hypochondriasis

Summary

Summary: Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)

Top Publications

  1. Fink P, Ørnbøl E, Toft T, Sparle K, Frostholm L, Olesen F. A new, empirically established hypochondriasis diagnosis. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1680-91 pubmed
    The narrow ICD-10 and DSM-IV definition of hypochondriasis makes it rarely used yet does not prevent extensive diagnosis overlap. This study identified a distinct hypochondriasis symptom cluster and defined diagnostic criteria...
  2. Rief W, Hiller W, Margraf J. Cognitive aspects of hypochondriasis and the somatization syndrome. J Abnorm Psychol. 1998;107:587-95 pubmed
    ..including patients with a somatization syndrome, patients with somatization syndrome and additional hypochondriasis, patients with hypochondriasis, patients with other mental disorders (clinical control group), and ..
  3. McManus F, Surawy C, Muse K, Vazquez Montes M, Williams J. A randomized clinical trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus unrestricted services for health anxiety (hypochondriasis). J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80:817-28 pubmed
    The efficacy and acceptability of existing psychological interventions for health anxiety (hypochondriasis) are limited...
  4. Nakao M, Shinozaki Y, Ahern D, Barsky A. Anxiety as a predictor of improvements in somatic symptoms and health anxiety associated with cognitive-behavioral intervention in hypochondriasis. Psychother Psychosom. 2011;80:151-8 pubmed publisher
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of hypochondriasis. In this study, we sought to determine whether there was a differential treatment effect for patients with greater levels of anxiety ..
  5. Lovas D, Barsky A. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for hypochondriasis, or severe health anxiety: a pilot study. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24:931-5 pubmed publisher
    In spite of the existence of evidence-based treatments for hypochondriasis, or severe health anxiety, recovery rates are low and morbidity is high. Therefore, more treatment options are needed for this prevalent condition...
  6. Sørensen P, Birket Smith M, Wattar U, Buemann I, Salkovskis P. A randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioural therapy versus short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy versus no intervention for patients with hypochondriasis. Psychol Med. 2011;41:431-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials...
  7. Brondino N, Lanati N, Barale F, Martinelli V, Politi P, Geroldi D, et al. Decreased NT-3 plasma levels and platelet serotonin content in patients with hypochondriasis. J Psychosom Res. 2008;65:435-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although NTs have been associated to a variety of mental disorders, the potential role of NT alterations in hypochondriasis (HC) has never been investigated...
  8. Sirri L, Grandi S, Fava G. The Illness Attitude Scales. A clinimetric index for assessing hypochondriacal fears and beliefs. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77:337-50 pubmed publisher
    ..a high test-retest reliability in normal subjects, and changed in the expected direction after treatment of hypochondriasis. The IAS were also positively related to other hypochondriasis-related measures, and yielded important ..
  9. Rassin E, Muris P, Franken I, van Straten M. The feature-positive effect and hypochondriacal concerns. Behav Res Ther. 2008;46:263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Typically, hypochondriasis is characterized by excessive focusing on bodily complaints (cf...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Davey G, Bond N. Using controlled comparisons in disgust psychopathology research: the case of disgust, hypochondriasis and health anxiety. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2006;37:4-15 pubmed
    ..describes the results of a study investigating the relationship between measures of disgust and measures of hypochondriasis and health anxiety...
  2. Marcus D. The cognitive-behavioral model of hypochondriasis: misinformation and triggers. J Psychosom Res. 1999;47:79-91 pubmed
    ..The illness terms did not trigger higher levels of anxiety in the more hypochondriacal participants; instead, these terms appeared to make the less hypochondriacal participants as anxious as their hypochondriacal counterparts. ..
  3. Hadjistavropoulos H, Frombach I, Asmundson G. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic investigations of the Illness Attitudes Scale in a nonclinical sample. Behav Res Ther. 1999;37:671-84 pubmed
    The Illness Attitudes Scale (IAS) assesses fears, beliefs and attitudes associated with hypochondriasis [Kellner, R. (1986). Somatization and hypochondriasis. New York: Praeger Publishers.]...
