Summary: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.

Top Publications

  1. Ravnskjaer K, Hogan M, Lackey D, Tora L, Dent S, Olefsky J, et al. Glucagon regulates gluconeogenesis through KAT2B- and WDR5-mediated epigenetic effects. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:4318-28 pubmed publisher
    ..pancreatic glucagon is increased during fasting and maintains glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon triggering of the cAMP pathway upregulates the gluconeogenic program through the phosphorylation of ..
  2. Oh K, Han H, Kim M, Koo S. Transcriptional regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36:189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Under fasting, acute activation of both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis is achieved by post-translational modification or allosteric activation of key rate-limiting enzymes, thereby ..
  3. Kinote A, Faria J, Roman E, Solon C, Razolli D, Ignacio Souza L, et al. Fructose-induced hypothalamic AMPK activation stimulates hepatic PEPCK and gluconeogenesis due to increased corticosterone levels. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3633-45 pubmed publisher
    Fructose consumption causes insulin resistance and favors hepatic gluconeogenesis through mechanisms that are not completely understood...
  4. Wang Y, Chen C, Lin S, Chuang Y, Sheu W, Tung K. Hyperglycemia is associated with enhanced gluconeogenesis in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;367:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, hepatic gluconeogenesis-associated positive regulators, such as FoxO1, CAATT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), and cAMP responsive ..
  5. Gut P, Baeza Raja B, Andersson O, Hasenkamp L, Hsiao J, Hesselson D, et al. Whole-organism screening for gluconeogenesis identifies activators of fasting metabolism. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this in vivo strategy identified several drugs that affect gluconeogenesis in humans as well as metabolically uncharacterized compounds...
  6. König M, Bulik S, Holzhütter H. Quantifying the contribution of the liver to glucose homeostasis: a detailed kinetic model of human hepatic glucose metabolism. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002577 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a detailed kinetic model of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in human hepatocytes integrated with the hormonal control of these pathways by ..
  7. Jelen S, Wacker S, Aponte Santamaría C, Skott M, Rojek A, Johanson U, et al. Aquaporin-9 protein is the primary route of hepatocyte glycerol uptake for glycerol gluconeogenesis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments establish AQP9 as the primary route of hepatocyte glycerol uptake for gluconeogenesis and thereby explain the previously observed, alleviated diabetes in leptin receptor-deficient AQP9(-/-) mice.
  8. Ruan H, Han X, Li M, Singh J, Qian K, Azarhoush S, et al. O-GlcNAc transferase/host cell factor C1 complex regulates gluconeogenesis by modulating PGC-1? stability. Cell Metab. 2012;16:226-37 pubmed publisher
    A major cause of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is inappropriate hepatic gluconeogenesis. PGC-1? is a master regulator of gluconeogenesis, and its activity is controlled by various posttranslational modifications...
  9. Molusky M, Li S, Ma D, Yu L, Lin J. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and diurnal glucose metabolism through 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1. Diabetes. 2012;61:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is important for maintaining steady blood glucose levels during starvation and through light/dark cycles...

More Information


  1. Su Y, Lam T, He W, Pocai A, Bryan J, Aguilar Bryan L, et al. Hypothalamic leucine metabolism regulates liver glucose production. Diabetes. 2012;61:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the metabolic sensing of leucine in the MBH is a previously unrecognized mechanism for the regulation of hepatic glucose production required to maintain glucose homeostasis. ..
  2. Wang L, Jiang Z, Lei X. Knockout of SOD1 alters murine hepatic glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This striking comparison was possibly due to unique impacts of these two knockouts on intracellular tone of H(2)O(2) and key regulators of liver gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, and lipogenesis.
  3. Kim D, Gang G, Ryu D, Koh M, Kim Y, Kim S, et al. Inverse agonist of nuclear receptor ERR? mediates antidiabetic effect through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Diabetes. 2013;62:3093-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the ability of GSK5182 to control hepatic glucose production can be used as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of T2DM. ..
