Summary: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.

Top Publications

  1. Portman D, Bachmann G, Simon J. Ospemifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator for treating dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. Menopause. 2013;20:623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..this work was to study the role of ospemifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, in the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe dyspareunia and physiological vaginal changes.
  2. Archer D. Efficacy and tolerability of local estrogen therapy for urogenital atrophy. Menopause. 2010;17:194-203 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to identify vaginal discomfort in the form of dryness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia, which remains an inadequately addressed clinical problem for many postmenopausal women, and to describe the age or menopause-..
  3. de Souza A, Dwyer P, Rosamilia A, Hiscock R, Lim Y, Murray C, et al. Sexual function following retropubic TVT and transobturator Monarc sling in women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency: a multicentre prospective study. Int Urogynecol J. 2012;23:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective study comparing the effect of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) to the Monarc sling on sexual function in women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) and intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) is presented...
  4. Nappi R, Kingsberg S, Maamari R, Simon J. The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) survey: implications of vaginal discomfort in postmenopausal women and in male partners. J Sex Med. 2013;10:2232-41 pubmed publisher
    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia.
  5. Welk B, Teichman J. Dyspareunia response in patients with interstitial cystitis treated with intravesical lidocaine, bicarbonate, and heparin. Urology. 2008;71:67-70 pubmed publisher
    To test the dyspareunia response of patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome treated with an intravesical therapeutic solution of lidocaine, heparin, and sodium bicarbonate.
  6. Lowman J, Jones L, Woodman P, Hale D. Does the Prolift system cause dyspareunia?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:707.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the de novo dyspareunia rate with the Prolift procedure.
  7. Ertunc D, Uzun R, Tok E, Doruk A, Dilek S. The effect of myoma uteri and myomectomy on sexual function. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1032-1038 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the performance of a myomectomy may alleviate pain during intercourse, and thereby improve sexual function in the patients. ..
  8. Leclerc B, Bergeron S, Binik Y, Khalifé S. History of sexual and physical abuse in women with dyspareunia: association with pain, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual functioning. J Sex Med. 2010;7:971-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Dyspareunia is a women's sexual health problem that still often goes undiagnosed despite its high prevalence and its detrimental impact on sexual, relationship, and psychological adjustment...
  9. Del Pup L. Management of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia in estrogen sensitive cancer patients. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:740-5 pubmed publisher
    Cancer patients suffer from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia earlier and longer than the general population, with more severe and distressing symptoms...

More Information


  1. Sung S, Jeng C, Lin Y. Sexual health care for women with dyspareunia. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;50:268-74 pubmed publisher
    Female dyspareunia is a serious impairment with a prevalence of up to 39.5%, imposing a significant burden on women's health, relationship, and quality of life...
  2. Nappi R, Kokot Kierepa M. Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) - results from an international survey. Climacteric. 2012;15:36-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess knowledge of vaginal atrophy among women using the Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) survey...
  3. Elzevier H, Putter H, Delaere K, Venema P, Lycklama a Nijeholt A, Pelger R. Female sexual function after surgery for stress urinary incontinence: transobturator suburethral tape vs. tension-free vaginal tape obturator. J Sex Med. 2008;5:400-6 pubmed
    ..Studies on the influence on sexual function as a result of these procedures are limited...
  4. Borg C, de Jong P, Schultz W. Vaginismus and dyspareunia: automatic vs. deliberate disgust responsivity. J Sex Med. 2010;7:2149-2157 pubmed publisher
    The difficulty of penetration experienced in vaginismus and dyspareunia may at least partly be due to a disgust-induced defensive response.
  5. Kao A, Binik Y, Kapuscinski A, Khalife S. Dyspareunia in postmenopausal women: a critical review. Pain Res Manag. 2008;13:243-54 pubmed
    b>Dyspareunia, or pain during sexual intercourse, is among the problems most frequently reported by postmenopausal women...