  4. Conradt M, Cavanagh M, Franklin J, Rief W. Dimensionality of the Whiteley Index: assessment of hypochondriasis in an Australian sample of primary care patients. J Psychosom Res. 2006;60:137-43 pubmed
    ..the WI, the WI-7, to constitute the most psychometrically sound scale for use as a screening instrument for hypochondriasis in primary care...
  5. Rode S, Salkovskis P, Dowd H, Hanna M. Health anxiety levels in chronic pain clinic attenders. J Psychosom Res. 2006;60:155-61 pubmed
    An application of the cognitive-behavioural model of health anxiety (hypochondriasis) to chronic pain depends on the extent to which high levels of health anxiety occur in chronic pain, which has yet to be established...
  6. Looper K, Kirmayer L. Hypochondriacal concerns in a community population. Psychol Med. 2001;31:577-84 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis is recognized as an important disorder in clinical populations, associated with increased health care utilization, disability and psychiatric co-morbidity. Few studies have investigated hypochondriasis in the community...
  7. Simon G, Gureje O, Fullerton C. Course of hypochondriasis in an international primary care study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2001;23:51-5 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis is frequently defined as a chronic condition distinct from anxiety and depressive disorders...
  8. Braddock A, Abramowitz J. Listening to hypochondriasis and hearing health anxiety. Expert Rev Neurother. 2006;6:1307-12 pubmed
    Although hypochondriasis is categorized as a somatoform disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition--Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) due to excessive focus on bodily symptoms for at least 6 months, a ..
  9. Noyes R, Watson D, Letuchy E, Longley S, Black D, Carney C, et al. Relationship between hypochondriacal concerns and personality dimensions and traits in a military population. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;193:110-8 pubmed
    ..Important features of hypochondriasis and somatic distress appear to lie within the domain of personality...
  10. Creed F, Barsky A. A systematic review of the epidemiology of somatisation disorder and hypochondriasis. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56:391-408 pubmed
    ..paper reviews current knowledge regarding the prevalence and associated features of somatisation disorder and hypochondriasis in population-based and primary care samples...
  11. Abramowitz J, Schwartz S, Whiteside S. A contemporary conceptual model of hypochondriasis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77:1323-30 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis (HC), which involves preoccupation with the fear of having a serious illness despite appropriate medical examination, is often encountered in medical settings...
  12. Schwenzer M, Mathiak K. Hypochondriacal attitudes may reflect a general cognitive bias that is not limited to illness-related thoughts. Psychol Health. 2011;26:965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants with high hypochondriasis scores rated apparently familiar stimuli as being less positive in comparison to low hypochondriacal ..
  13. Noyes R, Stuart S, Langbehn D, Happel R, Longley S, Yagla S. Childhood antecedents of hypochondriasis. Psychosomatics. 2002;43:282-9 pubmed
    According to the interpersonal model of hypochondriasis, early environmental adversity may give rise to attachment insecurity that finds adult expression in care-seeking behavior...
  14. Salkovskis P, Rimes K, Warwick H, Clark D. The Health Anxiety Inventory: development and validation of scales for the measurement of health anxiety and hypochondriasis. Psychol Med. 2002;32:843-53 pubmed
    ..measure of health anxiety should be sensitive across the full range of intensity (from mild concern to frank hypochondriasis) and should differentiate people suffering from health anxiety from those who have actual physical illness ..
  15. Hiller W, Rief W, Fichter M. Dimensional and categorical approaches to hypochondriasis. Psychol Med. 2002;32:707-18 pubmed
    The DSM-IV definition of hypochondriasis is contrasted with hypochondriacal dimensions as provided by the Whiteley Index (WI) and Illness Attitude Scales (IAS)...
  16. Greeven A, van Balkom A, van Rood Y, van Oppen P, Spinhoven P. The boundary between hypochondriasis and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a cross-sectional study from the Netherlands. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:1682-9 pubmed
    To investigate similarities and differences between the symptom profiles of patients with hypochondriasis and those of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to compare the contamination/cleaning OCD subtype to other OCD ..
  17. Greeven A, van Balkom A, Visser S, Merkelbach J, van Rood Y, Van Dyck R, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy and paroxetine in the treatment of hypochondriasis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:91-9 pubmed
    ..therapy (CBT), paroxetine, and a placebo (administered in a double blind fashion) in the treatment of hypochondriasis. The authors randomly assigned 112 subjects with hypochondriasis according to DSM-IV criteria to 16 weeks of ..
  18. Bleichhardt G, Hiller W. Hypochondriasis and health anxiety in the German population. Br J Health Psychol. 2007;12:511-23 pubmed
    Epidemiologic studies on hypochondriasis are very rare and have not been included in large North American community surveys until now...
  19. Martin A, Jacobi F. Features of hypochondriasis and illness worry in the general population in Germany. Psychosom Med. 2006;68:770-7 pubmed
    Although hypochondriasis is considered to be of high relevance in the healthcare sector, its prevalence in the general population has been investigated in few studies...
  20. Marcus D, Gurley J, Marchi M, Bauer C. Cognitive and perceptual variables in hypochondriasis and health anxiety: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007;27:127-39 pubmed
    ..Although the results generally supported the central tenets of the cognitive-behavioral model of hypochondriasis and health anxiety, further research will be necessary to determine whether these beliefs are specific to ..
  21. Noyes R, Stuart S, Watson D, Langbehn D. Distinguishing between hypochondriasis and somatization disorder: a review of the existing literature. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75:270-81 pubmed
    ..The main disorders in this grouping - somatization disorder and hypochondriasis - have lengthy historical traditions and are defined in a contrasting manner...
  22. Barsky A, Ettner S, Horsky J, Bates D. Resource utilization of patients with hypochondriacal health anxiety and somatization. Med Care. 2001;39:705-15 pubmed
    ..This differential persists after adjusting for differences in sociodemographic characteristics and medical morbidity. ..
  23. Visser S, Bouman T. The treatment of hypochondriasis: exposure plus response prevention vs cognitive therapy. Behav Res Ther. 2001;39:423-42 pubmed
    ..therapy and (3) a waiting-list control condition were compared on their efficacy on the treatment of hypochondriasis. Seventy-eight patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were randomly assigned to one of these ..
  24. Buwalda F, Bouman T. Predicting the effect of psychoeducational group treatment for hypochondriasis. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2008;15:396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Predictor variables were a) pretreatment hypochondriasis, b) age, c) gender, d) level of education, e) duration of hypochondriacal complaints, f) severity of ..
  25. olde Hartman T, Borghuis M, Lucassen P, van de Laar F, Speckens A, van Weel C. Medically unexplained symptoms, somatisation disorder and hypochondriasis: course and prognosis. A systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2009;66:363-77 pubmed publisher
    To study the course of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), somatisation disorder, and hypochondriasis, and related prognostic factors...
  26. Noyes R, Stuart S, Langbehn D, Happel R, Longley S, Muller B, et al. Test of an interpersonal model of hypochondriasis. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:292-300 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to test the interpersonal model of hypochondriasis proposed by Stuart and Noyes...
  27. Hedman E, Ljotsson B, Andersson E, Ruck C, Andersson G, Lindefors N. Effectiveness and cost offset analysis of group CBT for hypochondriasis delivered in a psychiatric setting: an open trial. Cogn Behav Ther. 2010;39:239-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochondriasis is highly prevalent in medical settings, has detrimental effects for affected individuals, and is associated with high societal costs...
  28. Welch P, Carleton R, Asmundson G. Measuring health anxiety: moving past the dichotomous response option of the original Whiteley Index. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:1002-7 pubmed publisher
    The Whiteley Index [WI; Pilowsky, I. (1967). Dimensions of hypochondriasis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 89-93] is a widely used self-report measure of health anxiety, hypochondriasis, and illness phobia; however, the factor ..
  29. Greeven A, van Balkom A, van der Leeden R, Merkelbach J, van den Heuvel O, Spinhoven P. Cognitive behavioral therapy versus paroxetine in the treatment of hypochondriasis: an 18-month naturalistic follow-up. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2009;40:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences between CBT and paroxetine were found. Treatment course could not be predicted by psychiatric comorbidity. CBT and paroxetine are both effective treatments for hypochondriasis in the long term.
