeneity in mammalian RNA 3' end formation. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1357-64 pubmed publisher
    Precisely directed cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA is a fundamental part of eukaryotic gene expression...
  8. Mangone M, Manoharan A, Thierry Mieg D, Thierry Mieg J, Han T, Mackowiak S, et al. The landscape of C. elegans 3'UTRs. Science. 2010;329:432-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Average 3'UTR length decreases with animal age. Surprisingly, no polyadenylation signal (PAS) was detected for 13% of polyadenylation sites, predominantly among shorter alternative isoforms...
  9. Igea A, Mendez R. Meiosis requires a translational positive loop where CPEB1 ensues its replacement by CPEB4. EMBO J. 2010;29:2182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..is mainly induced by the cytoplasmic elongation of their poly(A) tails, which is mediated by the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) present in their 3' untranslated regions...
  10. Urbanczyk A, Junemann A, Enz R. PKC?-interacting protein ZIP3 is generated by intronic polyadenylation, and is expressed in the brain and retina of the rat. Biochem J. 2011;433:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we identified intronic polyadenylation signals in rat and human ZIP genes [known as SQSTM1 (sequestosome-1) in humans] and detected the ..
  11. Mohanty B, Maples V, Kushner S. Polyadenylation helps regulate functional tRNA levels in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:4589-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, neither PNPase nor RNase II has any effect on tRNA poly(A) tail length. Our data suggest that the polyadenylation of tRNAs by PAP I likely proceeds in a distributive fashion unlike what is observed with mRNAs.
  12. Lemay J, D Amours A, Lemieux C, Lackner D, St Sauveur V, Bahler J, et al. The nuclear poly(A)-binding protein interacts with the exosome to promote synthesis of noncoding small nucleolar RNAs. Mol Cell. 2010;37:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In the nucleus, the PABP PABPN1 is thought to function in polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs...
  13. Sherstnev A, Duc C, Cole C, Zacharaki V, Hornyik C, Ozsolak F, et al. Direct sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana RNA reveals patterns of cleavage and polyadenylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are essential to understanding what the genome actually encodes, how it is organized and how regulated 3'-end formation affects these processes. ..
  14. Oruganty Das A, Ng T, Udagawa T, Goh E, Richter J. Translational control of mitochondrial energy production mediates neuron morphogenesis. Cell Metab. 2012;16:789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that brain mitochondrial ATP production is controlled by the cytoplasmic polyadenylation-induced translation of an mRNA encoding NDUFV2, a key mitochondrial protein...
  15. Yamanaka S, Yamashita A, Harigaya Y, Iwata R, Yamamoto M. Importance of polyadenylation in the selective elimination of meiotic mRNAs in growing S. pombe cells. EMBO J. 2010;29:2173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate the critical role of polyadenylation in this process...
  16. Chang J, Tong L. Mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase and polyadenylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1819:992-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyadenylation of mitochondrial RNAs in higher eukaryotic organisms have diverse effects on their function and metabolism...
  17. Shepard P, Choi E, Lu J, Flanagan L, Hertel K, Shi Y. Complex and dynamic landscape of RNA polyadenylation revealed by PAS-Seq. RNA. 2011;17:761-72 pubmed publisher
    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) of mRNAs has emerged as an important mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation in higher eukaryotes...
  18. Zubko E, Kunova A, Meyer P. Sense and antisense transcripts of convergent gene pairs in Arabidopsis thaliana can share a common polyadenylation region. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16769 pubmed publisher
    ..a class of long sense transcripts and a class of short sense transcripts that terminate within the same polyadenylation region as the antisense transcripts encoded by the opposite strand...
  19. Beaudoin J, Perreault J. Exploring mRNA 3'-UTR G-quadruplexes: evidence of roles in both alternative polyadenylation and mRNA shortening. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:5898-911 pubmed publisher
    ..The 3'-UTR G-quadruplexes were found to increase the efficiencies of alternative polyadenylation sites, leading to the expression of shorter transcripts and to possess the ability to interfere with the ..
  20. Imesch P, Hornung R, Fink D, Fedier A. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), an inhibitor of mRNA polyadenylation, suppresses proliferation and activates apoptosis in human epithelial endometriotic cells in vitro. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2011;72:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA polyadenylation inhibitor cordycepin inhibits proliferation and survival of endometriotic cells.
  21. Villalba A, Coll O, Gebauer F. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational control. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011;21:452-7 pubmed publisher
    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is the process by which dormant, translationally inactive mRNAs become activated via the elongation of their poly(A) tails in the cytoplasm...
  22. Ntini E, Järvelin A, Bornholdt J, Chen Y, Boyd M, Jørgensen M, et al. Polyadenylation site-induced decay of upstream transcripts enforces promoter directionality. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:923-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, motif analyses around PROMPT 3' ends reveal polyadenylation (pA)-like signals...
  23. Yu L, Volkert M. UV damage regulates alternative polyadenylation of the RPB2 gene in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3104-14 pubmed publisher
    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. Selective use of polyadenylation sites appears to be a highly regulated process and contributes to human pathogenesis...