  6. Labrie F, Archer D, Bouchard C, Fortier M, Cusan L, Gomez J, et al. Intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (prasterone), a highly efficient treatment of dyspareunia. Climacteric. 2011;14:282-8 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified as the most bothersome symptom of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women at both screening and day 1.
  7. Sturdee D, Panay N. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric. 2010;13:509-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing itching, burning and dyspareunia, and sexual activity is often compromised...
  8. Boyles S, McCrery R. Dyspareunia and mesh erosion after vaginal mesh placement with a kit procedure. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:969-75 pubmed publisher
  9. Kao A, Binik Y, Amsel R, Funaro D, Leroux N, Khalifé S. Biopsychosocial predictors of postmenopausal dyspareunia: the role of steroid hormones, vulvovaginal atrophy, cognitive-emotional factors, and dyadic adjustment. J Sex Med. 2012;9:2066-76 pubmed publisher
    Although dyspareunia experienced after menopause is widely attributed to declining estrogen levels and vulvovaginal atrophy, critical reviews of the literature have suggested that these factors are incomplete as explanatory mechanisms...
  10. Gyftopoulos K. Male dyspareunia due to short frenulum: the suture-free, "pull and burn" method. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2611-4 pubmed publisher
    The presence of a short frenulum is a common cause for dyspareunia in males, often resulting in painful intercourse and trauma to the frenulum...
  11. Serati M, Salvatore S, Uccella S, Zanirato M, Cattoni E, Nappi R, et al. The impact of the mid-urethral slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence on female sexuality. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1534-1542 pubmed publisher
    ..sexuality is the cure of coital incontinence, while the most common symptom related to worsened sexual life is dyspareunia. In the majority of cases, women undergoing mid-urethral sling procedures for SUI report that their sexual ..
  12. Rechberger T, Futyma K, Bartuzi A. Total Prolift System surgery for treatment posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse--do we treat both anatomy and function?. Ginekol Pol. 2008;79:835-9 pubmed
    ..To assess clinical efficacy of Total Prolift System surgery kit in the treatment of post hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse...
  13. Lal M, Pattison H, Allan T, Callender R. Does post-caesarean dyspareunia reflect sexual malfunction, pelvic floor and perineal dysfunction?. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;31:617-30 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to define post-caesarean dyspareunia as a sexual and pelvic-perineal symptom. Post-caesarean (80 elective, 104 emergency) and 100 vaginally delivered primiparae had domiciliary interviews at 10 months postpartum...
  14. Kingsberg S, Wysocki S, Magnus L, Krychman M. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: findings from the REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1790-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptoms include dyspareunia (pain with intercourse), vaginal dryness, and irritation and may affect sexual activities, relationships, and ..
  15. Vercellini P, Somigliana E, Consonni D, Frattaruolo M, De Giorgi O, Fedele L. Surgical versus medical treatment for endometriosis-associated severe deep dyspareunia: I. Effect on pain during intercourse and patient satisfaction. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:3450-9 pubmed publisher
    Does surgical or medical treatment for endometriosis-associated severe deep dyspareunia achieve better results in terms of patients' satisfaction (main study outcome), variation of coital pain and frequency of intercourse?
  16. Altman D, Elmer C, Kiilholma P, Kinne I, Tegerstedt G, Falconer C. Sexual dysfunction after trocar-guided transvaginal mesh repair of pelvic organ prolapse. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate sexual dysfunction before and after trocar-guided transvaginal mesh surgery for pelvic organ prolapse...
  17. Ferrero S, Camerini G, Ragni N, Venturini P, Biscaldi E, Seracchioli R, et al. Letrozole and norethisterone acetate in colorectal endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;150:199-202 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluates the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors and norethisterone acetate in treating pain and gastrointestinal symptoms caused by bowel endometriosis...
