glycogenolysis

Summary

Summary: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.

Top Publications

  1. do Amaral M, Lee R, Costanzo J. Enzymatic regulation of glycogenolysis in a subarctic population of the wood frog: implications for extreme freeze tolerance. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79169 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing...
  2. Roach P, DePaoli Roach A, Hurley T, Tagliabracci V. Glycogen and its metabolism: some new developments and old themes. Biochem J. 2012;441:763-87 pubmed publisher
  3. Iwasa M, Yamada Y, Kobayashi H, Yasuda S, Kawamura I, Sumi S, et al. Both stimulation of GLP-1 receptors and inhibition of glycogenolysis additively contribute to a protective effect of oral miglitol against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..v. miglitol reduces myocardial infarct size through the inhibition of glycogenolysis during ischaemia. Oral administration of miglitol has been reported to produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)...
  4. Hoybye C, Chandramouli V, Efendic S, Hulting A, Landau B, Schumann W, et al. Contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to hepatic glucose production in acromegaly before and after pituitary microsurgery. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40:498-501 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we evaluated insulin resistance, HGP, gluconeogenesis (GNG), and glycogenolysis (GLY) in five patients with acromegaly before and after pituitary microsurgery...
  5. Walls A, Heimbürger C, Bouman S, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen H. Robust glycogen shunt activity in astrocytes: Effects of glutamatergic and adrenergic agents. Neuroscience. 2009;158:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results reveal a highly complex interaction between glycogenolysis and glycolysis, with the glycogen shunt playing a significant role in astrocytic energy metabolism.
  6. Woerle H, Szoke E, Meyer C, Dostou J, Wittlin S, Gosmanov N, et al. Mechanisms for abnormal postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E67-E77 pubmed
    ..001) was due to increased gluconeogenesis (P<0.001) and glycogenolysis (P=0.01); 3) overall tissue glucose uptake, glycolysis, and storage were comparable in both groups (P>0...
  7. Wahren J, Ekberg K. Splanchnic regulation of glucose production. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007;27:329-45 pubmed
    ..Glucose output from the liver increases during exercise; during short-term intensive exertion, hepatic glycogenolysis is the primary source of extra glucose for skeletal muscle, and during prolonged exercise, hepatic ..
  8. Weickert M, Loeffelholz C, Roden M, Chandramouli V, Brehm A, Nowotny P, et al. A Thr94Ala mutation in human liver fatty acid-binding protein contributes to reduced hepatic glycogenolysis and blunted elevation of plasma glucose levels in lipid-exposed subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1078-84 pubmed
    ..Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis were measured in healthy carriers of the only common Thr(94)-to-Ala amino acid replacement (Ala/Ala(94)) vs...
  9. Rivera N, Everett Grueter C, Edgerton D, Rodewald T, Neal D, Nishimura E, et al. A novel glucagon receptor antagonist, NNC 25-0926, blunts hepatic glucose production in the conscious dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;321:743-52 pubmed
    ..1+/-0.9, 1.6+/-0.6, 2.4+/-0.7, and 1.5+/-0.3 mg/kg/min, respectively, due to inhibition of glycogenolysis. In conclusion, NNC 25-0926 effectively blocked the ability of glucagon to increase HGP in the dog.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Dufour S, Lebon V, Shulman G, Petersen K. Regulation of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis by epinephrine in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E231-5 pubmed publisher
    The relative contributions of net hepatic glycogenolysis (NHG) and gluconeogenesis to rates of glucose production during a physiological increment in plasma epinephrine concentrations, independent of changes in plasma insulin ..
  2. Hertz L, Peng L, Dienel G. Energy metabolism in astrocytes: high rate of oxidative metabolism and spatiotemporal dependence on glycolysis/glycogenolysis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27:219-49 pubmed
    ..Glycolysis and glycogenolysis are essential for astrocytic responses to increasing energy demand because astrocytic filopodial and ..
