factitious disorders


Summary: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.

Top Publications

  1. Louis D, Doro C, Hayden R. Factitious disorders. Clin Occup Environ Med. 2006;5:435-43, x pubmed
    b>Factitious disorders reside under the broad umbrella of dysfunctional syndromes. This article is meant specifically to focus on common patterns of upper extremity factitious illness...
  2. Taskaynatan M, Balaban B, Karlidere T, Ozgul A, Tan A, Kalyon T. Factitious disorders encountered in patients with the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24:521-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these patients are not motivated enough to improve their conditions and expectations of such patients may show some differences depending on the environment...
  3. Birman M, Lee D. Factitious disorders of the upper extremity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012;20:78-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Factitious disorders of the upper extremity can manifest in many different forms; therefore, it is critical to recognize warning signs in the history and examination indicating that the patient may be creating the symptoms and physical ..
  4. Puglisi F, Ridi R, Cecchi F, Bonelli A, Ferrari R. Segmental vertebral motion in the assessment of neck range of motion in whiplash patients. Int J Legal Med. 2004;118:235-9 pubmed
  5. Schlegel A. Factitious granulomatous hepatitis?. Am J Med. 2004;116:500-1 pubmed
  6. Finore E, Andreoli E, Alfani S, Palermi G, Pedicelli C, Paradisi M. Dermatitis artefacta in a child. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:E51-6 pubmed
    ..The source of this disorder must therefore be found in socio-relational difficulties within the family and school environments, which lead the patient to self-harm behaviors that have a high communication value. ..
  7. Bieniek K, van Blitterswijk M, Baker M, Petrucelli L, Rademakers R, Dickson D. Expanded C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat in depressive pseudodementia. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This report increases the range of clinicopathologic presentations of C9ORF72 expanded hexanucleotide repeat to include psychiatric disorders such as depressive pseudodementia. ..
  8. Levenson J, Valverde R, Olbrisch M. Factitious wound infections in an altruistic living liver donor. Prog Transplant. 2008;18:22-4 pubmed
    ..Costs for the infections after donation were billed to the recipient, creating a threat to the recipient's lifetime benefits. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining previous medical records on living donors. ..
  9. Burke F. Factitious disorders of the upper limb. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2008;33:103-9 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Schreier H. On the importance of motivation in Munchausen by Proxy: the case of Kathy Bush. Child Abuse Negl. 2002;26:537-49 pubmed
  2. Hamilton J, Eger M, Razzak S, Feldman M, Hallmark N, Cheek S. Somatoform, factitious, and related diagnoses in the national hospital discharge survey: addressing the proposed DSM-5 revision. Psychosomatics. 2013;54:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide empirical support for the impression that physicians do not assign SFD and FD diagnoses in recognized cases, but do not strongly support the assertion that these diagnoses are uniquely problematic. ..
  3. Bass C, Halligan P. Factitious disorders and malingering: challenges for clinical assessment and management. Lancet. 2014;383:1422-32 pubmed publisher
    Compared with other psychiatric disorders, diagnosis of factitious disorders is rare, with identification largely dependent on the systematic collection of relevant information, including a detailed chronology and scrutiny of the patient'..
  4. Zimmer K, Marquardt T, Schmitt G. More on factitious diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002;35:584-5 pubmed
  5. Groen W, The G, Pop Purceleanu M, Lagro Janssen T, Fortuyn H, Voshaar R. [Pseudologia fantastica. Recognition and treatment of pathological lying]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2009;153:A139 pubmed
    ..Although a psychiatric diagnostic workup might be worthwhile, it remains difficult to engage these patients for psychiatric treatment. ..
  6. Choudhary S, Khairkar P, Singh A, Gupta S. Dermatitis artefacta: keloids and foreign body granuloma due to overvalued ideation of acupuncture. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009;75:606-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To satisfy her psychological or emotional need, it is the deliberate and conscious production of self-inflicted skin lesions through overvalued ideation of acupuncture on her part...