  18. Nappi R, Kokot Kierepa M. Women's voices in the menopause: results from an international survey on vaginal atrophy. Maturitas. 2010;67:233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To consider issues relating to vaginal atrophy via an international survey...
  19. Walid M, Heaton R. Dyspareunia: a complex problem requiring a selective approach. Sex Health. 2009;6:250-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Dyspareunia frequently has a multifactorial aetiology...
  20. Ferrero S, Camerini G, Seracchioli R, Ragni N, Venturini P, Remorgida V. Letrozole combined with norethisterone acetate compared with norethisterone acetate alone in the treatment of pain symptoms caused by endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:3033-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the efficacy and tolerability of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole combined with norethisterone acetate versus norethisterone acetate alone in treating pain symptoms...
  21. Valadares A, Pinto Neto A, Conde D, Sousa M, Osis M, Costa Paiva L. A population-based study of dyspareunia in a cohort of middle-aged Brazilian women. Menopause. 2008;15:1184-90 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the prevalence of dyspareunia and its associated factors in a cohort of middle-aged women.
  22. Huijding J, Borg C, Weijmar Schultz W, de Jong P. Automatic affective appraisal of sexual penetration stimuli in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia. J Sex Med. 2011;8:806-13 pubmed publisher
  23. Solana Arellano E, Villegas Arrizón A, Legorreta Soberanis J, Cardenas Turanzas M, Enzaldo de la Cruz J, Andersson N. [Women's dyspareunia after childbirth: a case study in a hospital in Acapulco, Mexico]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2008;23:44-51 pubmed
    To identify the factors associated with dyspareunia, during the 60-180 days following childbirth, in women with a history of one or two childbirths.
  24. de Jong P, van Overveld M, Schultz W, Peters M, Buwalda F. Disgust and contamination sensitivity in vaginismus and dyspareunia. Arch Sex Behav. 2009;38:244-52 pubmed
    ..Women suffering from vaginismus (n = 20) or dyspareunia (n = 22), and a group of women without sexual complaints (n = 30) completed self report measures indexing their ..
  25. Krychman M. Vaginal estrogens for the treatment of dyspareunia. J Sex Med. 2011;8:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Estrogens play a key role in maintaining vaginal health; women with low serum estradiol are more likely to experience vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and reduced sexual activity compared with women who have higher estradiol levels.
  26. Kuhn A, Burkhard F, Eggemann C, Mueller M. Sexual function after suburethral sling removal for dyspareunia. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:765-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have reported varying degrees of sexual impairment after TVT insertion ranging from 0% to 15% including dyspareunia.
  27. Vercellini P, Meana M, Hummelshoj L, Somigliana E, Vigano P, Fedele L. Priorities for endometriosis research: a proposed focus on deep dyspareunia. Reprod Sci. 2011;18:114-8 pubmed publisher
    Women with endometriosis have a substantial increase in risk of deep dyspareunia with respect to the general female population of corresponding age...
  28. Payne K, Binik Y, Amsel R, Khalifé S. When sex hurts, anxiety and fear orient attention towards pain. Eur J Pain. 2005;9:427-36 pubmed
    ..This effect was predicted by state and trait anxiety and fear of pain. According to these data, treament strategies for VVS should target anxiety and fear in addition to sensory systems...
  29. Zondervan K, Yudkin P, Vessey M, Jenkinson C, Dawes M, Barlow D, et al. The community prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in women and associated illness behaviour. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51:541-7 pubmed
    ..Cases varied substantially in the degree to which they were affected by their symptoms. The high symptom-related anxiety in these women emphasises the need for more information about chronic pelvic pain and its possible causes. ..
  30. Kompanje E. Painful sexual intercourse caused by a disproportionately long penis: an historical note on a remarkable treatment devised by Guilhelmius Fabricius Hildanus (1560-1634). Arch Sex Behav. 2006;35:603-5 pubmed
    ..The woman described in this case report most likely suffered from positional deep dyspareunia. Hildanus invented in 1593 a remarkable made-to-measure device...