  4. Wang B, Hsu S, Frankel W, Ghoshal K, Jacob S. Stat3-mediated activation of microRNA-23a suppresses gluconeogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma by down-regulating glucose-6-phosphatase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha. Hepatology. 2012;56:186-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we conclude that gluconeogenesis is severely compromised in HCC by IL6-Stat3-mediated activation of miR-23a, which directly targets PGC-1? and ..
  5. Chia Y, Liong S, Ton S, Kadir K. Amelioration of glucose homeostasis by glycyrrhizic acid through gluconeogenesis rate-limiting enzymes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;677:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and probably by reduction of H6PDH, 11?-HSD1 and a selective decrease in PEPCK activities. ..
  6. Abudukadier A, Fujita Y, Obara A, Ohashi A, Fukushima T, Sato Y, et al. Tetrahydrobiopterin has a glucose-lowering effect by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis in an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner in diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2013;62:3033-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent...
  7. Méndez Lucas A, Duarte J, Sunny N, Satapati S, He T, Fu X, et al. PEPCK-M expression in mouse liver potentiates, not replaces, PEPCK-C mediated gluconeogenesis. J Hepatol. 2013;59:105-13 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic gluconeogenesis helps maintain systemic energy homeostasis by compensating for discontinuities in nutrient supply...
  8. Liang J, Liu C, Qiao A, Cui Y, Zhang H, Cui A, et al. MicroRNA-29a-c decrease fasting blood glucose levels by negatively regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. J Hepatol. 2013;58:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, enforced expression of PGC-1? increased miR-29a-c expression levels in primary hepatocytes, thus forming a negative feedback regulation loop. miR-29a-c can regulate hepatic glucose production and glucose tolerance in mice. ..
  9. Akbar H, Bionaz M, Carlson D, Rodriguez Zas S, Everts R, Lewin H, et al. Feed restriction, but not l-carnitine infusion, alters the liver transcriptome by inhibiting sterol synthesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increasing gluconeogenesis in mid-lactation dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:2201-2213 pubmed publisher
    ..Feed restriction increased expression of GPX3 and of genes associated with gluconeogenesis (PC, PDK4), inflammation (SAA3), and signaling (ADIPOR2)...
  10. Kumashiro N, Beddow S, Vatner D, Majumdar S, Cantley J, Guebre Egziabher F, et al. Targeting pyruvate carboxylase reduces gluconeogenesis and adiposity and improves insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2013;62:2183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue-specific inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase is a potential therapeutic approach for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. ..
  11. Faria J, Kinote A, Ignacio Souza L, de Araújo T, Razolli D, Doneda D, et al. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E230-42 pubmed publisher
    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity...
  12. Sun Z, Miller R, Patel R, Chen J, Dhir R, Wang H, et al. Hepatic Hdac3 promotes gluconeogenesis by repressing lipid synthesis and sequestration. Nat Med. 2012;18:934-42 pubmed publisher
  13. Oh K, Park J, Kim S, Oh H, Choi C, Koo S. TCF7L2 modulates glucose homeostasis by regulating CREB- and FoxO1-dependent transcriptional pathway in the liver. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002986 pubmed publisher
    ..adjacent promoter occupancies of CREB, CRTC2, and FoxO1, critical transcriptional modules in hepatic gluconeogenesis, to disrupt target gene transcription...
  14. Norton L, Fourcaudot M, Abdul Ghani M, Winnier D, Mehta F, Jenkinson C, et al. Chromatin occupancy of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and its role in hepatic glucose metabolism. Diabetologia. 2011;54:3132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the possibility that TCF7L2 may affect fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia in carriers of at-risk TCF7L2 genetic polymorphisms. ..
  15. Jitrapakdee S. Transcription factors and coactivators controlling nutrient and hormonal regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:33-45 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major pathway that maintains normal plasma glucose levels during prolonged starvation...
  16. Mutel E, Gautier Stein A, Abdul Wahed A, Amigó Correig M, Zitoun C, Stefanutti A, et al. Control of blood glucose in the absence of hepatic glucose production during prolonged fasting in mice: induction of renal and intestinal gluconeogenesis by glucagon. Diabetes. 2011;60:3121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, compensatory induction of gluconeogenesis occurred in the kidneys and intestine, driven by glucagon, glucocorticoids, and acidosis...
  17. Yasui K, Tanabe H, Miyoshi N, Suzuki T, Goto S, Taguchi K, et al. Effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate on expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes in the mouse duodenum. Biomed Res. 2011;32:313-20 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of intragastrical administration of EGCG on the expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes in the mouse intestine...
  18. Díaz Sotomayor M, Quezada Calvillo R, Avery S, Chacko S, Yan L, Lin A, et al. Maltase-glucoamylase modulates gluconeogenesis and sucrase-isomaltase dominates starch digestion glucogenesis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:704-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Fractional glucogenesis (fGG) derived from starch was measured and fractional gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis were calculated. Carbohydrates in small intestine were determined...
  19. Li X, Li X, Bai G, Chen H, Deng Q, Liu Z, et al. Effects of non-esterified fatty acids on the gluconeogenesis in bovine hepatocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;359:385-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of NEFAs on gluconeogenesis, the expression and enzyme activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) ..
  20. Bilman V, Mares Guia L, Nadu A, Bader M, Campagnole Santos M, Santos R, et al. Decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis in transgenic rats with increased circulating angiotensin-(1-7). Peptides. 2012;37:247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis was investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and in TGR(A1-7)3292 (TGR) rats which present ..
  21. Milanski M, Arruda A, Coope A, Ignacio Souza L, Nunez C, Roman E, et al. Inhibition of hypothalamic inflammation reverses diet-induced insulin resistance in the liver. Diabetes. 2012;61:1455-62 pubmed publisher
    Defective liver gluconeogenesis is the main mechanism leading to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, and, in concert with steatosis, it is the hallmark of hepatic insulin resistance...
  22. Budick Harmelin N, Anavi S, Madar Z, Tirosh O. Fatty acids-stress attenuates gluconeogenesis induction and glucose production in primary hepatocytes. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:66 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic gluconeogenesis tightly controls blood glucose levels in healthy individuals, yet disorders of fatty acids (FAs) oxidation are characterized by hypoglycemia...
  23. Champagne C, Houser D, Fowler M, Costa D, Crocker D. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R340-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Much of this protein sparing is achieved by reducing metabolic rate and suppressing gluconeogenesis while fasting...
  24. Shi X, Cheng Q, Xu L, Yan J, Jiang M, He J, et al. Cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol sulfotransferase inhibit gluconeogenesis by targeting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by targeting the gluconeogenic factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) in both cell cultures and ..
  25. Tanadchangsaeng N, Yu J. Microbial synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate from glycerol: gluconeogenesis, molecular weight and material properties of biopolyester. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2012;109:2808-18 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose from glycerol and that the lithotrophical utilization of glycerol (non-fermentative substrate) or gluconeogenesis is an essential metabolic pathway for biosynthesis of cellular components...
  26. He L, Naik K, Meng S, Cao J, Sidhaye A, Ma A, et al. Transcriptional co-activator p300 maintains basal hepatic gluconeogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..p300(G422S) and hepatic-deleted p300 mice exhibited significant lower blood glucose levels in the fasted and post-prandial states, indicating a role for p300 in maintaining basal HGP. ..
  27. Wang Y, Li G, Goode J, Paz J, Ouyang K, Screaton R, et al. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in fasting and diabetes. Nature. 2012;485:128-32 pubmed publisher
  28. Pan D, Mao C, Zou T, Yao A, Cooper M, Boyartchuk V, et al. The histone demethylase Jhdm1a regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002761 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is required for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis; yet, in diabetes mellitus, this process is unrestrained and is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia...
