proton motive force


Summary: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)

Top Publications

  1. Patton T, Yang S, Bayles K. The role of proton motive force in expression of the Staphylococcus aureus cid and lrg operons. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1395-404 pubmed
    ..pathways controlling cidABC and lrgAB expression, one dependent on acetic acid and the other dependent on proton motive force (PMF). The latter pathway was analysed using agents that affect various aspects of the PMF...
  2. Mori H, Ito K. Biochemical characterization of a mutationally altered protein translocase: proton motive force stimulation of the initiation phase of translocation. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:405-12 pubmed
    ..It was found that SecY39-mediated preprotein translocation exhibited absolute dependence on the proton motive force. The proton motive force-dependent step proved to lie before signal peptide cleavage...
  3. Saunders A, Mabbett A, McEwan A, Blackall L. Proton motive force generation from stored polymers for the uptake of acetate under anaerobic conditions. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:245-51 pubmed
    ..Acetate uptake by both Accumulibacter and Competibacter was driven by a proton motive force (PMF)...
  4. Wilharm G, Dittmann S, Schmid A, Heesemann J. On the role of specific chaperones, the specific ATPase, and the proton motive force in type III secretion. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:27-36 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on the role of specific T3SS chaperones, the specific ATPase, and the proton motive force in type III secretion.
  5. Herbert B, Hopwood F, Oxley D, McCarthy J, Laver M, Grinyer J, et al. Beta-elimination: an unexpected artefact in proteome analysis. Proteomics. 2003;3:826-31 pubmed
    ..Alkylation appears to substantially reduce both beta-elimination and the subsequent amido bond lysis. ..
  6. Larsen R, Postle K. Conserved residues Ser(16) and His(20) and their relative positioning are essential for TonB activity, cross-linking of TonB with ExbB, and the ability of TonB to respond to proton motive force. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8111-7 pubmed
    ..or of individual intervening but not flanking residues rendered TonB inactive and unable to assume a proton motive force-dependent conformation...
  7. Jormakka M, T rnroth S, Byrne B, Iwata S. Molecular basis of proton motive force generation: structure of formate dehydrogenase-N. Science. 2002;295:1863-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This structure provides critical insights into the proton motive force generation by redox loop, a common mechanism among a wide range of respiratory enzymes.
  8. Anoushiravani M, Falsafi T, Niknam V. Proton motive force-dependent efflux of tetracycline in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:1309-13 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of proton motive force (PMF)-dependent efflux in resistance of Helicobacter pylori to tetracycline (Tet)...
  9. Zhang R, Cruz J, Kramer D, Magallanes Lundback M, DellaPenna D, Sharkey T. Moderate heat stress reduces the pH component of the transthylakoid proton motive force in light-adapted, intact tobacco leaves. Plant Cell Environ. 2009;32:1538-47 pubmed publisher
    We measured the DeltaPsi and DeltapH components of the transthylakoid proton motive force (pmf) in light-adapted, intact tobacco leaves in response to moderate heat...

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  1. van den Berg van Saparoea H, Lubelski J, van Merkerk R, Mazurkiewicz P, Driessen A. Proton motive force-dependent Hoechst 33342 transport by the ABC transporter LmrA of Lactococcus lactis. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16931-8 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that the LmrA-mediated Hoechst 33342 transport in membrane vesicles is influenced by the transmembrane pH gradient due to a pH-dependent partitioning of Hoechst 33342 into the membrane...
  2. Minamino T, Namba K. Distinct roles of the FliI ATPase and proton motive force in bacterial flagellar protein export. Nature. 2008;451:485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, proton motive force was essential for the export process...
  3. Takizawa K, Cruz J, Kanazawa A, Kramer D. The thylakoid proton motive force in vivo. Quantitative, non-invasive probes, energetics, and regulatory consequences of light-induced pmf. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:1233-44 pubmed
    Endogenous probes of light-induced transthylakoid proton motive force (pmf), membrane potential (Deltapsi) and DeltapH were used in vivo to assess in Arabidopsis the lumen pH responses of regulatory components of photosynthesis...
  4. Di Cola A, Bailey S, Robinson C. The thylakoid delta pH/delta psi are not required for the initial stages of Tat-dependent protein transport in tobacco protoplasts. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41165-70 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the proton motive force is not required for the functional assembly of the Tat translocon and the initial stages of translocation ..
  5. Nouwen N, van der Laan M, Driessen A. SecDFyajC is not required for the maintenance of the proton motive force. FEBS Lett. 2001;508:103-6 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the postulated function of SecDFyajC in the maintenance of the proton motive force. As previously reported, inner membrane vesicles (IMVs) lacking SecDFyajC are defective in the generation ..
  6. Bose N, Payne S, Taylor R. Type 4 pilus biogenesis and type II-mediated protein secretion by Vibrio cholerae occur independently of the TonB-facilitated proton motive force. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:2305-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the cognate putative ATPases were required for each process and could not substitute for each other. ..
  7. Mazurkiewicz P, Driessen A, Konings W. What do proton motive force driven multidrug resistance transporters have in common?. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2005;7:7-21 pubmed
    ..MDR transporters either utilize ATP hydrolysis or an ion motive force as an energy source to drive drugs out of the cell. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field of bacterial proton motive force driven MDR transporters.
  8. Carpaneto A, Geiger D, Bamberg E, Sauer N, Fromm J, Hedrich R. Phloem-localized, proton-coupled sucrose carrier ZmSUT1 mediates sucrose efflux under the control of the sucrose gradient and the proton motive force. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21437-43 pubmed
    ..As predicted from a perfect molecular machine, the ZmSUT1-mediated sucrose-coupled proton current was reversible and depended on the direction of the sucrose and pH gradient as well as the membrane potential across the transporter. ..
  9. Wilharm G, Lehmann V, Krauss K, Lehnert B, Richter S, Ruckdeschel K, et al. Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion depends on the proton motive force but not on the flagellar motor components MotA and MotB. Infect Immun. 2004;72:4004-9 pubmed
    ..As a prerequisite for this hypothesis, we first tested a requirement for the proton motive force by both systems using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)...
  10. Madej M, Nasiri H, Hilgendorff N, Schwalbe H, Unden G, Lancaster C. Experimental evidence for proton motive force-dependent catalysis by the diheme-containing succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis. Biochemistry. 2006;45:15049-55 pubmed
  11. Hong Y, Brown D. Variation in bacterial ATP level and proton motive force due to adhesion to a solid surface. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..we propose the hypothesis that bacteria can take advantage of a link between cellular bioenergetics (proton motive force and ATP formation) and the physiochemical charge regulation effect, which occurs as a surface containing ..
  12. Pereira C, Matos D, San Romão M, Crespo M. Dual role for the tyrosine decarboxylation pathway in Enterococcus faecium E17: response to an acid challenge and generation of a proton motive force. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane potential and pH gradient, the parameters that compose the proton motive force (PMF), were measured at different pHs (pH 4.5 to 7)...
  13. Suzuki T, Murakami T, Iino R, Suzuki J, Ono S, Shirakihara Y, et al. F0F1-ATPase/synthase is geared to the synthesis mode by conformational rearrangement of epsilon subunit in response to proton motive force and ADP/ATP balance. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46840-6 pubmed
    ..iv) Proton motive force stabilizes the up-state...
  14. Hanada M, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. SecG plays a critical role in protein translocation in the absence of the proton motive force as well as at low temperature. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:25-8 pubmed
    ..into membrane vesicles containing or not containing SecG was examined in the presence and absence of the proton motive force at 37 degrees C and 20 degrees C...
  15. White P, Joshi A, Rassam P, Housden N, Kaminska R, Goult J, et al. Exploitation of an iron transporter for bacterial protein antibiotic import. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12051-12056 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter (TBDT) that actively imports the small siderophore ferripyoverdine (Fe-Pvd) by coupling to the proton motive force (PMF) via the inner membrane (IM) protein TonB1...
  16. Han B, Wang P, Zhu G, Zhang L, Qu F, Deng Y, et al. Microchip free flow isoelectric focusing for protein prefractionation using monolith with immobilized pH gradient. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:1211-5 pubmed publisher
  17. Ioannidis N, Sfichi L, Kotzabasis K. Putrescine stimulates chemiosmotic ATP synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:821-8 pubmed
    ..e., photosynthetically active radiation) is shown. The proposed molecular mechanism has at least four conserved features: (i) presence of a membrane barrier, (ii) a proton-driven ATPase, (iii) a DeltapH and (iv) a pool of putrescine. ..
  18. Crowley J, Steele I, Bosnich B. Protonmotive force: development of electrostatic drivers for synthetic molecular motors. Chemistry. 2006;12:8935-51 pubmed
  19. Lee D, Chang G. Electrolytic reduction: modification of proteins occurring in isoelectric focusing electrophoresis and in electrolytic reactions in the presence of high salts. Anal Chem. 2009;81:3957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have provided a method with the potential to convert proteins or peptides to corresponding modified products containing aldehyde groups that can be used for conjugation with amine-containing compounds. ..
  20. Lee K, Pi K. Proteomic profiling combining solution-phase isoelectric fractionation with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using narrow-pH-range immobilized pH gradient gels with slightly overlapping pH ranges. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;396:535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This improved method for analyzing prefractionated samples on narrow-pH-range 2-D gels allows high protein resolution without the use of large gels, resulting in decreased costs and run times. ..
  21. Batista A, Fernandes A, Louro R, Steuber J, Pereira M. Energy conservation by Rhodothermus marinus respiratory complex I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:509-15 pubmed publisher
  22. Romero Calderon R, Krantz D. Transport of polyamines in Drosophila S2 cells: kinetics, pharmacology and dependence on the plasma membrane proton gradient. Biochem J. 2006;393:583-9 pubmed
    ..These data and the genetic tools available in Drosophila will facilitate the molecular identification and further characterization of this activity. ..
  23. Siegbahn P, Blomberg M. Important roles of tyrosines in photosystem II and cytochrome oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1655:45-50 pubmed
    ..In cytochrome oxidase, mechanisms for O-O bond cleavage involving tyrosyl radical formation are investigated, together with possible roles for the tyrosine in the proton translocation. ..
  24. Ahamed T, Nfor B, Verhaert P, van Dedem G, van der Wielen L, Eppink M, et al. pH-gradient ion-exchange chromatography: an analytical tool for design and optimization of protein separations. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1164:181-8 pubmed
    ..The pH-gradient IEC was also applied and found to be an excellent analytical tool for the fractionation of crude protein mixtures. ..
  25. Wiczling P, Waszczuk Jankowska M, Markuszewski M, Kaliszan R. The application of gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to the pK(a) and log k(w) determination of polyprotic analytes. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1214:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It was evaluated regarding its ability to describe experimental data. The chromatographic pK(a) and lipophilicity parameter, log k(w), were obtained by fitting to the proposed model and comparing to the literature values. ..
  26. Opekarova M, Robl I, Tanner W. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine is essential for targeting the arginine transporter Can1p to the plasma membrane of yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1564:9-13 pubmed
    ..PE) depletion affects, in addition to amino acid transporters, activities of at least two other proton motive force (pmf)-driven transporters (Ura4p and Mal6p)...
  27. Aronsson H, Schöttler M, Kelly A, Sundqvist C, Dormann P, Karim S, et al. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:580-92 pubmed publisher
    ..attributable to an increased conductivity of the thylakoid membrane at high light intensities, so that the proton motive force is reduced and the thylakoid lumen is less acidic than in wild type...
  28. Hakizimana P, Masureel M, Gbaguidi B, Ruysschaert J, Govaerts C. Interactions between phosphatidylethanolamine headgroup and LmrP, a multidrug transporter: a conserved mechanism for proton gradient sensing?. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9369-76 pubmed publisher
  29. Adelroth P, Brzezinski P. Surface-mediated proton-transfer reactions in membrane-bound proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1655:102-15 pubmed
    ..The general mechanisms are illustrated by experimental results from studies of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres (RCs) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). ..
  30. Wikstrom M. Cytochrome c oxidase: 25 years of the elusive proton pump. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1655:241-7 pubmed
    ..In the hope of accelerating progress, some of these will be reviewed here, together with a brief presentation of a novel proton pump mechanism, and of the emergence of a molecular basis for control of its efficiency. ..
  31. Hosler J. The influence of subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase on the D pathway, the proton exit pathway and mechanism-based inactivation in subunit I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1655:332-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of proton pumping by subunit III-depleted oxidase forms leads to the proposal that the trapping of two protons in the D pathway, one on E286 and one on D132, is required for efficient proton pumping. ..
  32. Decoursey T, Cherny V. Common themes and problems of bioenergetics and voltage-gated proton channels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1458:104-19 pubmed
    ..Evidently, nature has devised a limited number of mechanisms to accomplish various design strategies, and these fundamental mechanisms are repeated with minor variation in many superficially disparate molecules. ..
  33. Pham H, Riu K, Jang K, Cho S, Cho M. Bactericidal activity of glycinecin A, a bacteriocin derived from Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines, on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria cells. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4486-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the bactericidal mechanism of action of glycinecin A is correlated with the permeability of membranes to hydroxyl and potassium ions, leading to the lethal activity of the bacteriocin on the target bacteria. ..
  34. Thome B, Ivory C. True moving bed electrophoresis using stepped electric field gradients. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1477-87 pubmed
    ..The maximum throughput using the non-gradient process was 30.6 mg/h and the maximum was 50.0 mg/h using an electric field gradient that was 10% lower than the non-gradient field in section II and 10% higher in section III. ..
  35. Bruzzone S, Dodoni G, Kaludercic N, Basile G, Millo E, De Flora A, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by a cytotoxic adenine dinucleotide produced by ADP-ribosyl cyclases from cADPR. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5045-52 pubmed
  36. Sachs G, Scott D, Weeks D, Melchers K. The compartment buffered by the urease of Helicobacter pylori: cytoplasm or periplasm?. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:217-8; author reply 218-9 pubmed
  37. Yang C, Zhu G, Zhang L, Zhang W, Zhang Y. Repeatedly usable immobilized pH gradient in a monolithic capillary column. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:1729-34 pubmed
    ..Due to the covalent attachment of the CAs this M-IPG can be repeatedly used after its preparation. Good stability, linearity, and reproducibility were obtained. ..
  38. Simon J, van Spanning R, Richardson D. The organisation of proton motive and non-proton motive redox loops in prokaryotic respiratory systems. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1777:1480-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The proton motive force (pmf) can be built up by different mechanisms like proton pumping, quinone/quinol cycling or by a redox ..
  39. Azzu V, Brand M. Degradation of an intramitochondrial protein by the cytosolic proteasome. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide the first demonstration that a mitochondrial inner membrane protein is degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. ..
  40. Trchounian A. Escherichia coli proton-translocating F0F1-ATP synthase and its association with solute secondary transporters and/or enzymes of anaerobic oxidation-reduction under fermentation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:1051-7 pubmed
    ..These associations can result from a protein-protein interaction by dithiol-disulfide interchange. In such associations F0F1 has novel functions in bacterial cell physiology. ..
  41. Economou A. Bacterial preprotein translocase: mechanism and conformational dynamics of a processive enzyme. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:511-8 pubmed
    ..Translocase dissociates from the substrate only after the whole preprotein chain length has been transported to the trans side of the membrane, where it is fully released. ..
  42. Moskvin O, Ivanov B, Ignatova L, Kollmeier M. Light-induced stimulation of carbonic anhydrase activity in pea thylakoids. FEBS Lett. 2000;470:375-7 pubmed
  43. Jackson J. Proton translocation by transhydrogenase. FEBS Lett. 2003;545:18-24 pubmed
    ..In the two monomers of transhydrogenase, there is a reciprocating, out-of-phase alternation of these conformations during turnover. ..
  44. Tracy N, Ivory C. Preparative isoelectric focusing of proteins using binary buffers in a vortex-stabilized, free-flow apparatus. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:1748-57 pubmed
    ..Proteins with pI < 0.2 pH units apart will have overlapping bands in these shallow, poured pH gradients. ..
  45. Bravo D, Kolmakova N, Parsons S. Transmembrane reorientation of the substrate-binding site in vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Biochemistry. 2004;43:8787-93 pubmed
    ..The observations support the proposed microscopic kinetics model, and they should be useful in characterizing effects of mutations on the VAChT transport cycle. ..
  46. Xing J, Bai F, Berry R, Oster G. Torque-speed relationship of the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1260-5 pubmed
    ..Here we give an explicit explanation for this torque-speed curve. The same physics also can explain certain puzzling properties of other motors. ..
  47. Borsetti F, Toninello A, Zannoni D. Tellurite uptake by cells of the facultative phototroph Rhodobacter capsulatus is a Delta pH-dependent process. FEBS Lett. 2003;554:315-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that tellurite is transported into cells by a Delta pH-dependent, non-electrogenic process which is likely to involve the phosphate transporter (PiT family). ..
  48. Zickermann V, Dröse S, Tocilescu M, Zwicker K, Kerscher S, Brandt U. Challenges in elucidating structure and mechanism of proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2008;40:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological role of this phenomenon is yet unclear but it could contribute to the regulation of complex I activity in-vivo. ..
  49. Renger G. Coupling of electron and proton transfer in oxidative water cleavage in photosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1655:195-204 pubmed
    ..The WOC is envisaged as a supermolecule that is especially tailored for oxidative water cleavage and acts as a molecular machine. ..
  50. Farnan D, Moreno G. Multiproduct high-resolution monoclonal antibody charge variant separations by pH gradient ion-exchange chromatography. Anal Chem. 2009;81:8846-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a capability is extremely useful for the high throughput evaluation of in-process and final product samples. ..
  51. Johnson M, Ruban A. Arabidopsis plants lacking PsbS protein possess photoprotective energy dissipation. Plant J. 2010;61:283-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Wallin G, Aqvist J. The transition state for peptide bond formation reveals the ribosome as a water trap. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Predicted kinetic isotope effects consistent with this picture are similar to those observed for uncatalyzed ester aminolysis reactions in solution. ..
  53. Feniouk B, Mulkidjanian A, Junge W. Proton slip in the ATP synthase of Rhodobacter capsulatus: induction, proton conduction, and nucleotide dependence. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1706:184-94 pubmed
    ..Proton slip probably presents the free-wheeling of the central rotary shaft, subunit gamma, in an open structure of the (alphabeta)3 hexagon with no nucleotides in the catalytic sites...