  31. de Tayrac R, Devoldere G, Renaudie J, Villard P, Guilbaud O, Eglin G. Prolapse repair by vaginal route using a new protected low-weight polypropylene mesh: 1-year functional and anatomical outcome in a prospective multicentre study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007;18:251-6 pubmed
    ..3%), six of them necessitated another procedure by simple excision. The rate of de novo dyspareunia was 12.8%. At follow-up, improvement of PFDI and PFIQ scores were highly significant (p<0.0001)...
  32. Ryan L, Hawton K. Female dyspareunia. BMJ. 2004;328:1357 pubmed
  33. Latthe P, Mignini L, Gray R, Hills R, Khan K. Factors predisposing women to chronic pelvic pain: systematic review. BMJ. 2006;332:749-55 pubmed
    ..Exposure to risk factors was compared between women with and without pelvic pain. Results were pooled within subgroups defined by type of pain and risk factors...
  34. Langer B, Minetti A. [Immediate and long term complications of episiotomy]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006;35:1S59-1S67 pubmed
    ..The objective of this review was to describe the complications of episiotomy...
  35. Danielsson I, Sjoberg I, Stenlund H, Wikman M. Prevalence and incidence of prolonged and severe dyspareunia in women: results from a population study. Scand J Public Health. 2003;31:113-8 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of prolonged (>/= 6 months) and severe dyspareunia in a non-patient population of women, and to explore the rate of recovery as well as the inclination to seek ..
  36. Brauer M, ter Kuile M, Janssen S, Laan E. The effect of pain-related fear on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia. Eur J Pain. 2007;11:788-98 pubmed
    The role of pain-related fear in the etiology and/or maintenance of superficial dyspareunia is still unclear...
  37. Cumming G, Herald J, Moncur R, Currie H, Lee A. Women's attitudes to hormone replacement therapy, alternative therapy and sexual health: a web-based survey. Menopause Int. 2007;13:79-83 pubmed
    ..They covered HRT, alternative therapies and sexual health. The anonymous responses of the users of the website were analysed...
  38. Lippman S, Warner M, Samuels S, Olive D, Vercellini P, Eskenazi B. Uterine fibroids and gynecologic pain symptoms in a population-based study. Fertil Steril. 2003;80:1488-94 pubmed
    To determine the association between dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and noncyclic pelvic pain and the presence and characteristics of uterine fibroids.
  39. ter Kuile M, Weijenborg P. A cognitive-behavioral group program for women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS): factors associated with treatment success. J Sex Marital Ther. 2006;32:199-213 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with a cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of VVS...
  40. Maher C, Qatawneh A, Dwyer P, Carey M, Cornish A, Schluter P. Abdominal sacral colpopexy or vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy for vaginal vault prolapse: a prospective randomized study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:20-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal sacral colpopexy and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy in the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse...
  41. Ferrero S, Esposito F, Abbamonte L, Anserini P, Remorgida V, Ragni N. Quality of sex life in women with endometriosis and deep dyspareunia. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:573-9 pubmed
    To characterize sexual function among women with endometriosis and deep dyspareunia (DD).
  42. Masheb R, Lozano Blanco C, Kohorn E, Minkin M, Kerns R. Assessing sexual function and dyspareunia with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in women with vulvodynia. J Sex Marital Ther. 2004;30:315-24 pubmed
    ..Results highlight difficulties experienced across all domains of sexual function, particularly with regard to dyspareunia, for women with vulvodynia. Findings also support the internal consistency and discriminant validity of the FSFI...
  43. Bergeron S, Binik Y, Khalife S, Pagidas K, Glazer H, Meana M, et al. A randomized comparison of group cognitive--behavioral therapy, surface electromyographic biofeedback, and vestibulectomy in the treatment of dyspareunia resulting from vulvar vestibulitis. Pain. 2001;91:297-306 pubmed
    ..12-week trial), surface electromyographic biofeedback (12-week trial), and vestibulectomy in the treatment of dyspareunia resulting from vulvar vestibulitis...