  30. Abramowitz J, Olatunji B, Deacon B. Health anxiety, hypochondriasis, and the anxiety disorders. Behav Ther. 2007;38:86-94 pubmed
    ..of patients with various anxiety disorders revealed elevated levels of health anxiety among patients with hypochondriasis and panic disorder relative to those with other anxiety disorders...
  31. Olatunji B, Etzel E, Tomarken A, Ciesielski B, Deacon B. The effects of safety behaviors on health anxiety: an experimental investigation. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:719-28 pubmed publisher
    The present study examined the extent to which safety behaviors exacerbate symptoms of hypochondriasis (severe health anxiety). Participants were randomized into a safety behavior (n=30) or control condition (n=30)...
  32. Pauli P, Alpers G. Memory bias in patients with hypochondriasis and somatoform pain disorder. J Psychosom Res. 2002;52:45-53 pubmed
    ..for positive, negative, pain, and neutral word stimuli were studied in 28 patients with somatoform disorders (hypochondriasis and/or pain disorder patients) and 14 patients without somatoform disorders...
  33. Buwalda F, Bouman T, van Duijn M. Psychoeducation for hypochondriasis: a comparison of a cognitive-behavioural approach and a problem-solving approach. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:887-99 pubmed
    In this study, two 6-week psychoeducational courses for hypochondriasis are compared, one based on the cognitive-behavioural approach, and the other on the problem-solving approach...
  34. Hiller W, Leibbrand R, Rief W, Fichter M. Predictors of course and outcome in hypochondriasis after cognitive-behavioral treatment. Psychother Psychosom. 2002;71:318-25 pubmed
    Predictors of treatment outcome were evaluated in a clinical sample suffering from hypochondriasis. The sample consisted of 96 patients with hypochondriacal disorder according to DSM-IV or high syndrome scores on the Illness Attitude ..
  35. van den Heuvel O, Veltman D, Groenewegen H, Witter M, Merkelbach J, Cath D, et al. Disorder-specific neuroanatomical correlates of attentional bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and hypochondriasis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:922-33 pubmed
    ..Medication-free patients with OCD (n = 16), panic disorder (PD) (n = 15), and hypochondriasis (n = 13) and 19 controls...
  36. Fallon B, Qureshi A, Schneier F, Sanchez Lacay A, Vermes D, Feinstein R, et al. An open trial of fluvoxamine for hypochondriasis. Psychosomatics. 2003;44:298-303 pubmed
    The authors conducted a 12-week, open-label trial of fluvoxamine among 18 patients with DSM-IV hypochondriasis. Response was defined as a physician-rated CGI improvement rating of at least "much improved...
  37. Longley S, Watson D, Noyes R. Assessment of the hypochondriasis domain: the multidimensional inventory of hypochondriacal traits (MIHT). Psychol Assess. 2005;17:3-14 pubmed
    Although hypochondriasis is associated with the costly use of unnecessary medical resources, this mental health problem remains largely neglected...
  38. Barsky A, Ahern D. Cognitive behavior therapy for hypochondriasis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291:1464-70 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis is a chronic, distressing, and disabling condition that is prevalent in ambulatory medical practice. Until recently, no specific treatment has been clearly demonstrated to be effective...
  39. de Zwaan M, Müller A. [Doctor shopping: the difficult-to-manage patient]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2006;156:431-4 pubmed
    ..In many patients, psychotherapy should be recommended, although motivational work should already be initiated at the primary care stage. ..
  40. Lecci L, Cohen D. Perceptual consequences of an illness-concern induction and its relation to hypochondriacal tendencies. Health Psychol. 2002;21:147-56 pubmed
    ..Findings are discussed within the context of an activation hypothesis and highlight the importance of the operational definition and assessment of hypochondriacal tendencies when examining perceptual biases. ..