  24. Ji X, Wan J, Vishnu M, Xing Y, Liebhaber S. ?CP Poly(C) binding proteins act as global regulators of alternative polyadenylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2560-73 pubmed publisher
    ..impact of ?CP RNA-protein (RNP) complexes on 3' processing with a specific focus on its role in alternative polyadenylation (APA) site utilization...
  25. Hafez D, Ni T, Mukherjee S, Zhu J, Ohler U. Genome-wide identification and predictive modeling of tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation. Bioinformatics. 2013;29:i108-16 pubmed publisher
    Pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation are essential steps for 3'-end maturation and subsequent stability and degradation of mRNAs...
  26. Lin Y, Li Z, Ozsolak F, Kim S, Arango Argoty G, Liu T, et al. An in-depth map of polyadenylation sites in cancer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:8460-71 pubmed
    We present a comprehensive map of over 1 million polyadenylation sites and quantify their usage in major cancers and tumor cell lines using direct RNA sequencing...
  27. Grosso A, de Almeida S, Braga J, Carmo Fonseca M. Dynamic transitions in RNA polymerase II density profiles during transcription termination. Genome Res. 2012;22:1447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..no enrichment, genes that accumulate RNAPII at the 3'-end are shorter, more frequently contain the canonical polyadenylation [poly(A)] signal AATAAA and G-rich motifs in the downstream sequence element, and have higher levels of ..
  28. Chujo T, Ohira T, Sakaguchi Y, Goshima N, Nomura N, Nagao A, et al. LRPPRC/SLIRP suppresses PNPase-mediated mRNA decay and promotes polyadenylation in human mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:8033-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, LRPPRC promoted the polyadenylation of mRNAs mediated by mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase (MTPAP) in vitro...
  29. Fox Walsh K, Davis Turak J, Zhou Y, Li H, Fu X. A multiplex RNA-seq strategy to profile poly(A+) RNA: application to analysis of transcription response and 3' end formation. Genomics. 2011;98:266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..PolyA-linked Sequences (MAPS), preserves strand information, permits rapid identification of potentially new polyadenylation sites, and profiles gene expression in a highly cost effective manner...
  30. Preker P, Almvig K, Christensen M, Valen E, Mapendano C, Sandelin A, et al. PROMoter uPstream Transcripts share characteristics with mRNAs and are produced upstream of all three major types of mammalian promoters. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7179-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RNAPII activity upstream gene promoters are wide-spread and integral to the act of gene transcription. ..
  31. Wilusz J, Whipple J, Phizicky E, Sharp P. tRNAs marked with CCACCA are targeted for degradation. Science. 2011;334:817-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We conjecture that CCACCA addition is a universal mechanism for controlling tRNA levels and preventing errors in translation. ..
  32. Gong Q, Stump M, Dunn A, Deng V, Zhou Z. Alternative splicing and polyadenylation contribute to the generation of hERG1 C-terminal isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that hERG1 isoforms with different C-terminal ends are generated by alternative splicing and polyadenylation of hERG1 pre-mRNA...
  33. Kaer K, Branovets J, Hallikma A, Nigumann P, Speek M. Intronic L1 retrotransposons and nested genes cause transcriptional interference by inducing intron retention, exonization and cryptic polyadenylation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26099 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular effects resulting from this interaction are largely unknown...
  34. Schrom E, Moschall R, Schuch A, Bodem J. Regulation of retroviral polyadenylation. Adv Virus Res. 2013;85:1-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Otherwise, polyadenylation at the 5'LTR would result in prematurely terminated, noncoding viral RNAs...
  35. Gyawali S, Subaran R, Weissman M, Hershkowitz D, McKenna M, Talati A, et al. Association of a polyadenylation polymorphism in the serotonin transporter and panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A common polymorphism (rs3813034) occurs in one of the two reported polyadenylation signals for the serotonin transporter and is in linkage disequilibrium with the PD-associated markers...
  36. Barnhart M, Moon S, Emch A, Wilusz C, Wilusz J. Changes in cellular mRNA stability, splicing, and polyadenylation through HuR protein sequestration by a cytoplasmic RNA virus. Cell Rep. 2013;5:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, significant changes can be observed in nuclear alternative polyadenylation and splicing events on cellular pre-mRNAs as a result of sequestration of HuR protein by the 3' UTR of ..
  37. Almada A, Wu X, Kriz A, Burge C, Sharp P. Promoter directionality is controlled by U1 snRNP and polyadenylation signals. Nature. 2013;499:360-3 pubmed publisher
    ..gene transcription start sites control promoter directionality by regulating promoter-proximal cleavage and polyadenylation. We find that upstream antisense RNAs are cleaved and polyadenylated at poly(A) sites (PASs) shortly after ..
  38. Johansson C, Somberg M, Li X, Backstr m Winquist E, Fay J, Ryan F, et al. HPV-16 E2 contributes to induction of HPV-16 late gene expression by inhibiting early polyadenylation. EMBO J. 2012;31:3212-27 pubmed publisher
    ..High levels of E2 caused a read-through at the early polyadenylation signal pAE into the late region of the HPV genome, thereby inducing expression of L1 and L2 mRNAs...
  39. Friend K, Brook M, Bezirci F, Sheets M, Gray N, Seli E. Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (ePAB) phosphorylation is required for Xenopus oocyte maturation. Biochem J. 2012;445:93-100 pubmed publisher
    Oocyte maturation and early embryonic development require the cytoplasmic polyadenylation and concomitant translational activation of stored maternal mRNAs...
  40. Nagaike T, Logan C, Hotta I, Rozenblatt Rosen O, Meyerson M, Manley J. Transcriptional activators enhance polyadenylation of mRNA precursors. Mol Cell. 2011;41:409-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyadenylation of mRNA precursors is frequently coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II...
  41. Kainov D, M ller K, Theisen L, Anastasina M, Kaloinen M, Muller C. Differential effects of NS1 proteins of human pandemic H1N1/2009, avian highly pathogenic H5N1, and low pathogenic H5N2 influenza A viruses on cellular pre-mRNA polyadenylation and mRNA translation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..protein NS1 of influenza A virus blocks the development of host antiviral responses by inhibiting polyadenylation of cellular pre-mRNA. NS1 also promotes the synthesis of viral proteins by stimulating mRNA translation...
  42. Germain A, Herlich S, Larom S, Kim S, Schuster G, Stern D. Mutational analysis of Arabidopsis chloroplast polynucleotide phosphorylase reveals roles for both RNase PH core domains in polyadenylation, RNA 3'-end maturation and intron degradation. Plant J. 2011;67:381-94 pubmed publisher
    ..maturing mRNA and rRNA 3'-ends, but also participates in RNA degradation through exonucleolytic digestion and polyadenylation. These functions depend absolutely on the catalytic site within the second duplicated RNase PH domain, and ..
  43. Xie B, Jankovic B, Bajic V, Song L, Gao X. Poly(A) motif prediction using spectral latent features from human DNA sequences. Bioinformatics. 2013;29:i316-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule...
  44. Aslam N, Shouval H. Regulation of cytoplasmic polyadenylation can generate a bistable switch. BMC Syst Biol. 2012;6:12 pubmed publisher
    Translation efficiency of certain mRNAs can be regulated through a cytoplasmic polyadenylation process at the pre-initiation phase...
  45. Morris A, Bos A, Diosdado B, Rooijers K, Elkon R, Bolijn A, et al. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation during colorectal cancer development. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:5256-66 pubmed publisher
    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) of mRNAs is a phenomenon that alters 3'-untranslated region length leading to altered posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression...
  46. Zhou L, Yuan Q, Yang M. A functional germline variant in the P53 polyadenylation signal and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gene. 2012;506:295-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in the 3'-untranslated region of the P53 gene, and this A-to-C polymorphism results in changes of the AATAAA polyadenylation signal to AATACA, which leads to impaired 3'-end processing of P53 mRNA and decreased P53 expression...
  47. Cremona N, Potter K, Wise J. A meiotic gene regulatory cascade driven by alternative fates for newly synthesized transcripts. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:66-77 pubmed publisher
  48. Zhang X, Liu Y, Rainey P. CbrAB-dependent regulation of pcnB, a poly(A) polymerase gene involved in polyadenylation of RNA in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:1674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that both pcnB and crcZ are part of the CbrB regulon. Moreover, the data draw further attention to the central regulatory role of CbrB and provides a link between mRNA degradation and cellular catabolism. ..
  49. Smibert P, Miura P, Westholm J, Shenker S, May G, Duff M, et al. Global patterns of tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012;1:277-89 pubmed
    We analyzed the usage and consequences of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) in Drosophila melanogaster by using >1 billion reads of stranded mRNA-seq across a variety of dissected tissues...
  50. Glahder J, Norrild B. Involvement of hGLD-2 in cytoplasmic polyadenylation of human p53 mRNA. APMIS. 2011;119:769-75 pubmed publisher
    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a post-transcriptional mechanism regulating mRNA stability and translation...
  51. Milcarek C, Albring M, Langer C, Park K. The eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia gene (ELL2) influences the histone H3 protein modifications accompanying the shift to secretory immunoglobulin heavy chain mRNA production. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33795-803 pubmed publisher
    ..IgH gene and impacted positive transcription factor b (pTEFb), Ser-2 carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation, and polyadenylation factor additions to RNA polymerase II...
  52. Dickson J, Kruse C, Montagna D, Finsen B, Wolfe M. Alternative polyadenylation and miR-34 family members regulate tau expression. J Neurochem. 2013;127:739-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Tau expresses two 3'-UTR isoforms, long and short, as a result of alternative polyadenylation. Using luciferase reporter constructs, we found that expression from these isoforms is differentially ..
  53. Li X, Du D. RNA polyadenylation sites on the genomes of microorganisms, animals, and plants. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79511 pubmed publisher
    Pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) 3'-end cleavage and subsequent polyadenylation strongly regulate gene expression...