  7. Libow J. Beyond collusion: active illness falsification. Child Abuse Negl. 2002;26:525-36 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that increased understanding will eventually allow more rapid, reliable identification of these patients and more effective interventions within the family system, with positive implications for future generations. ..
  8. Del Casale A, Ferracuti S, Rapinesi C, Serata D, Simonetti A, Caloro M, et al. Factitious disorder comorbid with bipolar I disorder. A case report. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;219:e37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should be aware of some patients' ability to produce signs and symptoms of physical and/or psychological illness and consult psychiatrists before giving consent to invasive diagnostic procedures or surgery. ..
  9. Muller S. Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)--is the amputation of healthy limbs ethically justified?. Am J Bioeth. 2009;9:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead of only curing the symptom, a causal therapy should be developed to integrate the alien limb into the body image. ..
  10. Villegas R, Ilsen P. Functional vision loss: a diagnosis of exclusion. Optometry. 2007;78:523-33 pubmed
    ..Comanagement with a psychiatrist is essential for patients with functional vision loss. ..
  11. Bass C, Glaser D. Early recognition and management of fabricated or induced illness in children. Lancet. 2014;383:1412-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Present evidence suggests that somatoform and factitious disorders are over-represented in caregivers, with possible intergenerational transmission of abnormal illness ..
  12. Grunert B, Sanger J, Matloub H, Yousif N. Classification system for factitious syndromes in the hand with implications for treatment. J Hand Surg Am. 1991;16:1027-30 pubmed
    We evaluated 29 patients with factitious disorders in the hand who received Worker's Compensation benefits...
  13. Yoon S, Kim D, Kim J, Kim K, Ahn C, Cha B, et al. A case of thyroid storm due to thyrotoxicosis factitia. Yonsei Med J. 2003;44:351-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we now report a case of thyroid storm that resulted from thyrotoxicosis factitia caused by the ingestion of a massive amount of thyroid hormone over a period of 6 months. ..
  14. Campo J, Fritz G. A management model for pediatric somatization. Psychosomatics. 2001;42:467-76 pubmed
    ..Well-designed empirical studies of intervention are needed that should examine efficacy as well as the relationship between symptomatic improvement, functional improvement, and comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms. ..
  15. Janssens S, Morrens M, Sabbe B. [Pseudologia fantastica: definition and position in relation to axis I and axis II psychiatric disorders]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2008;50:679-83 pubmed
  16. Poole C. Illness deception and work: incidence, manifestations and detection. Occup Med (Lond). 2010;60:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulated weakness of grip should be suspected when consecutive declared maximal grip strengths are inexplicably submaximal for age and sex and highly variable in force. ..
  17. Pal S, Sarkar P, Maity P. A case of factitious disorder involving eyes. J Indian Med Assoc. 2007;105:400 pubmed
  18. Harris D. Factitious buccal lesion secondary to bruxism in a child with cerebral palsy. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:e4 pubmed
    ..The recognition and significance of self-injurious behaviour and factitious lesions in children are discussed. ..
  19. Pompili M, Mancinelli I, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Countertransference in factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome. Int J Psychiatr Nurs Res. 2004;9:1041-3 pubmed
  20. Schlegel C, Teufel M, Häfner H, Schaller M, Metzler G, Biedermann T. [The consequences of subcutaneous India ink injection to produce factitial disease. Bilateral mastectomy, lymph node dissection, irradiation, and continued suspicion of neoplasia]. Hautarzt. 2008;59:571-5 pubmed
  21. Medina A, Sogbe R, Gómez Rey A, Mata M. Factitial oral lesions in an autistic paediatric patient. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003;13:130-7 pubmed
    ..Non-contingent reinforcement therapy was successfully used to diminish SIB. Treatment of factitial oral injuries must be interdisciplinary and requires cooperation of the patient, the parents, health care providers, and medical team. ..
