Summary: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.

Top Publications

  1. Stergiou P, Foukis A, Filippou M, Koukouritaki M, Parapouli M, Theodorou L, et al. Advances in lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions. Biotechnol Adv. 2013;31:1846-59 pubmed publisher
    Lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions are among the most significant chemical and biochemical processes of industrial relevance. Lipases catalyze hydrolysis as well as esterification reactions...
  2. Zhao Y, Yang S, Mu B. Kinetic modeling of esterification reaction of surfactin-C?? in methanol solution. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;169:327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Using trifluoroacetic acid as the catalyst, the esterification and the contents change in surfactin-C(15), mono- and dimethyl ester surfactin-C(15) with time were ..
  3. Volpi C, Raiola A, Janni M, Gordon A, O Sullivan D, Favaron F, et al. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;73:294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls...
  4. Xu S, Jay A, Brunaldi K, Huang N, Hamilton J. CD36 enhances fatty acid uptake by increasing the rate of intracellular esterification but not transport across the plasma membrane. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..cells showed that caveolin-1 affects FA binding and translocation across the plasma membrane and but not FA esterification [Simard, J. R., et al. (2010) J. Lipid Res. 51 (5), 914-922]...
  5. Yan J, Li A, Xu Y, Ngo T, Phua S, Li Z. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: one-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases. Bioresour Technol. 2012;123:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..FAME) from grease (15-40wt% free fatty acid, FFA) were developed by using tandem lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system...
  6. Lionetti V, Cervone F, Bellincampi D. Methyl esterification of pectin plays a role during plant-pathogen interactions and affects plant resistance to diseases. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree and pattern of methyl esterification affect the cell wall structure and properties with consequences on both the physiological processes of the ..
  7. Griffiths M, van Hille R, Harrison S. Selection of direct transesterification as the preferred method for assay of fatty acid content of microalgae. Lipids. 2010;45:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The two-catalyst reaction was insensitive to water up to 10% of total reaction volume. DT proved a convenient and more accurate method than the extraction techniques for quantifying total fatty acid content in microalgae. ..
  8. Souza M, Aguieiras E, da Silva M, Langone M. Biodiesel synthesis via esterification of feedstock with high content of free fatty acids. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;154:74-88 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this work was to study the synthesis of ethyl esters via esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with ethanol, using solid acid catalysts and commercial immobilized lipases, in a solvent-free system...
  9. Chaibakhsh N, Abdul Rahman M, Abd Aziz S, Basri M, Salleh A, Abdul Rahman R. Optimized lipase-catalyzed synthesis of adipate ester in a solvent-free system. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:1149-55 pubmed publisher
    Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase-catalyzed esterification of adipic acid and oleyl alcohol was investigated in a solvent-free system (SFS)...

Scientific Experts

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  1. Hájek M, Skopal F. Treatment of glycerol phase formed by biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:3242-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The process of treatment is easy and environmentally friendly, because no special chemicals or equipment are required and all products are utilizable. ..
  2. Höckerstedt A, Jauhiainen M, Tikkanen M. Lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase induces estradiol esterification in high-density lipoprotein, increasing its antioxidant potential. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5088-93 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated the role of LCAT in E2 esterification and its involvement in antioxidant protection of HDL...
  3. Paillasse M, de Medina P, Amouroux G, Mhamdi L, Poirot M, Silvente Poirot S. Signaling through cholesterol esterification: a new pathway for the cholecystokinin 2 receptor involved in cell growth and invasion. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:2203-11 pubmed publisher
    Several studies indicate that cholesterol esterification is deregulated in cancers...
  4. Duan Z, Du W, Liu D. The solvent influence on the positional selectivity of Novozym 435 during 1,3-diolein synthesis by esterification. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:2568-71 pubmed publisher
    ..23 to 4.5) on the positional selectivity of the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 during the esterification of oleic acid with glycerol for 1,3-diolein preparation was investigated...
  5. Liaw E, Liu K. Synthesis of terpinyl acetate by lipase-catalyzed esterification in supercritical carbon dioxide. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:3320-4 pubmed publisher
    ..An esterification extent of 53.0% was obtained in continuous operation using acetic anhydride as acyl donor and C...