  3. Xu L, Sun H. Pharmacological manipulation of brain glycogenolysis as a therapeutic approach to cerebral ischemia. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010;10:1188-93 pubmed
    ..We present here the important roles of brain glycogen metabolism and propose inhibition of glycogenolysis as a therapeutic approach to cerebral ischemia.
  4. Unger R, Cherrington A. Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that glucagon suppression or inactivation may provide therapeutic advantages over insulin monotherapy. ..
  5. Xu J, Song D, Xue Z, Gu L, Hertz L, Peng L. Requirement of glycogenolysis for uptake of increased extracellular K+ in astrocytes: potential implications for K+ homeostasis and glycogen usage in brain. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:472-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Triggered by a recent DiNuzzo et al. paper, we used administration of the glycogenolysis inhibitor DAB to primary cultures of mouse astrocytes to determine whether K(+) uptake required K(+)-..
  6. Danos A, Osmanovic S, Brady M. Differential regulation of glycogenolysis by mutant protein phosphatase-1 glycogen-targeting subunits. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, PTG-G(L) expression permitted glycogenolysis under 5 mm glucose conditions that was prevented in PTG-expressing cells...
  7. Ørngreen M, Schelhaas H, Jeppesen T, Akman H, Wevers R, Andersen S, et al. Is muscle glycogenolysis impaired in X-linked phosphorylase b kinase deficiency?. Neurology. 2008;70:1876-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The different response of lactate to submaximal and maximal exercise is likely related to differential activation mechanisms for myophosphorylase. ..
  8. Wang C, Dai J, Yang M, Deng G, Xu S, Jia Y, et al. Silencing of FGF-21 expression promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by regulation of the STAT3-SOCS3 signal. FEBS J. 2014;281:2136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms by which changes in FGF-21 activation result in changes in the rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis remain to be elucidated...
  9. Stellingwerff T, Leblanc P, Hollidge M, Heigenhauser G, Spriet L. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1180-90 pubmed
    ..room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux...
  10. Vinnakota K, Kemp M, Kushmerick M. Dynamics of muscle glycogenolysis modeled with pH time course computation and pH-dependent reaction equilibria and enzyme kinetics. Biophys J. 2006;91:1264-87 pubmed
    ..We augmented an earlier mathematical model of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis with pH-dependent enzyme kinetics and reaction equilibria to compute the time course of pH changes...
  11. Oikonomakos N, Tiraidis C, Leonidas D, Zographos S, Kristiansen M, Jessen C, et al. Iminosugars as potential inhibitors of glycogenolysis: structural insights into the molecular basis of glycogen phosphorylase inhibition. J Med Chem. 2006;49:5687-701 pubmed
    ..4-1.2 microM) and of basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis (IC(50) = 1-3 microM)...
  12. Gibbs M, Anderson D, Hertz L. Inhibition of glycogenolysis in astrocytes interrupts memory consolidation in young chickens. Glia. 2006;54:214-22 pubmed
    Glycolysis and glycogenolysis are involved in memory processing in day-old chickens and, aside from the provision of energy for neuronal and astrocytic energy metabolism these pathways enable astrocytes to supply neurones with precursor ..
  13. König M, Bulik S, Holzhütter H. Quantifying the contribution of the liver to glucose homeostasis: a detailed kinetic model of human hepatic glucose metabolism. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002577 pubmed publisher
  14. Jin E, Park B, Sherry A, Malloy C. Role of excess glycogenolysis in fasting hyperglycemia among pre-diabetic and diabetic Zucker (fa/fa) rats. Diabetes. 2007;56:777-85 pubmed
    ..b>Glycogenolysis, essentially 0 in +/+ rats after a 24-h fast, was significant in fa/fa rats (11 +/- 6 and 17 +/- 7% of glucose ..
  15. Chebotareva N. Effect of molecular crowding on the enzymes of glycogenolysis. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007;72:1478-90 pubmed
    ..crowding arising from the presence of high concentrations of osmolytes on the interactions of the enzymes of glycogenolysis has been demonstrated...
  16. Staehr P, Hother Nielsen O, Beck Nielsen H, Roden M, Stingl H, Holst J, et al. Hepatic autoregulation: response of glucose production and gluconeogenesis to increased glycogenolysis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1265-9 pubmed
    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined...
  17. Newman L, Korol D, Gold P. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28427 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can ..
  18. Stellingwerff T, Spriet L, Watt M, Kimber N, Hargreaves M, Hawley J, et al. Decreased PDH activation and glycogenolysis during exercise following fat adaptation with carbohydrate restoration. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E380-8 pubmed
    ..Estimations of muscle glycogenolysis were made during the initial minute of exercise at 70% VO2peak and during the 1-min sprint...
  19. Potthoff M, Potts A, He T, Duarte J, Taussig R, Mangelsdorf D, et al. Colesevelam suppresses hepatic glycogenolysis by TGR5-mediated induction of GLP-1 action in DIO mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..bile acid sequestrant, colesevelam, significantly reduced hepatic glucose production by suppressing hepatic glycogenolysis in diet-induced obese mice and that this was partially mediated by activation of the G protein-coupled bile ..
  20. Barosa C, Jones J, Rizza R, Basu A, Basu R. Acetaminophen glucuronide and plasma glucose report identical estimates of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis for healthy and prediabetic subjects using the deuterated water method. Magn Reson Med. 2013;70:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..51 ± 3%) and impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (48 ± 2 vs. 53 ± 3%). ..
  21. Panja S, Patra S, Mukherjee A, Basu M, Sengupta S, Dutta P. An optimization-based design framework for steering steady states and improving robustness of glycolysis-glycogenolysis pathway. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013;60:554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..and saturation systems, commonly known as S-systems, for controlling the steady states of the glycolysis-glycogenolysis pathway...
  22. Hetherington J, Sumner T, Seymour R, Li L, Rey M, Yamaji S, et al. A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. I. Building the composite model. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Composite models of this form have not previously been demonstrated. ..
  23. Brooks G. Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Sports Med. 2007;37:341-3 pubmed
    ..Because lactate, the product of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, is disposed of by oxidative metabolism, lactate shuttling unites the two major processes of ..
  24. Nimmo M. Exercise in the cold. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:898-915; discussion 915-6 pubmed
    ..To plan for a performance in the cold requires an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the physiological response. This review attempts to outline these mechanisms and how they can be manipulated to optimize performance. ..
  25. Kelly M, Gauthier M, Saha A, Ruderman N. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by interleukin-6 in rat skeletal muscle: association with changes in cAMP, energy state, and endogenous fuel mobilization. Diabetes. 2009;58:1953-60 pubmed publisher
  26. DiNuzzo M. Kinetic analysis of glycogen turnover: relevance to human brain 13C-NMR spectroscopy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013;33:1540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The substantial label washout before stimulation suggests that much of the subsequent activation-induced glycogenolysis could remain undetected...
  27. Osanai T, Imamura S, Asayama M, Shirai M, Suzuki I, Murata N, et al. Nitrogen induction of sugar catabolic gene expression in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. DNA Res. 2006;13:185-95 pubmed
  28. Chan T, Wilson J, Selliah S, Bilodeau M, Zwingmann C, Poon R, et al. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;232:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes. ..
  29. Kato A, Nasu N, Takebayashi K, Adachi I, Minami Y, Sanae F, et al. Structure-activity relationships of flavonoids as potential inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In primary cultured rat hepatocytes, quercetagetin and quercetin suppressed glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis, with IC 50 values of 66.2 and 68.7 microM, respectively...
  30. Sierpina V, Murray R. Glyconutrients: the state of the science and the impact of glycomics. Explore (NY). 2006;2:488-94; quiz 495-7 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the basic and clinical science of glyconutrients and presents a brief perspective on the impact of the field of glycomics. ..