  41. Pelletier O, Gosselin P, Langlois F, Ladouceur R. [Study of psychometric properties of two new questionnaires assessing beliefs in hypochondriasis in a non-clinical population]. Encephale. 2002;28:298-309 pubmed
    Most instruments focussing on hypochondriasis symptoms do not have for goal to assess beliefs specifically. Instead, these instruments are used to measure specific behaviors...
  42. Clark D, Salkovskis P, Hackmann A, Wells A, Fennell M, Ludgate J, et al. Two psychological treatments for hypochondriasis. A randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 1998;173:218-25 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis is generally considered difficult to manage. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive therapy and to compare it with an equally credible, alternative treatment...
  43. Marcus D, Church S. Are dysfunctional beliefs about illness unique to hypochondriasis?. J Psychosom Res. 2003;54:543-7 pubmed
    There is evidence that individuals high in hypochondriasis overestimate the likelihood of ambiguous symptoms being indicative of serious illness...
  44. Fishbain D, Lewis J, Gao J, Cole B, Steele Rosomoff R. Is chronic pain associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? An evidence-based structured review. Pain Pract. 2009;9:449-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this review were to answer the following questions: (1) Are somatization/hypochondriasis associated with chronic pain? (2) Is the degree of somatization/hypochondriasis related to pain levels? (3) ..
  45. Toft T, Fink P, Oernboel E, Christensen K, Frostholm L, Olesen F. Mental disorders in primary care: prevalence and co-morbidity among disorders. results from the functional illness in primary care (FIP) study. Psychol Med. 2005;35:1175-84 pubmed
    ..Men had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and hypochondriasis than women. Psychiatric morbidity tended to increase with age. Prevalence of somatoform disorders was 35...
  46. Stewart S, Watt M. Illness Attitudes Scale dimensions and their associations with anxiety-related constructs in a nonclinical sample. Behav Res Ther. 2000;38:83-99 pubmed
    ..1986). Somatization and hypochondriasis. New York: Praeger; Kellner, R. (1987). Abridged manual of the Illness Attitudes Scale...
  47. Abramowitz J. Hypochondriasis: conceptualization, treatment, and relationship to obsessive compulsive disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005;17:211-7 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis (HC) involves preoccupation with fears of having a serious illness. The preoccupation is persistent and based on misinterpretation of benign bodily sensations...
  48. Olatunji B, Deacon B, Abramowitz J. Is hypochondriasis an anxiety disorder?. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:481-2 pubmed publisher
    Although hypochondriasis is currently classified as a somatoform disorder, the underlying cognitive processes may be more consistent with an anxiety disorder...
  49. Mykletun A, Heradstveit O, Eriksen K, Glozier N, Øverland S, Maeland J, et al. Health anxiety and disability pension award: The HUSK Study. Psychosom Med. 2009;71:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..for disability pension award, there are almost no awards of disability benefits for health anxiety or hypochondriasis. There are no empirical longitudinal population-based studies on occupational disability in health anxiety or ..
  50. Abramowitz J, Moore E. An experimental analysis of hypochondriasis. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:413-24 pubmed
    b>Hypochondriasis (HC) involves preoccupation with fears of having a serious medical illness based on the misinterpretation of benign bodily perturbations...
  51. Williams M, McManus F, Muse K, Williams J. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis): an interpretative phenomenological analysis of patients' experiences. Br J Clin Psychol. 2011;50:379-97 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE. Severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis) is a common and disabling condition for which existing psychological treatments have limited effects (Thomson & Page, 2007)...
  52. Weck F, Neng J, Richtberg S, Stangier U. Dysfunctional beliefs about symptoms and illness in patients with hypochondriasis. Psychosomatics. 2012;53:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..underline the importance of dysfunctional beliefs about bodily symptoms and illness in health anxiety and hypochondriasis. However, specificity of such beliefs has not yet been adequately demonstrated for patients with ..
  53. Barsky A, Fama J, Bailey E, Ahern D. A prospective 4- to 5-year study of DSM-III-R hypochondriasis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:737-44 pubmed
    Although hypochondriasis is generally thought to be a chronic and stable condition with a relatively low remission rate, this disorder remains understudied...