  22. Zeineh L, Wilhelmi B, Seidenstricker L. The clenched fist syndrome revisited. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:149e-150e pubmed publisher
  23. Leite R, Nery N. Dermatitis simulata: the mystery of the blue girl. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1317-9 pubmed publisher
  24. van der Feltz Cornelis C. [Unexplained or undiagnosed? To a DSM-V for somatoform disorder. Comment on van Dieren & Vingerhoets]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2007;49:839-42 pubmed
  25. Walker E. Dealing with patients who have medically unexplained symptoms. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2002;7:187-95 pubmed
  26. Magnin E, Thomas Anterion C, Sylvestre G, Haffen S, Magnin Feysot V, Rumbach L. Conversion, dissociative amnesia, and Ganser syndrome in a case of "chameleon" syndrome: anatomo-functional findings. Neurocase. 2014;20:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A single photon emission computed tomography examination showed bilateral temporal, frontal and a right caudate (in the head of the caudate nucleus) hypoperfusion concordant with a common mechanism of repression in these disorders. ..
  27. Maalla R, Bensalma H, Hamdi L, Assel S, Bahri H, Hamdi A. [Pathomimia in upper limb]. Tunis Med. 2005;83:168-71 pubmed
    Pathomimia, or factitious disorders, are characterized by producing symptoms voluntarily with the intention of playing the role of the patient...
  28. Megarbane H, Tomb R, Makhoul E, Halaby E. [Dermatitis artefacta. Report of seven cases]. J Med Liban. 2003;51:9-14 pubmed
    ..An inappropriate approach may cause the loss of the patient and the recurrence of the lesions. Psychotherapy is indicated even though prognosis is poor. ..
  29. Moussaoui A, Fejjal N, Cantaloube D. [Surgical management of cutaneous pathomimia. A report case]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2005;50:743-5 pubmed
    ..The treatment consisted on excision and skin graft. The patient was addressed to Psychodermatology consultation. Authors show the place of plastic surgery in management of cutaneous pathomimia. ..
  30. Kapoor H, Jaison S, Chopra R, Kakkar N. Factitious keratoconjunctivitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006;54:282-3 pubmed
  31. Kasdan M, Soergel T, Johnson A, Lewis K, White W. Expanded profile of the SHAFT syndrome. J Hand Surg Am. 1998;23:26-31 pubmed
    ..Such patients tend to be women, cry with pain, describe symptoms out of proportion to objective findings, and have a history of psychiatric care. ..
  32. Yildirim E, Essizoğlu A, Koksal A, Doğu B, Baybas S, Gökalp P. [Chronic manganese intoxication due to methcathinone (ephedron) abuse: a case report]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2009;20:294-8 pubmed
    ..Other areas of interest are the shortage of data on the intravenous use of manganese and the cases reported in the literature coming from the former Soviet Union. ..
  33. Fujii T, Hirayama K, Fukatsu R, Ohtake H, Otsuka Y, Yamadori A. [Neural basis of emotion and feeling from a neuropsychological perspective]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2005;125:83-7 pubmed
  34. Bernstein A, Werlin A. Pseudodementia associated with use of ibuprofen. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37:80-2 pubmed
    ..The Naranjo probability scale may be clinically useful for evaluating other pharmaceutical agents that may be contributing to development of dementia-like conditions. ..
  35. Löbermann M, Hemmer C, Andree H, Mau R, Grimm K, Reisinger E. [Factitious recurrent septicemia and gastrointestinal corrosive burns]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:1368-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluctuating or bizarre symptoms and unusual diagnostic findings may indicate self-inflicted disorders, in which the symptoms of illness are caused by the afflicted person him/herself. ..
  36. Bass C, Jones D. Psychopathology of perpetrators of fabricated or induced illness in children: case series. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, 16 (57%) had evidence of a current somatoform disorder, and factitious disorders (either past or current) were identified in 18 (64%): 11 participants had both somatoform and factitious ..