  6. Gelsthorpe M, Baumann N, Millard E, Gale S, Langmade S, Schaffer J, et al. Niemann-Pick type C1 I1061T mutant encodes a functional protein that is selected for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation due to protein misfolding. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8229-36 pubmed publisher
  7. Pereira L, Schoor S, Goubet F, Dupree P, Moffatt B. Deficiency of adenosine kinase activity affects the degree of pectin methyl-esterification in cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2006;224:1401-14 pubmed
    Pectin methyl-esterification is catalysed by S-adenosyl-L: -methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. As deficiency in adenosine kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.1...
  8. Salvatore A, Cigliano L, Carlucci A, Bucci E, Abrescia P. Haptoglobin binds apolipoprotein E and influences cholesterol esterification in the cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem. 2009;110:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..which is involved in stimulating the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for cholesterol esterification. This binding was shown to protect ApoA-I against hydroxyl radicals, thus preventing loss of ApoA-I function ..
  9. Hernández Martín E, Otero C. Enzymatic re-esterification of lower glycerides from soybean oil with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:701-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzymatic re-esterification with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of lower glycerides (di- and monoglycerides) obtained from soybean oil was ..
  10. Rossignoli A, Fernandez D, Regueiro J, Marino C, Blanco J. Esterification of okadaic acid in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Toxicon. 2011;57:712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Other aspects of the relationship between depuration and acylation are also discussed. ..
  11. Westerterp M, Berbee J, Delsing D, Jong M, Gijbels M, Dahlmans V, et al. Apolipoprotein C-I binds free fatty acids and reduces their intracellular esterification. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:1353-61 pubmed
    ..apoC-I-deficient versus wild-type macrophages revealed that apoC-I reduced the cell association and subsequent esterification of [(3)H]oleic acid by approximately 35% (P < 0.05)...
  12. Chang T, Chang C, Bryleva E, Rogers M, Murphy S. Neuronal cholesterol esterification by ACAT1 in Alzheimer's disease. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..between cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on a recent study that links neuronal cholesterol esterification with biosynthesis of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and the fate of human amyloid precursor protein in a mouse model ..
  13. Douchiche O, Driouich A, Morvan C. Spatial regulation of cell-wall structure in response to heavy metal stress: cadmium-induced alteration of the methyl-esterification pattern of homogalacturonans. Ann Bot. 2010;105:481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..2F4 monoclonal antibodies were used, in addition to JIM5 and JIM7, to extend the investigation on the methyl-esterification pattern of HGA within various domains of the cortical tissues, including the cortical parenchyma where cell ..
  14. Volpi C, Janni M, Lionetti V, Bellincampi D, Favaron F, D Ovidio R. The ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:1012-9 pubmed publisher
    Cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl-esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (PG)...
  15. Dobiásová M, Frohlich J, Sedová M, Cheung M, Brown B. Cholesterol esterification and atherogenic index of plasma correlate with lipoprotein size and findings on coronary angiography. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:566-71 pubmed publisher
    We examined the association between rate of cholesterol esterification in plasma depleted of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (FER(HDL)), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) [(log (TG/HDL-C)], concentrations, and size of ..
  16. Raslova K, Dobiasova M, Hubacek J, Bencová D, Siváková D, Danková Z, et al. Association of metabolic and genetic factors with cholesterol esterification rate in HDL plasma and atherogenic index of plasma in a 40 years old Slovak population. Physiol Res. 2011;60:785-95 pubmed
    ..FER(HDL) (cholesterol esterification rate in HDL plasma), AIP--Atherogenic Index of Plasma [Log(TG/HDL-C)] as markers of lipoprotein particle size, ..
  17. Tsuzuki T, Igarashi M, Iwata T, Yamauchi Sato Y, Yamamoto T, Ogita K, et al. Oxidation rate of conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid is slowed by triacylglycerol esterification and alpha-tocopherol. Lipids. 2004;39:475-80 pubmed
    ..Addition of an antioxidant (alpha-tocopherol) also increased the stability of the conjugated FA to a level similar to that of the unconjugated FA. ..
  18. Green J, Liu Z, Bazinet R. Brain phospholipid arachidonic acid half-lives are not altered following 15 weeks of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid adequate or deprived diet. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:535-43 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have infused radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) into rat brains and followed AA esterification into phospholipids for up to 24 h; however, the half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids is unknown...
  19. Heredia Guerrero J, San Miguel M, Sansom M, Heredia A, Benítez J. Chemical reactions in 2D: self-assembly and self-esterification of 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid on mica surface. Langmuir. 2009;25:6869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, XPS and ATR-FT-IR spectroscopies clearly indicate that spontaneous self-esterification occurs upon self-assembling...
  20. Chang T, Chang C, Ohgami N, Yamauchi Y. Cholesterol sensing, trafficking, and esterification. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2006;22:129-57 pubmed
    ..The nonvesicular cholesterol translocation processes involve the START domain proteins and the oxysterol binding protein-related proteins (ORPs). The properties of these proteins are summarized. ..
  21. Wahlen B, Willis R, Seefeldt L. Biodiesel production by simultaneous extraction and conversion of total lipids from microalgae, cyanobacteria, and wild mixed-cultures. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:2724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..g., phospholipids) using this approach. The effectiveness of the approach on wet algae is also reported. ..
  22. Derbyshire P, McCann M, Roberts K. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level. BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:31 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in ..
  23. Sugawara T, Yamashita K, Asai A, Nagao A, Shiraishi T, Imai I, et al. Esterification of xanthophylls by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;483:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzymatic esterification of xanthophylls, especially peridinin which is uniquely present in dinoflagellates, using differentiated ..
  24. Chobert J, Sitohy M, Billaudel S, Dalgalarrondo M, Haertle T. Anticytomegaloviral activity of esterified milk proteins and L-polylysines. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;13:255-8 pubmed
    ..However, the tested basic proteins and polypeptides despite their lower antiviral activities might be potentially quite useful in fight of arising drug resistance activities and the persistence capacities of this virus. ..
  25. Masood M, Salem N. High-throughput analysis of plasma fatty acid methyl esters employing robotic transesterification and fast gas chromatography. Lipids. 2008;43:171-80 pubmed
    ..This method is readily scalable to prepare and analyze 200 samples per day (1,000 samples per week) so that large clinical trials can be accommodated. ..
  26. Nguyen T, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Davis M, Rudel L. Cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 is essential for efficient intestinal cholesterol absorption: evidence from thoracic lymph duct cannulation. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:95-104 pubmed publisher
    The hypothesis tested in this study was that cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 would increase cholesterol absorption efficiency by providing cholesteryl ester (CE) for incorporation into chylomicrons...
  27. Li M, Paran C, Wolins N, Horowitz J. High muscle lipid content in obesity is not due to enhanced activation of key triglyceride esterification enzymes or the suppression of lipolytic proteins. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E699-707 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In contrast, the activity and protein abundance of key enzymes that regulate the esterification of IMTG (i.e., glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) were not elevated...
  28. Rajan A, Prasad V, Abraham T. Enzymatic esterification of starch using recovered coconut oil. Int J Biol Macromol. 2006;39:265-72 pubmed
    Modification of maize and cassava starches was done using recovered coconut oil and microbial lipase. Microwave esterification was advantageous as it gave a DS 1.55 and 1.1 for maize starch and cassava starch, respectively...
  29. Herbst D, Peper S, Niemeyer B. Enzyme catalysis in organic solvents: influence of water content, solvent composition and temperature on Candida rugosa lipase catalyzed transesterification. J Biotechnol. 2012;162:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the decrease in conversion and the increase in selectivity with increasing solvent hydrophilicity are induced by the different water contents on the enzyme surface and not by the solvent itself. ..
  30. Yu X, Li Y. Microencapsulated mycelium-bound tannase from Aspergillus niger: an efficient catalyst for esterification of propyl gallate in organic solvents. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2005;126:177-87 pubmed
    Microencapsulated Aspergillus niger with mycelium-bound tannase activity was employed to investigate the esterification of propyl gallate from gallic acid and propanol in organic solvents...
