Summary: A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)
- Stefanis N, Vitoratou S, Smyrnis N, Constantinidis T, Evdokimidis I, Hatzimanolis I, et al. Mixed handedness is associated with the Disorganization dimension of schizotypy in a young male population. Schizophr Res. 2006;87:289-96 pubmed
- Wolthaus J, Dingemans P, Schene A, Linszen D, Wiersma D, Van Den Bosch R, et al. Caregiver burden in recent-onset schizophrenia and spectrum disorders: the influence of symptoms and personality traits. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2002;190:241-7 pubmed..These findings suggest that psychoeducational programs should address the severity of disorganization symptoms to reduce caregiver burden in the early phase of schizophrenia. ..
- Toomey R, Schuldberg D, Corrigan P, Green M. Nonverbal social perception and symptomatology in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2002;53:83-91 pubmed..The discussion reviews how these results contribute to our understanding of social deficits in schizophrenia. ..
- Kerns J, Becker T. Communication disturbances, working memory, and emotion in people with elevated disorganized schizotypy. Schizophr Res. 2008;100:172-80 pubmed
- Suzuki T, Uchida H, Watanabe K, Kashima H. Treating a schizophrenic patient with severe tardive dystonia without antipsychotics. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1141-2 pubmed
- Yoon J, Minzenberg M, Ursu S, Ryan Walter B, Walters R, Wendelken C, et al. Association of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction with disrupted coordinated brain activity in schizophrenia: relationship with impaired cognition, behavioral disorganization, and global function. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1006-14 pubmed publisher..This deficit in coordinated brain activity may result in the disabling disorganization symptoms related to impaired cognition in individuals with schizophrenia. ..
- Lencz T, Smith C, Auther A, Correll C, Cornblatt B. The assessment of "prodromal schizophrenia": unresolved issues and future directions. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29:717-28 pubmed..The dimensional quantification of prodromal symptom severity may be an important direction for future studies of the assessment of at-risk states. ..
- Kiang M, Kutas M, Light G, Braff D. Electrophysiological insights into conceptual disorganization in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2007;92:225-36 pubmed
- Nagy O, Kelemen O, Erdélyi R, Pataki M, Janka Z, Myers C, et al. [Learned equivalence in schizophrenia: novel method for the measurement of memory functions of the hippocampus and basal ganglia]. Psychiatr Hung. 2005;20:363-9 pubmed..High-dose first generation antipsychotics may disrupt BG-dependent learning by blocking dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigro-striatal system. ..
- Woodward T, Ruff C, Thornton A, Moritz S, Liddle P. Methodological considerations regarding the association of Stroop and verbal fluency performance with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2003;61:207-14 pubmed..It is suggested that assessing and reporting a full range of test parameters can reduce between-study inconsistencies. Cognitive interpretations for the present set of results are discussed. ..
- Farkas M. [Psychopathologic and cognitive investigations in schizophrenia]. Orv Hetil. 2009;150:423-9 pubmed publisher..2. The classical schizophrenic subtypes (catatonic, hebephrenic, paranoid) may be differentiated based on the changes of positive dimension through the long-term follow-up investigation. ..
- Abdel Hamid M, Lehmkämper C, Sonntag C, Juckel G, Daum I, Brune M. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: the role of clinical symptomatology and neurocognition in understanding other people's thoughts and intentions. Psychiatry Res. 2009;165:19-26 pubmed publisher..This study lends further support to the assumption of differential associations of ToM deficits with individual symptoms and symptom clusters in schizophrenia. ..
- Knolle Veentjer S, Huth V, Ferstl R, Aldenhoff J, Hinze Selch D. Delay of gratification and executive performance in individuals with schizophrenia: putative role for eating behavior and body weight regulation. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:98-105 pubmed..We conclude that executive functions are necessary to successfully manage eating behavior. Thus, better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms might help to support the patients more efficiently in their tough job to keep control. ..
- Rocha F, Hara C. Benefits of combining aripiprazole to clozapine: three case reports. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:1167-9 pubmed..The findings from this case series suggest that adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole can be of benefit for treating clozapine resistant schizophrenic patients. ..
- Scholten M, Aleman A, Kahn R. The processing of emotional prosody and semantics in schizophrenia: relationship to gender and IQ. Psychol Med. 2008;38:887-98 pubmed..These findings may explain, in part, why social functioning is less compromised in women with schizophrenia than in men. ..
- Thomas P. [Managing agitation in acute psychotic episodes of schizophrenia]. Encephale. 2006;32 Pt 2:S12-3 pubmed
- Quirk S, Strauss M, Sloan D. Emotional response as a function of symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1998;32:31-9 pubmed..The conclusion from previous research that the self-reported emotional response of schizophrenia patients is not diminished compared to other groups may be premature, especially for patients with higher levels of disorganization. ..
- Morita Y, Ujike H, Tanaka Y, Otani K, Kishimoto M, Morio A, et al. A genetic variant of the serine racemase gene is associated with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:1200-3 pubmed..The IVS1a+465C allele of the SRR gene, which reduces expression of the gene, is a risk factor for schizophrenia, especially the paranoid subtype. ..
- Greig T, Bryson G, Bell M. Theory of mind performance in schizophrenia: diagnostic, symptom, and neuropsychological correlates. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192:12-8 pubmed..that ToM performance differed significantly by schizophrenia diagnosis, with people diagnosed with disorganized schizophrenia performing the most poorly...
- Rietkerk T, Boks M, Sommer I, Liddle P, Ophoff R, Kahn R. The genetics of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia: review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2008;102:197-205 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that only the disorganization symptom dimension may provide an useful alternative phenotype for genetic research. More research is required to make any definitive conclusions. ..
- Daban C, Amado I, Bayle F, Gut A, Willard D, Bourdel M, et al. Correlation between clinical syndromes and neuropsychological tasks in unmedicated patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2002;113:83-92 pubmed..Thus, disorganized symptoms, more than any other, appear to be related to the impairment of executive function and WM in recent onset unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. ..
- Vaiva G, Thomas P, Llorca P, Dupont S, Cottencin O, Devos P, et al. SPECT imaging, clinical features, and cognition before and after low doses of amisulpride in schizophrenic patients with the deficit syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 2002;115:37-48 pubmed..The psychometric and cerebral perfusion changes were no different in the two groups...
- Löffler S, Danos P, Schillen T, Klimke A. [Recurrent dysregulation of body temperature during antipsychotic pharmacotherapy]. Psychiatr Prax. 2008;35:91-3 pubmed..These atypical neuroleptics show receptor binding profiles potentially advantageous in hypothermia. ..
- Sze L, Ulrich B, Brandle M. Severe hypernatraemia due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - a life-threatening side effect of chronic lithium therapy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114:596-8 pubmed..Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus should always be considered in lithium-treated patients undergoing elective surgery in order to avoid severe hypernatraemia...
- Konstantareas M, Hewitt T. Autistic disorder and schizophrenia: diagnostic overlaps. J Autism Dev Disord. 2001;31:19-28 pubmed..Although the findings continue to support the differentiation of autism and schizophrenia, they are also consistent with a comorbidity of the two disorders, mainly in those diagnosed with autism. ..
- Kalus P, Bondzio J, Federspiel A, Müller T, Zuschratter W. Cell-type specific alterations of cortical interneurons in schizophrenic patients. Neuroreport. 2002;13:713-7 pubmed..These results further support the assumption of a considerable significance of the ACC, an important limbic relay centre, for the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenic psychoses. ..
- Casanova M, Mannheim G, Kruesi M. Hippocampal pathology in two mentally ill paraphiliacs. Psychiatry Res. 2002;115:79-89 pubmed..The accompanying astrocytosis indicates a reactive, ongoing process. The findings suggest new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of paraphilia. ..
- Riutort M, Cuervo C, Danion J, Peretti C, Salame P. Reduced levels of specific autobiographical memories in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2003;117:35-45 pubmed..Those impairments are consistent with the existence of an abnormal personal identity in patients with schizophrenia. ..
- John J, Khanna S, Thennarasu K, Reddy S. Exploration of dimensions of psychopathology in neuroleptic-naïve patients with recent-onset schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2003;121:11-20 pubmed
- Longevialle Hénin R, Bourdel M, Willard D, Loo H, Olie J, Poirier M, et al. [Visuospatial context processing in untreated schizophrenic patients and relation to disorganization syndrome]. Encephale. 2005;31:323-9 pubmed..This difficulty could be related to a problem of central executive functioning in the visuospatial component of working memory, possibly mediated by the dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. ..
- Kerns J. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia. Psychol Res. 2009;73:786-93 pubmed publisher..This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict. ..
- Amado I, Bourdel M, Daban C, Poirier M, Loo H, Bouhours P, et al. Preattentional processes and disorganization in schizophrenia: Influence of a 6-week risperidone treatment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:1107-12 pubmed publisher..These alterations in visual orienting provide new evidence for an oculomotor dysregulation of attentional engagement in schizophrenia. ..
- Walther S, Horn H, Razavi N, Koschorke P, Müller T, Strik W. Quantitative motor activity differentiates schizophrenia subtypes. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;60:80-6 pubmed publisher..Schizophrenia subtypes can be differentiated using objective measures of quantitative motor activity. The increased duration of immobility appears to be the special feature of catatonic schizophrenia. ..
- Ohmori O, Shinkai T, Hori H, Kojima H, Nakamura J. Synapsin III gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia. Neurosci Lett. 2000;279:125-7 pubmed..Furthermore, no significant association was observed between either polymorphism and the diagnostic subtypes. Our results suggested that the synapsin III gene polymorphisms do not confer increased susceptibility to schizophrenia. ..
- Birkhofer A, Alger P, Schmid G, Forstl H. [The cardiovascular risk of schizophrenic patients]. Neuropsychiatr. 2007;21:261-6 pubmed..26 for the controls (p < .05). Heart rate deceleration capacity is significantly reduced in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics and may serve as an indicator of increased cardiovascular mortality risk. ..
- Silverstein S, Kovacs I, Corry R, Valone C. Perceptual organization, the disorganization syndrome, and context processing in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2000;43:11-20 pubmed
- Jabs B, Verdaguer M, Pfuhlmann B, Bartsch A, Beckmann H. The concept of hebephrenia over the course of time with particular reference to the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard School. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2002;3:200-6 pubmed..This concept of hebephrenia seems to be more appropriate to demarcate a homogeneous subtype which can be the subject of further promising research to clarify aetiology and nosology of schizophrenic spectrum psychoses. ..
- Vollema M, Sitskoorn M, Appels M, Kahn R. Does the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire reflect the biological-genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia?. Schizophr Res. 2002;54:39-45 pubmed..Children scored higher than parents on Negative Schizotypy. The current study offers support to the hypothesis that the positive dimension of SPQ reflects the genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. ..
- Yoshimura R, Kakihara S, Soya A, Ueda N, Shinkai K, Nakamura J. Effect of clonazepam treatment on antipsychotic drug-induced Meige syndrome and changes in plasma levels of GABA, HVA, and MHPG during treatment. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:543-6 pubmed..These results suggest that hyperactivities of the central dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurones are involved in the pathophysiology of Meige syndrome...
- Nenadic I, Sauer H, Gaser C. Distinct pattern of brain structural deficits in subsyndromes of schizophrenia delineated by psychopathology. Neuroimage. 2010;49:1153-60 pubmed publisher..8% accuracy classifying any given scan to one of the subgroups. Patterns of psychopathology are meaningful parameters in reducing heterogeneity of brain morphological endophenotypes in schizophrenia. ..
- Theisen F, Gebhardt S, Brömel T, Otto B, Heldwein W, Heinzel Gutenbrunner M, et al. A prospective study of serum ghrelin levels in patients treated with clozapine. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2005;112:1411-6 pubmed..Linear mixed model analysis could not detect effects of age, sex, BMI, SLL and serum clozapine levels on SGL. Our results do not support a causal involvement of ghrelin in clozapine-related weight gain. ..
- Mimica N, Henigsberg N, Uzun S, Ljubin T, Folnegović Z, Folnegovic Smalc V. Catatonic schizophrenia has a shorter pre-hospitalisation interval than other types of schizophrenia. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2002;109:203-12 pubmed..Possible reasons causing this prolongation are discussed, as well as repercussions of the results to studies using age of first hospitalisation as the leading indicator. ..
- O Gráda C, Barry S, McGlade N, Behan C, Haq F, Hayden J, et al. Does the ability to sustain attention underlie symptom severity in schizophrenia?. Schizophr Res. 2009;107:319-23 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that this component of attention at least partly explains variance in negative symptoms. ..
- Young K, Smith M, Rawls T, Elliott D, Russell I, Hicks P. N100 evoked potential latency variation and startle in schizophrenia. Neuroreport. 2001;12:767-73 pubmed..5) had a lower level of S1 latency jitter. Temporal variability thus plays a significant and complex role in previously reported sensory gating deficits in schizophrenic subjects. ..
- Moritz S, Andresen B, Jacobsen D, Mersmann K, Wilke U, Lambert M, et al. Neuropsychological correlates of schizophrenic syndromes in patients treated with atypical neuroleptics. Eur Psychiatry. 2001;16:354-61 pubmed..Previous findings reporting correlations between negative symptomatology and neurocognition may have been confounded by the adverse consequences of typical neuroleptics. ..
- Spoov J, Bredbacka P, Stenman U. An abnormal relation between basal prolactin levels and prolactin response to 12.5 microg TRH i.v. in drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010;119:41-6 pubmed publisher..v., but not by 12.5 microg TRH i.v. As far as we know, this is the first study to report an abnormality in TRH-induced prolactin release in acute schizophrenia. ..
- Shimizu E, Imai M, Fujisaki M, Shinoda N, Handa S, Watanabe H, et al. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treatment-resistant disorganized schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:571-3 pubmed..We describe a patient with a serious case of disorganized schizophrenia who had not responded well with any typical and atypical antipsychotic drug for seven years, but ..
- van Rijn S, Aleman A, De Sonneville L, Swaab H. Cognitive mechanisms underlying disorganization of thought in a genetic syndrome (47,XXY). Schizophr Res. 2009;112:91-8 pubmed publisher..Our findings are in line with those reported for schizophrenia patients with thought disorder. We speculate that the underlying mechanisms of thought disorder probably are deficit specific rather than disorder specific. ..
- Althaus G, Kamolz S, Franzek E, Pfuhlmann B. [Autistic hebephrenia: concepts and findings]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2001;69:482-7 pubmed..In ICD-10 and DSM-IV the usual concept of hebephrenia is a rather vaguely defined nosological category with a polymorphous non-specific symptomatology. ..
- Baeza I, Mane A, Lázaro M, Bernardo M, Castro J. ECT in disorganized schizophrenia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:1191-2 pubmed
- Chaudhry I, Husain N, Khan S, Badshah S, Deakin B, Kapur S. Amoxapine as an antipsychotic: comparative study versus haloperidol. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27:575-81 pubmed..However, it did not prove to have fewer extrapyramidal side effects than haloperidol, possibly because the baseline scores were very low. ..
- Bulayeva K, Glatt S, Bulayev O, Pavlova T, Tsuang M. Genome-wide linkage scan of schizophrenia: a cross-isolate study. Genomics. 2007;89:167-77 pubmed..in aggregation of distinct types of schizophrenia: one of the isolates had a predominant aggregation of disorganized schizophrenia, while the other three had predominantly paranoid schizophrenia...