  37. Ting J. 'Watered down' renal colic: using tap water mixed with blood to simulate macroscopic haematuria. Emerg Med Australas. 2008;20:85-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is diagnostically useful if tap water or normal saline is used to produce an alleged urine sample. ..
  38. Savvidou I, Bozikas V, Karavatos A. False allegations of child physical abuse: a case of Münchausen by proxy-like syndrome?. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2002;32:201-8 pubmed
    ..Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of symptoms in the child are noted, underscoring the differences between Münchausen by proxy syndrome appearing in infancy with that appearing in older children. ..
  39. Uzuner S, Bahali K, Kurban S, Erenberk U, Cakir E. A pediatric case of factitious disorder with unexplained bleeding symptoms. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013;35:679.e7-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant appearance of hemoptysis and hematuria in the same patient has not been previously reported. In this case report, we present a pediatric case of factitious disorder with both hemoptysis and hematuria. ..
  40. Cote I. A case of pain, factitious disorder and boundary violations. Pain Res Manag. 2001;6:197-9 pubmed
    Although health professionals are usually familiar with factitious disorders, evaluating such cases may be complicated, particularly in the legal arena...
  41. Brettschneider J, Riepe M, Petereit H, Ludolph A, Tumani H. Meningeal derived cerebrospinal fluid proteins in different forms of dementia: is a meningopathy involved in normal pressure hydrocephalus?. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1614-6 pubmed
  42. Ehrlich S, Pfeiffer E, Salbach H, Lenz K, Lehmkuhl U. Factitious disorder in children and adolescents: a retrospective study. Psychosomatics. 2008;49:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Sample I, FD occurred in 0.7% and, in Sample II, in 0.03% of the cases. The prevalence of pediatric FD among referrals to a CLS is similar to those found in studies of adults, and patients share many clinical characteristics. ..
  43. Lanyon R. Assessing the misrepresentation of health problems. J Pers Assess. 2003;81:1-10 pubmed
  44. Kubota S, Fukata S, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A. Successful management of a patient with pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2003;33:183-8 pubmed
    ..Our approach could be a therapeutic choice for this intractable disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful management of a patient with pseudomal-absorption of levothyroxine. ..
  45. Waite S, Geddes A. Malingered psychosis leading to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization. Australas Psychiatry. 2006;14:419-21 pubmed
    ..It is important for clinicians to identify malingerers early and limit unnecessary admissions. ..
  46. Takahashi R, Oka Y. [Proinsulin, C-peptide reactive protein (CPR)]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 8:488-92 pubmed
  47. Kocalevent R, Fliege H, Rose M, Walter M, Danzer G, Klapp B. Autodestructive syndromes. Psychother Psychosom. 2005;74:202-11 pubmed
    ..The task at hand is to use a yet-to-be-developed nomenclature and adequately operational diagnostic criteria to work out standardised survey instruments that do justice to the heterogeneity of this disorder complex. ..
  48. Pontious J. The crazy aunt in the attic. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2004;97:316 pubmed
  49. de Silva D, Sujeevan S, Jayasinghe S. Factitious disorders, malingering or maladaptive coping strategies?. Ceylon Med J. 2004;49:35-6 pubmed
  50. Fritzsche K, Venhoff N, Larisch A. [Factitious disorder--fever and delayed wound healing]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008;133:1004-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Such non-confrontational behavior on the part of the carer enables the patient to accept the offer of psychotherapy without losing face. ..
  51. Yildiz M, Torun F. [A case report of factitious disorder with hallucinations]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2003;14:239-44 pubmed
    ..This case emphasizes the need for the careful observation of patients to prevent unnecessary investigations at the diagnosis and treatment stage and to establish a specific management strategy for the patients. ..
  52. Levenson J, Chafe W, Flanagan P. Factitious ovarian cancer: feigning via resources on the internet. Psychosomatics. 2007;48:71-3 pubmed
  53. Sigal M, Altmark D, Alfici S, Gelkopf M. Ganser syndrome: a review of 15 cases. Compr Psychiatry. 1992;33:134-8 pubmed