  29. Mithieux G. A synergy between incretin effect and intestinal gluconeogenesis accounting for the rapid metabolic benefits of gastric bypass surgery. Curr Diab Rep. 2012;12:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis plays a major role in diminishing hunger, and in restoring insulin sensitivity of endogenous glucose ..
  30. Cotter D, Ercal B, d Avignon D, Dietzen D, Crawford P. Impact of peripheral ketolytic deficiency on hepatic ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis during the transition to birth. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19739-49 pubmed publisher to the high fat, low carbohydrate neonatal diet requires inductions of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis...
  31. Sunny N, Parks E, Browning J, Burgess S. Excessive hepatic mitochondrial TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis in humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Cell Metab. 2011;14:804-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals with NAFLD had 50% higher rates of lipolysis and 30% higher rates of gluconeogenesis. There was a positive correlation between IHTG content and both mitochondrial oxidative and anaplerotic ..
  32. Zhang K, Li L, Qi Y, Zhu X, Gan B, Depinho R, et al. Hepatic suppression of Foxo1 and Foxo3 causes hypoglycemia and hyperlipidemia in mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:631-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that Foxo1 and Foxo3 inactivation serves as a potential mechanism by which insulin reduces hepatic glucose production and increases hepatic lipid synthesis and secretion in healthy and diabetic states. ..
  33. Li W, Zhang M, Gu J, Meng Z, Zhao L, Zheng Y, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides and compound K on Type 2 diabetes mice induced by high-fat diet combining with streptozotocin via suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrated the hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing capabilities of CK on type 2 diabetes induced by HFD/STZ via down-regulation of PEPCK and G6Pase expression in liver. ..
  34. Dominy J, Lee Y, Jedrychowski M, Chim H, Jurczak M, Camporez J, et al. The deacetylase Sirt6 activates the acetyltransferase GCN5 and suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Mol Cell. 2012;48:900-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of hepatic Sirt6 may therefore be therapeutically useful for treating insulin-resistant diabetes. ..
  35. Kim D, Perdomo G, Zhang T, Slusher S, Lee S, Phillips B, et al. FoxO6 integrates insulin signaling with gluconeogenesis in the liver. Diabetes. 2011;60:2763-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect stems from inept insulin suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we studied the ability of forkhead box O6 (FoxO6) to mediate ..
  36. Oh K, Han H, Kim M, Koo S. CREB and FoxO1: two transcription factors for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BMB Rep. 2013;46:567-74 pubmed major roles during the process, in part by activating the transcription of key enzyme genes in the gluconeogenesis such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase)...
  37. Madiraju A, Erion D, Rahimi Y, Zhang X, Braddock D, Albright R, et al. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Nature. 2014;510:542-6 pubmed publisher of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia...
  38. Wang C, Dai J, Yang M, Deng G, Xu S, Jia Y, et al. Silencing of FGF-21 expression promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by regulation of the STAT3-SOCS3 signal. FEBS J. 2014;281:2136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..and molecular mechanisms by which changes in FGF-21 activation result in changes in the rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis remain to be elucidated...
  39. Frankenfeld S, de Oliveira L, Ignácio D, Coelho R, Mattos M, Ferreira A, et al. Nandrolone decanoate inhibits gluconeogenesis and decreases fasting glucose in Wistar male rats. J Endocrinol. 2014;220:143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that SDs of DECA exert effects on different regulatory points of glucose metabolism, resulting in defective gluconeogenesis and decreased skeletal muscle glucose uptake in response to insulin.
  40. Hwang S, Kwon O, Lee S, Roh S, Kim Y, Choi J. B-cell translocation gene-2 increases hepatic gluconeogenesis via induction of CREB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:801-5 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is mediated by the network of transcriptional factors and cofactors...
  41. Kiefer F, Orasanu G, Nallamshetty S, Brown J, Wang H, Luger P, et al. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 coordinates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3089-99 pubmed publisher
    ..WT livers. In vitro, retinoid or cAMP agonist stimulation markedly induced gluconeogenesis in WT but not Aldh1a1-deficient primary hepatocytes...