  31. Gregus Z, Nemeti B. Glutathione-dependent reduction of arsenate by glycogen phosphorylase responsiveness to endogenous and xenobiotic inhibitors. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:44-53 pubmed
    ..To determine whether reduction of As(V) by GPa is countered by compounds known to inhibit GP-catalyzed glycogenolysis, the effects of thiol reagents, endogenous compounds (glucose, ATP, ADP) as well as nonspecific glycogen ..
  32. Pachmerhiwala R, Bhide N, Straiko M, Gudelsky G. Role of serotonin and/or norepinephrine in the MDMA-induced increase in extracellular glucose and glycogenolysis in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;644:67-72 pubmed publisher
    The acute administration of MDMA has been shown to promote glycogenolysis and increase the extracellular concentration of glucose in the striatum...
  33. Peixoto J, Comar J, Moreira C, Soares A, de Oliveira A, Bracht A, et al. Effects of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and p-synephrine on metabolic fluxes in the rat liver. Molecules. 2012;17:5854-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure...
  34. Hausler N, Browning J, Merritt M, Storey C, Milde A, Jeffrey F, et al. Effects of insulin and cytosolic redox state on glucose production pathways in the isolated perfused mouse liver measured by integrated 2H and 13C NMR. Biochem J. 2006;394:465-73 pubmed
    ..Insulin lowered glucose production by inhibiting glycogenolysis at both low and high doses, but only at high levels of insulin did gluconeogenesis or tricarboxylic-acid-cycle ..
  35. Triplitt C. Understanding the kidneys' role in blood glucose regulation. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18:S11-6 pubmed
    ..Renal release of glucose into the circulation is the result of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, respectively involving the breaking down and formation of glucose-6-phosphate from ..
  36. Guinzberg R, Cortes D, Díaz Cruz A, Riveros Rosas H, Villalobos Molina R, Piña E. Inosine released after hypoxia activates hepatic glucose liberation through A3 adenosine receptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E940-51 pubmed
    ..Inosine stimulated glycogenolysis (approximately 40%, EC50 4.2 x 10(-9) M), gluconeogenesis (approximately 40%, EC50 7...
  37. Ehira S, Ohmori M. NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator protein, controls glycogen catabolism in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that NrrA controls not only heterocyst differentiation but also glycogen catabolism in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120...
  38. Logan Sprenger H, Heigenhauser G, Killian K, Spriet L. Effects of dehydration during cycling on skeletal muscle metabolism in females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Muscle glycogenolysis was 31% greater in the DEH trial (252 ± 49 vs. 330 ± 33 mmol...
  39. Preisler N, Orngreen M, Echaniz Laguna A, Laforet P, Lonsdorfer Wolf E, Doutreleau S, et al. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency: a neutral metabolic variant or a disease?. Neurology. 2012;78:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..muscle PHK deficiency may present as an almost asymptomatic condition, despite a mild impairment of muscle glycogenolysis, raised CK levels, and glycogen accumulation in muscle...
  40. Son M, Minakawa M, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. Aspalathin improves hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:1607-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, aspalathin reduces the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to glucose production and lipogenesis. These results strongly suggest that aspalathin has anti-diabetic potential. ..
  41. Fu M, Maher A, Hamadeh M, Ye C, Tarnopolsky M. Exercise, sex, menstrual cycle phase, and 17beta-estradiol influence metabolism-related genes in human skeletal muscle. Physiol Genomics. 2009;40:34-47 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Menstrual cycle had a small effect on PPARdelta, GP, and glycogenin mRNA content. Overall, women have greater mRNA content for several genes involved in lipid metabolism, which is partially due to an effect of E(2). ..
  42. de Oliveira M, Torrezan R, da Costa C, Ambiel C, Constantin R, Ishii Iwamoto E, et al. Changes in calcium fluxes in mitochondria, microsomes, and plasma membrane vesicles of livers from monosodium L-glutamate-obese rats. Metabolism. 2011;60:1433-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondria from obese rats exhibited a higher capacity of retaining calcium, a phenomenon that could be attributed to a minor susceptibility of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. ..
  43. Kumakura A, Shikuma J, Ogihara N, Eiki J, Kanazawa M, Notoya Y, et al. Effects of celiac superior mesenteric ganglionectomy on glucose homeostasis and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance testing in rats. Endocr J. 2013;60:525-31 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the liver produces glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis while fasting...
  44. Preisler N, Laforet P, Madsen K, Hansen R, Lukacs Z, Ørngreen M, et al. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in late-onset Pompe disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:462-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it appears that acid alpha-glucosidase does not play a significant role in the production of energy in skeletal muscle during exercise. ..
  45. Kehlenbrink S, Koppaka S, Martin M, Relwani R, Cui M, Hwang J, et al. Elevated NEFA levels impair glucose effectiveness by increasing net hepatic glycogenolysis. Diabetologia. 2012;55:3021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..rapidly suppresses endogenous glucose production (EGP) in non-diabetic individuals, mainly by inhibiting glycogenolysis. Loss of this 'glucose effectiveness' contributes to fasting hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes...
  46. Jurczak M, Zapater J, Greenberg C, Brady M. Generation of a dominant-negative glycogen targeting subunit for protein phosphatase-1. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1881-7 pubmed publisher
    ..domain on PTG resulted in the generation of a dominant-negative molecule that impeded endogenous PTG action and reduced cellular glycogen levels, through enhancement of glycogenolysis rather than impairment of glycogen synthesis.
  47. Espinosa I, Fogelfeld L. Tagatose: from a sweetener to a new diabetic medication?. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010;19:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It may also act through hepatic inhibition of glycogenolysis. This article summarizes tagatose Phase I and II diabetes trials...
  48. Leonardo E, Bassoli B, Cassolla P, Borba Murad G, Bazotte R, de Souza H. Leptin inhibits glycogen catabolism but does not modify acutely the suppressive effect of insulin on glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP in rat liver perfused in situ. Pharmacol Res. 2009;59:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..50 or 100 ng/ml) concentrations of leptin on the suppressive effect of insulin on the glucose production and glycogenolysis stimulated by 8-bromoadenosine-3':5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP)...
  49. Luptak I, Yan J, Cui L, Jain M, Liao R, Tian R. Long-term effects of increased glucose entry on mouse hearts during normal aging and ischemic stress. Circulation. 2007;116:901-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, life-long increases in glucose uptake result in a favorable metabolic phenotype that affords protections against aging-associated increase of susceptibility to ischemic injury. ..
  50. Zhang Y, Wang Z, Zhao Y, Zhao M, Wang S, Hua Z, et al. The plasma 5'-AMP acts as a potential upstream regulator of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that pAMP is a potential upstream regulator of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. ..
  51. Chevalier S, Burgess S, Malloy C, Gougeon R, Marliss E, Morais J. The greater contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production in obesity is related to increased whole-body protein catabolism. Diabetes. 2006;55:675-81 pubmed
    ..Postabsorptive %GNG(PEP) and GNG(PEP) flux were higher in obese subjects, and glycogenolysis contributed less to glucose production than in lean subjects...
  52. Ozsari L, Karadurmus N, Sahin M, Uckaya G, Ural A, Kutlu M. Comparison of lymphomononuclear cell energy metabolism between healthy, impaired glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Endocrine. 2010;37:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This abnormal energy production might cause dysfunction in LMN cells and the immune system in diabetic and prediabetic patients. In conclusion, we concluded that impaired glucose metabolism could change energy metabolism. ..
  53. Miova B, Dinevska Kjovkarovska S, Mitev S. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during acclimation to a moderate hyperthermic environment in rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;19:65-87 pubmed
    ..of heat acclimation could be summarized in three phases: short-term heat exposure (1 to 24 h) with intensive glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to glucose; a period with temporary changes (24 h to 7 d) with tendency of normalization ..