paranoid schizophrenia


Summary: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.

Top Publications

  1. Konstantakopoulos G, Oulis P, Koulouris G, Masdrakis V, Michalopoulou P. Lamotrigine-associated exacerbation of positive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2008;98:325-6 pubmed
  2. Morera A, Henry M, Garcia Hernandez A, Fernandez Lopez L. Acute phase proteins as biological markers of negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2007;35:249-52 pubmed
    ..This paper aims to study the relationship between Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) and psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia. Fifteen physically healthy inpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for paranoid schizophrenia took part in the ..
  3. Srivastava A, Borkar H, Chandak S. Olanzapine-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;63:119-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3-6) This case report emphasizes the importance of being cautious when rapidly increasing doses of olanzapine are used in patients with psychiatric illnesses...
  4. Bob P, Palus M, Susta M, Glaslova K. EEG phase synchronization in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Neurosci Lett. 2008;447:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..31 adult schizophrenic outpatients with diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia (mean age 27.4) were assessed in the study...
  5. Bob P, Palus M, Susta M, Glaslova K. Sensitization, epileptic-like symptoms and local synchronization in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:143-6 pubmed publisher
    ..information rate (CIR) in 8 EEG signals recorded at different cortical areas in 44 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The values of local synchronization that could reflect sensitization related changes in EEG activities of ..
  6. Bob P, Susta M, Glaslova K, Boutros N. Dissociative symptoms and interregional EEG cross-correlations in paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2010;177:37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in 58 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results show statistically significant Spearman correlations of the DES with cross-correlation ..
  7. Bach D, Buxtorf K, Grandjean D, Strik W. The influence of emotion clarity on emotional prosody identification in paranoid schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 2009;39:927-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We used clarity-graded emotional prosodic stimuli without semantic content, and tested 25 in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia, 25 healthy control participants and 25 depressive in-patients on emotional prosody identification...
  8. Bär K, Wernich K, Boettger S, Cordes J, Boettger M, Löffler S, et al. Relationship between cardiovagal modulation and psychotic state in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2008;157:255-7 pubmed
    ..Mainly we found that patients displaying stronger psychotic symptoms as assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale exhibit more severe cardiac ANS disturbances compared with controls. ..
  9. An S, Lee E, Kim J, Namkoong K, Kang J, Jeon J, et al. Greater impairment in negative emotion evaluation ability in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47:343-53 pubmed
    ..The reverse was true on trials of the negative pictures. Patients with schizophrenia, especially paranoid schizophrenia, committed more errors in trials of the positive pictures when the correct response key was the negative ..

More Information


  1. Freeman D. Suspicious minds: the psychology of persecutory delusions. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007;27:425-57 pubmed
    ..Ten key future research questions are identified, including the need for researchers to consider factors important to the different dimensions of delusional experience. ..
  2. Huang J, Leweke F, Oxley D, Wang L, Harris N, Koethe D, et al. Disease biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with first-onset psychosis. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e428 pubmed
    ..distribution of samples from healthy volunteers away from drug-naïve patients with first-onset paranoid schizophrenia. The key alterations were the up-regulation of a 40-amino acid VGF-derived peptide, the down-regulation of ..
  3. Ha T, Youn T, Ha K, Rho K, Lee J, Kim I, et al. Gray matter abnormalities in paranoid schizophrenia and their clinical correlations. Psychiatry Res. 2004;132:251-60 pubmed
    ..Regional gray matter concentrations of magnetic resonance (MR) images from 35 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were compared with those from 35 age- and sex-matched controls, and their clinical correlations were ..
  4. Paul Samojedny M, Kowalczyk M, Suchanek R, Owczarek A, Fila Danilow A, Szczygiel A, et al. Functional polymorphism in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genes in patients with paranoid schizophrenia--a case-control study. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;42:112-9 pubmed publisher identify whether polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 are risk factors for the development of paranoid schizophrenia in case-control study...
  5. Walsh P, Spelman L, Sharifi N, Thakore J. Male patients with paranoid schizophrenia have greater ACTH and cortisol secretion in response to metoclopramide-induced AVP release. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005;30:431-7 pubmed response to metoclopramide in 10 drug-naive, first-episode male patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia and compared them to healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and smoking status...
  6. Pflueger A, Blackwell K, Sampson S. 38-year-old man with priapism and a history of paranoid schizophrenia. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:111-4 pubmed
  7. Frith C. The neural basis of hallucinations and delusions. C R Biol. 2005;328:169-75 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to explore the precise involvement of long-range connections in the mechanisms of forward modelling. ..
  8. Basu J, Basu S, Bhattacharyya S. Ego functions in relation to stressful life events and indices of psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia. Psychol Rep. 2004;95:1248-52 pubmed
    ..namely, Psychoticism, Anxiety, and Depression among 60 Bengali adult patients suffering from Paranoid Schizophrenia. Adapted versions of Bellak's Ego Function Assessment-M, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, Beck ..
  9. Segal M, Avital A, Berstein S, Derevenski A, Sandbank S, Weizman A. Prolactin and estradiol serum levels in unmedicated male paranoid schizophrenia patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:378-82 pubmed
    ..levels are associated with low prolactin levels, alleged hyperdopaminergic tone and psychotic breakdown in paranoid schizophrenia. The results of the present study further support our previous report of the association between prolactin ..
  10. Thoma P, Daum I. Working memory and multi-tasking in paranoid schizophrenia with and without comorbid substance use disorder. Addiction. 2008;103:774-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicates severe working memory and multi-tasking deficits in schizophrenia which are, however, not exacerbated by comorbid addiction. ..
  11. Zhou Y, Liang M, Tian L, Wang K, Hao Y, Liu H, et al. Functional disintegration in paranoid schizophrenia using resting-state fMRI. Schizophr Res. 2007;97:194-205 pubmed
    ..Patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=18) and healthy volunteers (N=18) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan...
  12. Lake C. Hypothesis: grandiosity and guilt cause paranoia; paranoid schizophrenia is a psychotic mood disorder; a review. Schizophr Bull. 2008;34:1151-62 pubmed Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation...
  13. Nordahl T, Carter C, Salo R, Kraft L, Baldo J, Salamat S, et al. Anterior cingulate metabolism correlates with stroop errors in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:139-48 pubmed
    ..In this study we follow up with an examination of paranoid schizophrenia outpatients and controls with very high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) and the longer half-..
  14. Lü L, Guo S, Chen W, Li Q, Cheng J, Guo J. [Effect of clozapine and risperidone on serum cytokine levels in patients with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2004;24:1251-4 pubmed
    To study the effects of clozapine and risperidone on serum cytokine levels in patients with first-episode paranoid schizophrenia, and explore the role of the cytokines in the psychopathological basis of the illness...
  15. Jia Y, Yu X, Zhang B, Yuan Y, Xu Q, Shen Y, et al. No association between polymorphisms in three genes of cytochrome p450 family and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Chinese Han population. Eur Psychiatry. 2004;19:374-6 pubmed
    ..Thus we obtained no evidence for the involvement of the polymorphisms in paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.
  16. Angelopoulos E, Markianos M, Daskalopoulou E, Hatzimanolis J, Tzemos J. Changes in central serotonergic function as a correlate of duration of illness in paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2002;110:9-17 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence that the persistence of psychotic psychopathology induces secondary neuroadaptive effects, which seem to involve changes in central serotonergic function. ..
  17. Jia Y, Yu X, Zhang B, Yuan Y, Xu Q, Shen Y, et al. An association study between polymorphisms in three genes of 14-3-3 (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein) family and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Chinese population. Eur Psychiatry. 2004;19:377-9 pubmed
    We performed an association study between three SNPs in the genes of 14-3-3 family and paranoid schizophrenia. SNP rs983583 G/A in the YWHAZ gene showed significant association with paranoid schizophrenia...
  18. Williams L, Das P, Harris A, Liddell B, Brammer M, Olivieri G, et al. Dysregulation of arousal and amygdala-prefrontal systems in paranoid schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:480-9 pubmed
    ..disconnection in autonomic and central systems for processing threat-related signals in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid cognition may reflect an internally generated cycle of misattribution regarding incoming fear ..
  19. Xu Q, Jia Y, Zhang B, Zou K, Tao Y, Wang Y, et al. Association study of an SNP combination pattern in the dopaminergic pathway in paranoid schizophrenia: a novel strategy for complex disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:510-21 pubmed
    ..strategy in seeking the combined effect of susceptibility genes for a complex disorder by using paranoid schizophrenia as an example...
  20. Babovic Vuksanovic D, Jenkins S, Ensenauer R, Newman D, Jalal S. Subtelomeric deletion of 18p in an adult with paranoid schizophrenia and mental retardation. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;124A:318-22 pubmed a 42-year-old man with a history of developmental delay, moderate mental retardation, and symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia since adolescence...
  21. Weissman A, Casanova M, Kleinman J, London E, De Souza E. Selective loss of cerebral cortical sigma, but not PCP binding sites in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;29:41-54 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first evidence for alterations in sigma binding sites in schizophrenia, and suggest that selective sigma ligands may be useful in the treatment of the disorder. ..
  22. Davis P, Stewart K. Interpretation of congruent and incongruent affective communications in paranoid schizophrenia. Br J Clin Psychol. 2001;40:249-59 pubmed
    It was hypothesized that people with paranoid schizophrenia would differ from depressed and normal participants in their interpretation of complex communications in which the affect conveyed verbally was either congruent or incongruent ..
  23. PATTERSON J, Sandman C, Ring A, Jin Y, Bunney W. An initial report of a new biological marker for bipolar disorder: P85 evoked brain potential. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11:596-609 pubmed publisher
    ..evoked potentials were collected from individuals diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder (n = 45), paranoid schizophrenia (n = 66), and bipolar I disorder (n = 42) using DSM-IV criteria and the Structured Clinical Interview for ..
  24. Brusov O, Faktor M, Zlobina G, Dupin A, Katasonov A, Dmitriev A, et al. [Platelet serotonergic parameters and clinical symptoms of psychosis in patients with episodic progressive schizophrenia]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2007;107:17-24 pubmed
    ..They confirm the usefulness of testing of platelet 5-HT content and SERT immunoreactivity as biological markers of schizophrenic psychoses, in particular for male patents. ..
  25. Preda A. Shared decision making in schizophrenia treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:326; author reply 326-7 pubmed
  26. Anglin D, Malaspina D. Racial and ethnic effects on psychotic psychiatric diagnostic changes from admission to discharge: a retrospective chart review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:464-9 pubmed
    ..the frequency of psychotic psychiatric diagnoses differs by race/ethnicity, particularly with regard to paranoid schizophrenia. We examined the frequency upon admission and at discharge and further explored the pattern of diagnostic ..
  27. Shryane N, Corcoran R, Rowse G, Moore R, Cummins S, Blackwood N, et al. Deception and false belief in paranoia: modelling theory of mind stories. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2008;13:8-32 pubmed
    ..However, paranoia was associated with impaired performance on both false belief and deception understanding with clear impairment at the simplest level of mental state attribution. ..
  28. Levin Y, Schwarz E, Wang L, Leweke F, Bahn S. Label-free LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomics for large-scale biomarker discovery in complex samples. J Sep Sci. 2007;30:2198-203 pubmed
    ..Using this approach, we identified 1709 serum proteins covering a dynamic range of over three orders of magnitude. We believe that label-free quantitative proteomics is especially suited for biomarker discovery in large sample sets. ..
  29. Moutoussis M, Williams J, Dayan P, Bentall R. Persecutory delusions and the conditioned avoidance paradigm: towards an integration of the psychology and biology of paranoia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2007;12:495-510 pubmed
    ..Paranoid psychological defences may be a result of basic aversive learning mechanisms, which are accentuated during acute psychosis. ..
  30. Esposito D, Corruble E, Hardy P, Chouinard G. Risperidone-induced morning pseudoneutropenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:397 pubmed
  31. Masdrakis V, Papadimitriou G, Papageorgiou C, Kouzoupis A, Giailoglou D, Soldatos C. Development of tardive dyskinesia in a patient taking amisulpride. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:586-7 pubmed
  32. Waska R. Symbolization and the good object. Bull Menninger Clin. 2005;69:81-97 pubmed
    ..Case material is used to illustrate these points. ..
  33. Neuhaus A, Koehler S, Opgen Rhein C, Urbanek C, Hahn E, Dettling M. Selective anterior cingulate cortex deficit during conflict solution in schizophrenia: an event-related potential study. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41:635-44 pubmed
    ..It is further proposed that dysfunctional ACC activation during executive processing may be a neurophysiologic endophenotype candidate of schizophrenia. ..
  34. Uzdawinis D, Edel M, Ozgurdal S, von Haebler D, Hauser M, Witthaus H, et al. [Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics (OPD) in patients in a prodromal state of schizophrenia--an explorative study]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2010;56:150-62 pubmed
    ..prodromal condition--6 subjects far from psychosis and 14 close to psychosis--along with 10 patients with paranoid schizophrenia as reference group were examined using the first four OPD axes...
  35. Douzenis A, Rizos E, Papadopoulou A, Papathanasiou M, Lykouras L. Porencephaly and psychosis: a case report and review of the literature. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear if porencephaly and psychosis concur by chance or are causally related. The area where the porencephalic cysts appear seems to be of relevance. This case highlights the need for further research. ..
  36. Mason M, Johnson C, Piasecki M. Ziprasidone-induced acute dystonia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:625-6 pubmed
  37. Judd F, Armstrong S, Kulkarni J. Gender-sensitive mental health care. Australas Psychiatry. 2009;17:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..g. violence and abuse); day-to-day social, cultural, and family realities; expression and experience of mental ill health and treatment needs and responses. ..
  38. Cannas A, Solla P, Floris G, Tacconi P, Marrosu F, Marrosu M. Othello syndrome in Parkinson disease patients without dementia. Neurologist. 2009;15:34-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In our opinion this paranoid delusion is rarely considered in PD. ..
  39. Corcoran R, Rowse G, Moore R, Blackwood N, Kinderman P, Howard R, et al. A transdiagnostic investigation of 'theory of mind' and 'jumping to conclusions' in patients with persecutory delusions. Psychol Med. 2008;38:1577-83 pubmed
    ..The psychological anomalies associated with PDs examined here are transdiagnostic but different measures of ToM may be more or less sensitive to indices of severity of the PDs, diagnosis and trait- or state-related cognitive effects. ..
  40. Lincoln T, Peter N, Schafer M, Moritz S. Impact of stress on paranoia: an experimental investigation of moderators and mediators. Psychol Med. 2009;39:1129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support and specify the role of emotional reactions to stressors on the pathway from vulnerability to psychosis and highlight the relevance of anxiety. ..
  41. Sandoz A, LoPiccolo M, Kusnir D, Tausk F. A clinical paradigm of delusions of parasitosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:698-704 pubmed publisher
  42. Navarro Crummenauer B, Urban R. [Oropharyngeal impalement in a case of paranoid hallucinatory schizophrenia]. Arch Kriminol. 2010;225:109-18 pubmed
    ..The rare case of self-inflicted fatal impalement is compared with other reports in the literature. ..
  43. Tsai C, Lee Y, Chang Y, Lin P. Ziprasidone-induced tardive laryngeal dystonia: a case report. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2008;30:277-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although atypical antipsychotics are associated with a lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms, caution should be taken for any tardive dystonic movement when using these medications. ..
  44. Bömmer I, Brune M. Social cognition in "pure" delusional disorder. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2006;11:493-503 pubmed clinical settings most studies of social cognition in delusional patients have focused on patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In the present study we sought to examine emotion recognition, theory of mind abilities, and pragmatic ..
  45. Kohlbauer D, Meise U, Schenner M, Sulzenbacher H, Frajo Apor B, Meller H, et al. [Does education focusing on depression change the attitudes towards schizophrenia? A target-group oriented anti-stigma-intervention]. Neuropsychiatr. 2010;24:132-40 pubmed
    ..Although the intervention focused on a less stigmatized illness (like depression), the attitudes towards a more stigmatized illness (like schizophrenia) could markedly be improved. ..
  46. Brune M, Basilowski M, Bömmer I, Juckel G, Assion H. Machiavellianism and executive functioning in patients with delusional disorder. Psychol Rep. 2010;106:205-15 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates that frontal lobe dysfunction may influence interpersonal attitudes and personality in Delusional Disorder. ..
  47. Freund N. [Psychiatric patient with elevated liver values]. Praxis (Bern 1994). 2006;95:549-50 pubmed
  48. Maier G. Bringing grandma home. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56:416-7 pubmed
  49. Saavedra J, Cubero M, Crawford P. Incomprehensibility in the narratives of individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Qual Health Res. 2009;19:1548-58 pubmed publisher
    ..this article we contribute to the debate by studying life narratives of ten patients with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia living in care homes in Andalusia, Spain...
  50. Arora M, Praharaj S, Sarkar S. Clozapine effective in olanzapine-induced Pisa syndrome. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:2273-5 pubmed
    ..A 22-year-old male with paranoid schizophrenia presented with insidious onset tonic truncal flexion with axial rotation and difficulty in walking after ..
  51. Frieri T, Barzega G, Badà A, Villari V. Maintaining clozapine treatment during chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1611-2 pubmed publisher
  52. Peritogiannis V, Pappas D, Antoniou K, Hyphantis T, Mavreas V. Clozapine-rifampicin interaction in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007;29:281-2 pubmed
  53. Chaves A, Yamauti A, Timerman N. Leucopenia and neutropenia secondary to a lymphoma in a patient exposed to several antipsychotics. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:901-2 pubmed publisher