  31. Lumor S, Akoh C. Esterification and hydrolytic activities of Candida rugosa lipase isoform 1 (LIP1) immobilized on celite 545, duolite A7, and sephadex G-25. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10396-8 pubmed publisher
    The esterification and hydrolytic activities of free and immobilized Candida rugosa lipase isoform 1 (LIP1) were investigated...
  32. Peaucelle A, Louvet R, Johansen J, Hofte H, Laufs P, Pelloux J, et al. Arabidopsis phyllotaxis is controlled by the methyl-esterification status of cell-wall pectins. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1943-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the formation of flower primordia in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem is accompanied by the de-methyl-esterification of pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls...
  33. Vegusdal A, Ostbye T, Tran T, Gjøen T, Ruyter B. Beta-oxidation, esterification, and secretion of radiolabeled fatty acids in cultivated Atlantic salmon skeletal muscle cells. Lipids. 2004;39:649-58 pubmed
    ..Differentiated muscle cells also expressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARbeta, two transcription factors that are involved in regulating beta-oxidation. ..
  34. Zheng M, Lu Y, Dong L, Guo P, Deng Q, Li W, et al. Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on hydrophobic/strong cation-exchange functional silica particles for biocatalytic synthesis of phytosterol esters. Bioresour Technol. 2012;115:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The immobilized CRL was used as biocatalysts for enzymatic esterification of phytosterols with free fatty acids (FFAs) to produce phytosterol esters...
  35. Rønne T, Yang T, Mu H, Jacobsen C, Xu X. Enzymatic interesterification of butterfat with rapeseed oil in a continuous packed bed reactor. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:5617-24 pubmed
    ..However, the release of short-chain fatty acids from enzymatic reactions makes the sensory quality unacceptable for direct edible applications. ..
  36. Kim T, Brun Y, Reilly J. Effects of tryptic peptide esterification in MALDI mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2005;77:4185-93 pubmed
    The effect of esterification on MALDI ion yield is investigated by using alcohols having different aliphatic chain lengths...
  37. Kalscheuer R, Stölting T, Steinbüchel A. Microdiesel: Escherichia coli engineered for fuel production. Microbiology. 2006;152:2529-36 pubmed
    ..By this approach, ethanol formation was combined with subsequent esterification of the ethanol with the acyl moieties of coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids if the cells were cultivated ..
  38. Atienza S, Ballesteros J, Martin A, Hornero Méndez D. Genetic variability of carotenoid concentration and degree of esterification among tritordeum (xTritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) and durum wheat accessions. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:4244-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, the most outstanding result of this work is the high esterification degree of lutein found in tritordeums as compared to durum wheat...
  39. Simon E, Young M, Chan A, Bao Z, Andrews P. Improved enrichment strategies for phosphorylated peptides on titanium dioxide using methyl esterification and pH gradient elution. Anal Biochem. 2008;377:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we also discovered several novel sites of partial phosphorylation at S46, T47, T165, and Y168 when ion-suppressing nonphosphorylated peptides were eliminated using the new protocols. ..
  40. Jones R, Davidson R, Tran A, Smith N, Carmen Galan M. Iodine-catalyzed one-pot acetalation-esterification reaction for the preparation of orthogonally protected glycosides. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:1842-5 pubmed publisher
    An iodine-catalyzed one-pot tandem acetalation-esterification reaction of thio- and O-glycosides has been developed providing a fast and mild route to orthogonally protected glycosides ready to be used as building blocks in glycosylation ..
  41. Suehara K, Kawamoto Y, Fujii E, Kohda J, Nakano Y, Yano T. Biological treatment of wastewater discharged from biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification. J Biosci Bioeng. 2005;100:437-42 pubmed
    ..This treatment system is simple because no controllers, except for a temperature, are necessary. These results suggest that the biological treatment system developed for BDF wastewater is useful for small-scale BDF production plants. ..