  44. Abramov Y, Gandhi S, Botros S, Goldberg R, Sherman W, Rurak M, et al. Do alterations in vaginal dimensions after reconstructive pelvic surgeries affect the risk for dyspareunia?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1573-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in vaginal dimensions after transvaginal reconstructive pelvic surgeries affect the risk for postoperative dyspareunia.
  45. Zondervan K, Yudkin P, Vessey M, Jenkinson C, Dawes M, Barlow D, et al. Chronic pelvic pain in the community--symptoms, investigations, and diagnoses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:1149-55 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to investigate the overlap between chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, irritable bowel syndrome, and genitourinary symptoms in the community and also to examine associated investigations and diagnoses.
  46. Oberg K, Fugl Meyer A, Fugl Meyer K. On categorization and quantification of women's sexual dysfunctions: an epidemiological approach. Int J Impot Res. 2004;16:261-9 pubmed
    ..More than one-third had dyspareunia, but few reported vaginism. Mild dysfunctions were clearly more common than manifest dysfunctions...
  47. Milani R, Salvatore S, Soligo M, Pifarotti P, Meschia M, Cortese M. Functional and anatomical outcome of anterior and posterior vaginal prolapse repair with prolene mesh. BJOG. 2005;112:107-11 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effects of prolene mesh on urinary, bowel and sexual function in prolapse surgery...
  48. Connolly A, Thorp J, Pahel L. Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on postpartum sexual function: a longitudinal prospective study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005;16:263-7 pubmed
    ..At similar postpartum timepoints, approximately 30 and 17% of women reported dyspareunia; less than 5% described the pain as major. At these times, 39, 60, and 61% of women reported orgasm...
  49. Katz A. When sex hurts: menopause-related dyspareunia. Vaginal dryness and atrophy can be treated. Am J Nurs. 2007;107:34-6, 39 pubmed
  50. Denny E, Mann C. Endometriosis-associated dyspareunia: the impact on women's lives. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2007;33:189-93 pubmed
    ..chronic pelvic pain is the most commonly experienced pain of endometriosis, many women also suffer from deep dyspareunia. In order to determine how much of an impact endometriosis-associated dyspareunia has on the lives and ..
  51. Andrews V, Thakar R, Sultan A, Jones P. Evaluation of postpartum perineal pain and dyspareunia--a prospective study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;137:152-6 pubmed
    Postpartum perineal pain and dyspareunia have been reported to affect 42% of women within the first 2 weeks after their first vaginal delivery...
  52. Boulet M, Oddens B, Lehert P, Vemer H, Visser A. Climacteric and menopause in seven South-east Asian countries. Maturitas. 1994;19:157-76 pubmed
    ..400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics...
  53. Juang C, Yen M, Horng H, Cheng C, Yu H, Chang C. Treatment of primary deep dyspareunia with laparoscopic uterosacral nerve ablation procedure: a pilot study. J Chin Med Assoc. 2006;69:110-4 pubmed
    This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic uterosacral nerve ablation (LUNA) for treatment of primary deep dyspareunia.
  54. Ferrero S, Abbamonte L, Giordano M, Parisi M, Ragni N, Remorgida V. Uterine myomas, dyspareunia, and sexual function. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1504-10 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of deep dyspareunia (DD) and characteristics of sexual life in women with uterine myomas.
  55. Goh J, Tjandra J, Carey M. How could management of rectoceles be optimized?. ANZ J Surg. 2002;72:896-901 pubmed
    ..There is, however, little data to suggest which is the most effective technique, or whether specific techniques are more appropriate in certain circumstances.7..
  56. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Zanconato G, Portuese A, Raffaelli R. Use of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2001;75:485-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD as therapy for endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum...