munchausen syndrome


Summary: A factitious disorder characterized by habitual presentation for hospital treatment of an apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.

Top Publications

  1. Huffman J, Stern T. The diagnosis and treatment of Munchausen's syndrome. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2003;25:358-63 pubmed
    ..The prognosis for patients with Munchausen's syndrome appears to be poor; flexible and creative approaches that emphasize consistency of care and regular outpatient psychiatric treatment have had the greatest success. ..
  2. Elmore J. Munchausen syndrome: an endless search for self, managed by house arrest and mandated treatment. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45:561-3 pubmed
  3. Solomon S, Lipton R. Headaches and face pains as a manifestation of Munchausen syndrome. Headache. 1999;39:45-50 pubmed
    Virtually every psychological or physical symptom may be feigned in order to assume a sick role; the term Munchausen syndrome is applied when the physical features are predominant...
  4. Griffiths E, Kampa R, Pearce C, Sakellariou A, Solan M. Munchausen's syndrome by Google. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2009;91:159-60 pubmed publisher
  5. Pessina A, Bisogni V, Fassina A, Rossi G. Munchausen syndrome: a novel cause of drug-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013;31:1473-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Munchausen syndrome was thus diagnosed...
  6. Doherty A, Sheehan J. Munchausen's syndrome--more common than we realize?. Ir Med J. 2010;103:179-81 pubmed
    ..It is important that clinicians not only in psychiatry, but in all medical specialities have an awareness of this disorder, so that unnecessary procedures and treatments may be avoided. ..
  7. Caocci G, Pisu S, La Nasa G. A simulated case of chronic myeloid leukemia: the growing risk of Munchausen's syndrome by internet. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:1826-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Feldman M, Peychers M. Legal issues surrounding the exposure of "Munchausen by Internet". Psychosomatics. 2007;48:451-2 pubmed
  9. Gattaz W, Dressing H, Hewer W, Nunes P. [Münchhausen syndrome: diagnosis and management]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2003;49:220-4 pubmed

More Information


  1. Feldman M, Hamilton J. Mastectomy resulting from factitious disorder. Psychosomatics. 2007;48:361 pubmed
  2. Gupta R, Singh S, Rahman M, Saeed M, Birnbaum Y. Symptomatic bradycardia and postural hypotension. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80:679-81 pubmed
  3. Tochigi M, Hara H, Goshima J, Kobayashi M, Shimizu H, Yokoyama A, et al. Cutaneous Munchausen's syndrome caused by self-injections of fermented beans. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:886-7 pubmed
  4. Hogenauer C, Eherer A, Pfeifer J, Langner C. Chronic longitudinal NSAID-related ulcer of the colon ("colon single-stripe sign") in Munchhausen syndrome. Endoscopy. 2008;40 Suppl 2:E233 pubmed publisher
  5. Delonlay P, Simon A, Galmiche Rolland L, Giurgea I, Verkarre V, Aigrain Y, et al. Neonatal hyperinsulinism: clinicopathologic correlation. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:387-99 pubmed
    ..A preoperative PET scan with fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine and perioperative frozen-section confirmation are the types of studies done before surgery when needed. Adult variants of the disease are less well defined at the present time. ..
  6. Croft P, Racz M, Bloch J, Palmer C. Autopsy confirmation of severe pulmonary interstitial fibrosis secondary to Munchausen syndrome presenting as cystic fibrosis. J Forensic Sci. 2005;50:1194-8 pubmed
    Chronic factitious disorder with physical symptoms, or Munchausen syndrome, is a well-recognized but uncommonly diagnosed psychiatric condition characterized by the deliberate production of signs and symptoms of disease in order to ..
  7. Yonge O, Haase M. Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy in a student nurse. Nurse Educ. 2004;29:166-9 pubmed
    Most faculty are not prepared for the possibility of encountering Munchausen syndrome (MS) in nursing students and Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSP) in nursing students' children...
  8. Tosun F, Ozer C, Akcam T, Gerek M, Yetiser S. A patient of severe cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema associated with Munchausen's syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:661-4 pubmed
    ..Episodes of facial swelling were prevented by psychiatric support. Munchausen's syndrome should be kept in mind among the etiological factors of subcutaneous cervicofacial emphysema cases, in whom no organic causes can be found out. ..
  9. Park T, Borsch M, Dyer A, Peiris A. Cardiopathia fantastica: the cardiac variant of Munchausen syndrome. South Med J. 2004;97:48-52; quiz 53 pubmed
    b>Munchausen syndrome is a rare condition in which the patient repeatedly seeks medical care for factitious illnesses. Cardiac Munchausen syndrome was first reported in 1953 and later referred to as cardiopathia fantastica...
  10. Gresham C, Levine M, Ruha A. Case files of the Medical Toxicology Fellowship at Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center in Phoenix, AZ: a non-warfarin anticoagulant overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2009;5:242-9 pubmed
    ..He previously had an inferior vena cava filter placed, and had received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for a cerebrovascular accident. A toxicology consult was obtained in the ED. ..
  11. Jungheim K, Badenhoop K, Ottmann O, Usadel K. Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 1999;140:140-2 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear...
  12. Christie Smith D, Gartner C. Special report: highlights of the 2004 Institute on Psychiatric Services. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56:16-21 pubmed
  13. Maalla R, Bensalma H, Hamdi L, Assel S, Bahri H, Hamdi A. [Pathomimia in upper limb]. Tunis Med. 2005;83:168-71 pubmed
    ..In one case, we noted a median nerve lesion in the elbow and once in the right upper member. The evolution was performed towards recidives of the initial symptomatology with more or less long periods of improvements. ..
  14. Hoizey G, Lamiable D, Trenque T, Robinet A, Binet L, Kaltenbach M, et al. Identification and quantification of 8 sulfonylureas with clinical toxicology interest by liquid chromatography-ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry and library searching. Clin Chem. 2005;51:1666-72 pubmed
    ..The described assay method allows accurate, rapid identification and quantification of 8 sulfonylureas in human plasma and can be used for specific diagnosis of factitious hypoglycemia caused by ingestion of these drugs. ..
  15. Jordan D, Nerad J, Tse D. An unusual case of orbital cellulitis. Can J Ophthalmol. 1990;25:210-2 pubmed
    ..An unusual case of orbital cellulitis that illustrates a number of these features is illustrated and the syndrome is reviewed. ..
  16. Martins W, Vieira S, de Fátima Avila L. Interesting case: Factitious illness (Munchausen's syndrome)--report of a case. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43:365 pubmed
  17. Hammerschmidt D. The adventures of Freiherr von Münchhausen. J Lab Clin Med. 2004;144:320-1 pubmed
  18. Pino A, Benavent P, Sierra P, Livanos L. [Early onset Münchausen's syndrome]. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2004;32:181-3 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of the factitious disorder in childhood, as well as the relationship of this syndrome with the personality disorders, are discussed. ..
  19. Rabinerson D, Kaplan B, Orvieto R, Dekel A. Munchausen syndrome in obstetrics and gynecology. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;23:215-8 pubmed
    b>Munchausen syndrome (MS) is a well-defined clinical psychiatric entity. Furthermore, it is a complicated and intriguing problem in medicine in general and in obstetrics and gynecology in particular...
  20. Kenedi C, Shirey K, Hoffa M, ZANGA J, Lee J, Harrison J, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of factitious disorder: a systematic review of tools useful in the diagnosis of Munchausen's syndrome. N Z Med J. 2011;124:66-81 pubmed
    ..Factitious disorder is difficult to diagnose and may present as a wide array of fabricated conditions, but there are a range of laboratory and technical means available to assist clinicians in the 21st Century. ..
  21. Lowenstein L. Recent research into dealing with the problem of malingering. Med Leg J. 2002;70:38-49 pubmed
  22. Rock W, Elias M, Lev A, Saliba W. Haloperidol-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome complicated by hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:1018.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Physicians caring for diabetic psychiatric patients who are treated with neuroleptic agents should be aware of this association that may be prevented by tight glycemic control. ..
  23. Kucuker H, Demir T, Oral R. Pediatric condition falsification (Munchausen syndrome by Proxy) as a continuum of maternal factitious disorder (Munchausen syndrome). Pediatr Diabetes. 2010;11:572-8 pubmed publisher
    Pediatric condition falsification (PCF), also known as Munchausen syndrome by Proxy or Medical Child Abuse, is a somewhat rare form of child abuse and neglect...
  24. Gottlieb R. Psychosomatic medicine: the divergent legacies of Freud and Janet. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2003;51:857-81 pubmed
    ..It is argued that although these models are vastly different at one level of abstraction, at a higher level they share an important set of assumptions. ..
  25. Berent D, Florkowski A, Gałecki P. [Münchausen syndrome by proxy]. Psychiatr Pol. 2010;44:245-54 pubmed
  26. Hopkins R, Harrington C, Poppas A. Münchhausen Syndrome simulating acute aortic dissection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:1497-9 pubmed
    ..The intentional presentation of false information leading to unnecessary treatments is consistent with Münchhausen Syndrome. ..
  27. Pai Dhungat J. Munchhausen syndrome. Karl Frederic von Munchhausen (1720-1797). Postal stamps issued on Munchhausen. Sitting on a cannon ball--Czechoslovakia, 1970. Riding on severed horse--West Germany, 1970. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:134 pubmed
  28. Roch C, Knöchlein C, Albrecht J. [Chronic pain and artificial diseases]. Schmerz. 2014;28:528-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient admitted to uncontrolled self-medication so that the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome also appeared to be an artificial disorder. ..
  29. Ozmen S, Ozmen O, Yilmaz T. Clear otorrhea: a case of Munchausen syndrome in a pediatric patient. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:837-8 pubmed
    This paper reports a case of Munchausen syndrome in a pediatric patient. An 11-year-old girl presented with the complaint of clear fluid otorrhea. She underwent numerous investigations with deception of the physicians...
  30. Fukuhara S, Kawamura N, Kakuta Y, Imazu T, Hara T, Yamaguchi S. [Case of self mutilation of urethra in a Munchausen's syndrome patient]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2007;53:829-31 pubmed
    ..By accident, chopsticks with blood ware detected in his ward. It was revealed that urethral bleeding was caused by self-mutilation with chopsticks. He consulted a psychiatrist, and was diagnosed with 'munchausen's syndrome'. ..
  31. Roth D. How "mild" is mild Munchausen syndrome by proxy?. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1990;27:160-7 pubmed
    This paper describes four cases of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSbP), in each of whom the disorder could be considered mild from the physical viewpoint...
  32. Bluth M, Geigges W, Azemar M. ["I'd like to have a high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation!"]. Internist (Berl). 2007;48:1290, 1292-4, 1296 pubmed
    ..The presented patient showed the typical signs and behaviour of this psychiatric disorder. Confrontation may not be helpful in severe cases, whereas a supportive approach might help to avoid further useless and dangerous procedures. ..
  33. Patenaude B, Zitsch R, Hirschi S. Blood--but not bleeding--at a tracheotomy site: a case of Munchausen's syndrome. Ear Nose Throat J. 2006;85:677-9 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a young woman whose Munchausen's syndrome manifested as purported bleeding from a tracheotomy site. In actuality, she had drawn the blood from an arm vein and spattered it on her neck. ..
  34. Bjornson C, Kirk V. Munchausen's syndrome presenting as hemoptysis in a 12-year-old girl. Can Respir J. 2001;8:439-42 pubmed
    ..Munchausen's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis in a child, especially when accompanied by a dramatic presentation, changing symptoms and negative diagnostic investigations. ..
  35. Pompili M, Mancinelli I, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Countertransference in factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome. Int J Psychiatr Nurs Res. 2004;9:1041-3 pubmed
  36. Klaassen F, Schober P, Schwarte L, Boer C, Loer S. Acute respiratory failure leading to emergency intubation: an unusual manifestation of Munchausen's syndrome. Resuscitation. 2007;75:534-9 pubmed
    ..Recognition of this psychiatric disease is not only important for correct medical diagnosis and treatment, but also essential in protecting the patients from unnecessary invasive and aggressive medical procedures. ..
  37. Kitchens C. Pulmonary Munchausen syndrome. Chest. 2002;121:1392-3 pubmed
  38. Rashidi A, Khodarahmi I, Feldman M. Mathematical modeling of the course and prognosis of factitious disorders: a game-theoretic approach. J Theor Biol. 2006;240:48-53 pubmed
    ..Particularly, the doctor's error rate in realizing whether the symptoms are real or factitious can considerably affect the course of the disease. This is the first paper to apply a mathematical model to factitious disorders. ..
  39. DeWitt D, Ward S, Prabhu S, Warton B. Patient privacy versus protecting the patient and the health system from harm: a case study. Med J Aust. 2009;191:213-6 pubmed
    ..previous admissions and invasive investigations at hospitals across Australia, resulting in a diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome. Assuming that, despite interventions, patients with Munchausen syndrome or somatoform disorders often ..
  40. Titapiwatanakun R, Rodriguez V, Middha S, Dukek B, Pruthi R. Novel splice site mutations in the gamma glutamyl carboxylase gene in a child with congenital combined deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (VKCFD). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:92-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral vitamin K supplementation resulted in partial resolution of proteins and complete resolution of bleeding. ..
  41. Ehrlich S, Pfeiffer E, Salbach H, Lenz K, Lehmkuhl U. Factitious disorder in children and adolescents: a retrospective study. Psychosomatics. 2008;49:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Sample I, FD occurred in 0.7% and, in Sample II, in 0.03% of the cases. The prevalence of pediatric FD among referrals to a CLS is similar to those found in studies of adults, and patients share many clinical characteristics. ..
  42. Dropinski J, Wegrzyn W, Szczeklik W, Szułdrzyński K, Sznajd J. [Recurrent crural phlegmonous abscesses as a sign of Münchausen syndrome in a young woman]. Przegl Lek. 2006;63:304-5 pubmed
    ..The above patient produced the abscesses by deliberately traumatizing her skin. The case points to Münchausen syndrome as a possible rare cause of some long, unsuccessfully treated diseases. ..
  43. Fonteyn N, Wauters G, Vandercam B, Degraux J, Avesani V, Vincent V, et al. Mycobacterium mucogenicum sepsis in an immunocompetent patient. J Infect. 2006;53:e143-6 pubmed
    ..We report a case of Mycobacterium mucogenicum sepsis in an immunocompetent woman with Münchausen syndrome presenting with multiple abscesses. ..
  44. Kokturk N, Ekim N, Aslan S, Kanbay A, Acar A. A rare cause of hemoptysis: factitious disorder. South Med J. 2006;99:186-7 pubmed
    ..Factitious hemoptysis is a manifiestation of Munchausen syndrome that describes a group of patients who intentionally produce or feign symptoms or disabilities...
  45. Crawford S, Jeyasanger G, Wright M. A visitor with Munchausen's syndrome. Clin Med (Lond). 2005;5:400-1 pubmed
    ..The article describes the experience of three members of staff with a patient who proved to have Munchausen's syndrome, and their reaction to discovering the truth. ..
  46. Knudsen R, Damborg F. [Münchhausen's syndrome--a diagnosis to remember]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2009;171:3794-6 pubmed
    ..Despite countless investigations, it was not possible to identify the course of the patient's symptoms. It has become clear that the patient suffers from >Münchhausen's syndrome<. ..
  47. Zibis A, Dailiana Z, Papaliaga M, Vrangalas V, Mouzas O, Malizos K. Munchausen syndrome: A differential diagnostic trap for hand surgeons. J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2010;44:222-4 pubmed publisher
    ..During the next few days her symptoms worsened and she developed fever. It was discovered that the patient was preheating more than one thermometer and was intentionally injuring herself. The final diagnosis was Munchausen syndrome.
  48. Oviedo B, Savini S, Bauducco G, Blangino K. [Munchausen Syndrome]. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba. 2002;59:125-9 pubmed
    ..Although the syndrome appears frequently, its unsuspected ways of presentation make difficult to diagnose it. It is necessary the knowledge of this syndrome because of the morbid-mortality it implies. ..
  49. Bordes G, Schuster J, Limosin F. [Depressive symptoms in pathomimia: comorbidity or psychiatric factitious disorder?]. Encephale. 2011;37:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The third case presented a Munchausen syndrome. He was hospitalized for depressive symptoms. He had a comorbid major depressive episode...
  50. Schober P, Schwarte L, Boer C, Loer S. Fatal outcome of Munchausen's syndrome. Resuscitation. 2008;78:99-100 pubmed publisher
  51. Uzuner S, Bahali K, Kurban S, Erenberk U, Cakir E. A pediatric case of factitious disorder with unexplained bleeding symptoms. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013;35:679.e7-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant appearance of hemoptysis and hematuria in the same patient has not been previously reported. In this case report, we present a pediatric case of factitious disorder with both hemoptysis and hematuria. ..
  52. Zahner J, Muehlenberg K. [Cardiopathia fantastica: case report and literature review]. Z Kardiol. 2001;90:58-64 pubmed
    ..the numerous hospitalizations in various hospitals with self-discharge, we made the diagnosis of a cardiac Munchausen syndrome, a so-called cardiopathia fantastica, in the presence of an accompanying coronary heart disease...
  53. Canogullari G, Ulupinar E, Teyin M, Balci Y. A forensic case of Munchausen's syndrome. J Forensic Leg Med. 2007;14:167-71 pubmed
    ..This case was not only trying the medical personnel to make errors and confusion, but also attempting to mislead the judgment. Therefore, in forensic cases, medical history of patient must be evaluated carefully. ..