  42. Yonezawa R, Wada T, Matsumoto N, Morita M, Sawakawa K, Ishii Y, et al. Central versus peripheral impact of estradiol on the impaired glucose metabolism in ovariectomized mice on a high-fat diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E445-56 pubmed publisher
  43. Li R, Sherbet D, Elsbernd B, Goldstein J, Brown M, Zhao T. Profound hypoglycemia in starved, ghrelin-deficient mice is caused by decreased gluconeogenesis and reversed by lactate or fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17942-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans with anorexia nervosa or kwashiorkor, ghrelin and growth hormone are known to be elevated, just as they are in fat-depleted mice. We suggest that these two hormones prolong survival in starved humans as they do in mice. ..
  44. Shin D, Joshi P, Hong S, Mosure K, Shin D, Osborne T. Genome-wide analysis of FoxO1 binding in hepatic chromatin: potential involvement of FoxO1 in linking retinoid signaling to hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:11499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..As Pck1 and Pdk4 are downstream targets of retinoid signaling, these results suggest that FoxO1 plays a potential role in linking retinoid metabolism to hepatic gluconeogenesis.
  45. Noguchi R, Kubota H, Yugi K, Toyoshima Y, Komori Y, Soga T, et al. The selective control of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis by temporal insulin patterns. Mol Syst Biol. 2013;9:664 pubmed publisher
    Insulin governs systemic glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis, through temporal change and absolute concentration...
  46. Ip W, Shao W, Chiang Y, Jin T. The Wnt signaling pathway effector TCF7L2 is upregulated by insulin and represses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E1166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..whether TCF7L2 expression is regulated by nutrient availability and whether TCF7L2 and Wnt regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. We examined hepatic Wnt activity in the TOPGAL transgenic mouse, assessed hepatic TCF7L2 expression in mice ..
  47. Zhang M, Lv X, Li J, Meng Z, Wang Q, Chang W, et al. Sodium caprate augments the hypoglycemic effect of berberine via AMPK in inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;363:122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of BER on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/gluconeogenesis pathway and the effects of sodium caprate on hypoglycemic action of BER...
  48. Kim D, Ryu D, Koh M, Lee M, Lim D, Kim M, et al. Orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?) is key regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?) is a novel downstream mediator of glucagon action in hepatic gluconeogenesis and demonstrate a beneficial impact of the inverse agonist GSK5182...
  49. Choi D, Oh K, Han H, Yoon Y, Jung C, Kim S, et al. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates hepatic glucose production in a FoxO1-dependent manner. Hepatology. 2012;56:1546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of protein kinase B (Akt) regulates this process, in part, by inhibiting FoxO1-dependent hepatic gluconeogenesis by direct phosphorylation and subsequent cytoplasmic exclusion...
  50. Kimura K, Yamada T, Matsumoto M, Kido Y, Hosooka T, Asahara S, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits STAT3-dependent suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis via dephosphorylation and deacetylation. Diabetes. 2012;61:61-73 pubmed publisher
  51. Ramnanan C, Saraswathi V, Smith M, Donahue E, Farmer B, Farmer T, et al. Brain insulin action augments hepatic glycogen synthesis without suppressing glucose production or gluconeogenesis in dogs. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3713-23 pubmed publisher
    ..levels by suppressing the expression of enzymes in the hepatic gluconeogenic pathway, thereby reducing gluconeogenesis and endogenous glucose production (EGP)...
  52. Meng R, Zhu D, Bi Y, Yang D, Wang Y. Erythropoietin inhibits gluconeogenesis and inflammation in the liver and improves glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53557 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data indicated that EPO treatment improved glucose intolerance by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and inflammation in the livers of HFD-fed mice.
  53. Zeng X, Wang Y, Cantley J, Iseli T, Molero J, Hegarty B, et al. Oleanolic acid reduces hyperglycemia beyond treatment period with Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42115 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we analyzed key regulators of gluconeogenesis in the liver and found significant increases in the phosphorylation of both Akt and FoxO1 after treatment ..