  42. Lin D, Steiner R, Merkens L, Pappu A, Connor W. The effects of sterol structure upon sterol esterification. Atherosclerosis. 2010;208:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the sterol structure may have significant effects on the outcome of esterification by these enzymes...
  43. Urban M, Sarek J, Tislerova I, Dzubak P, Hajduch M. Influence of esterification and modification of A-ring in a group of lupane acids on their cytotoxicity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13:5527-35 pubmed
    ..Although the methyl- and Pom-esters were generally less active than free acids, some Acm-esters had cytotoxicity similar to or even better than the starting compounds. Cytotoxic activity was measured in five cancer cell lines. ..
  44. Minerath E, Casale M, Elrod M. Kinetics feasibility study of alcohol sulfate esterification reactions in tropospheric aerosols. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:4410-5 pubmed
    ..Nuclear magnetic resonance methods were used to monitor the bulk reaction kinetics of sulfate esterification reactions for a number of simple alcohols...
  45. Umdu E, Tuncer M, Seker E. Transesterification of Nannochloropsis oculata microalga's lipid to biodiesel on Al2O3 supported CaO and MgO catalysts. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:2828-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only the basic site density but also the basic strength is important to achieve the high biodiesel yield. Biodiesel yield over 80 wt.% CaO/Al(2)O(3) catalyst increased to 97.5% from 23% when methanol/lipid molar ratio was 30. ..
  46. Swarts J, Vossenberg P, Meerman M, Janssen A, Boom R. Comparison of two-phase lipase-catalyzed esterification on micro and bench scale. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;99:855-61 pubmed
    Lipase type B from Candida antarctica was used to catalyze the esterification of propionic acid and 1-butanol in a water/n-decane two-phase system on micro and on bench scale...
  47. Vafiadi C, Topakas E, Bakx E, Schols H, Christakopoulos P. Structural characterisation by ESI-MS of feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides synthesised by chemoenzymatic esterification. Molecules. 2007;12:1367-75 pubmed
    ..The chemoenzymatic synthesis of feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides has been achieved, using a feruloyl esterase type C from Sporotrichum thermophile (StFaeC). The structure of the feruloylated products was confirmed by ESI-MS(n). ..
  48. Calabrò V, Ricca E, De Paola M, Curcio S, Iorio G. Kinetics of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides for biodiesel production. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2010;33:701-10 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, the reaction of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides with ethanol in a reaction medium containing hexane at a temperature of 37 degrees C has been studied...
  49. Iqbal J, Rudel L, Hussain M. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein enhances cellular cholesteryl esterification by relieving product inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19967-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical inhibition of MTP also decreases esterification of cholesterol in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells...
  50. Abadi G, Manning T, McLeod K, Phillips D, Groundwater P, Noble L, et al. Naturally occurring esterification reactions with bryostatin. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:865-78 pubmed publisher
    ..A second set of measurements suggest bryostatin can be hydrolyzed by water, a reaction that has significant implications in both medicinal applications and extraction procedures. ..
  51. Zoumpanioti M, Parmaklis P, de María P, Stamatis H, Sinisterra J, Xenakis A. Esterification reactions catalyzed by lipases immobilized in organogels: effect of temperature and substrate diffusion. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:1627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent activation energies were higher for the systems based on agar, independently of the microemulsion used, and lower for the systems based on AOT microemulsions, independently of the polymer used...
  52. Kikugawa M, Tsuchiyama M, Kai K, Sakamoto T. Synthesis of highly water-soluble feruloyl diglycerols by esterification of an Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:615-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We synthesized water-soluble FA derivatives by esterification of FA with diglycerol (DG) using feruloyl esterase purified from a commercial enzyme preparation produced by ..
  53. Höckerstedt A, Jauhiainen M, Tikkanen M. Estradiol fatty acid esterification is increased in high density lipoprotein subclass 3 isolated from hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Atherosclerosis. 2006;185:264-70 pubmed
    ..Our previous studies in normotriglyceridemic (NTG) individuals demonstrated that estradiol (E2) esterification occurred mainly in HDL3 causing accumulation of esterified, but not of unesterified E2 in the lipoprotein ..