schizotypal personality disorder


Summary: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.

Top Publications

  1. Handest P, Parnas J. Clinical characteristics of first-admitted patients with ICD-10 schizotypal disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2005;48:s49-54 pubmed
    ..ICD-10 schizotypy represents a milder, less psychotic, variant of schizophrenia but there is no clear-cut division between the two disorders. ..
  2. Fonseca Pedrero E, Paino M, Lemos Giráldez S, Sierra Baigrie S, Ordóñez Camblor N, Muñiz J. Early psychopathological features in Spanish adolescents. Psicothema. 2011;23:87-93 pubmed
    ..These results are convergent with previous studies conducted in both clinical and non-clinical samples, indicating overlap between schizotypal experiences and depressive symptoms. ..
  3. Compton M, Goulding S, Bakeman R, McClure Tone E. Confirmation of a four-factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among undergraduate students. Schizophr Res. 2009;111:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The four derived domains are minimally to moderately correlated with other measures of psychosis-proneness. ..
  4. Wang K, Wang Y, Yan C, Wang Y, Cheung E, Chan R. Semantic processing impairment in individuals with schizotypal personality disorder features: a preliminary event-related potential study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;40:93-102 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to examine semantic processing features in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features...
  5. Chmielewski M, Watson D. The heterogeneous structure of schizotypal personality disorder: item-level factors of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and their associations with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, dissociative tendencies, and normal personality. J Abnorm Psychol. 2008;117:364-76 pubmed publisher
    A. Raine et al.'s (1994) 3-factor scheme is currently the most widely accepted model of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Factor analytic studies of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ; A...
  6. Niznikiewicz M, Spencer K, Dickey C, Voglmaier M, Seidman L, Shenton M, et al. Abnormal pitch mismatch negativity in individuals with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2009;110:188-93 pubmed publisher
    The goal of the study was to examine mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) individuals...
  7. Smith M, Cloninger C, Harms M, Csernansky J. Temperament and character as schizophrenia-related endophenotypes in non-psychotic siblings. Schizophr Res. 2008;104:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-psychotic siblings demonstrated features of a mature character profile including strong crystallized IQ, which may confer protection against psychopathology. ..
  8. Welham J, Scott J, Williams G, Najman J, Bor W, O CALLAGHAN M, et al. Emotional and behavioural antecedents of young adults who screen positive for non-affective psychosis: a 21-year birth cohort study. Psychol Med. 2009;39:625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The psychopathological trajectory of children who go on to develop schizophrenia anticipates the heterogeneity associated with the full clinical syndrome. ..
  9. Takahashi T, Suzuki M, Zhou S, Tanino R, Nakamura K, Kawasaki Y, et al. A follow-up MRI study of the superior temporal subregions in schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010;119:65-74 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Dickey C, Morocz I, Minney D, Niznikiewicz M, Voglmaier M, Panych L, et al. Factors in sensory processing of prosody in schizotypal personality disorder: an fMRI experiment. Schizophr Res. 2010;121:75-89 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine prosody along the schizophrenia spectrum, antipsychotic-naïve schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) subjects and healthy control subjects were compared...
  2. Asai T, Sugimori E, Tanno Y. Schizotypal personality traits and prediction of one's own movements in motor control: what causes an abnormal sense of agency?. Conscious Cogn. 2008;17:1131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is in accordance with the idea that passivity phenomena or proneness may be caused by the abnormal prediction of one's own actions or movements. ..
  3. Henry J, Bailey P, Rendell P. Empathy, social functioning and schizotypy. Psychiatry Res. 2008;160:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the relationship between negative schizotypy and social functioning is at least partially attributable to deficits in affective empathy. ..
  4. Shin Y, Krishnan G, Hetrick W, Brenner C, Shekhar A, Malloy F, et al. Increased temporal variability of auditory event-related potentials in schizophrenia and Schizotypal Personality Disorder. Schizophr Res. 2010;124:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Synchronization or timing abnormalities may represent a biomarker for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and contribute to aberrant perceptual and cognitive integration. ..
  5. Chapman H, Grimshaw G, Nicholls M. Going beyond students: an association between mixed-hand preference and schizotypy subscales in a general population. Psychiatry Res. 2011;187:89-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility that the association is related to response biases or a biological mechanism is discussed. ..
  6. Yasuda Y, Hashimoto R, Ohi K, Fukumoto M, Umeda Yano S, Yamamori H, et al. Impact on schizotypal personality trait of a genome-wide supported psychosis variant of the ZNF804A gene. Neurosci Lett. 2011;495:216-20 pubmed publisher increased risk not only for schizophrenia but also for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, such as schizotypal personality disorder. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1344706, in the Zinc Finger Protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene, ..
  7. Wang Y, Yeh Y, Tsang S, Liu W, Shi H, Li Z, et al. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61115 pubmed publisher
    ..The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students. ..
  8. Cohen P, Chen H, Gordon K, Johnson J, Brook J, Kasen S. Socioeconomic background and the developmental course of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Dev Psychopathol. 2008;20:633-50 pubmed publisher
  9. Raballo A, Sæbye D, Parnas J. Looking at the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of self-disorders: an empirical study. Schizophr Bull. 2011;37:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) main diagnosis: schizophrenia, (n = 29), schizotypal personality disorder (n = 61), other mental illness not belonging to the schizophrenia spectrum (n = 112), and no mental ..
  10. Hazlett E, Goldstein K, Tajima Pozo K, Speidel E, Zelmanova Y, Entis J, et al. Cingulate and temporal lobe fractional anisotropy in schizotypal personality disorder. Neuroimage. 2011;55:900-8 pubmed publisher
    Consistent with the clinical picture of milder symptomatology in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) than schizophrenia, morphological studies indicate SPD abnormalities in temporal lobe regions but to a much lesser extent in ..
  11. Bora E, Baysan Arabaci L. Effect of age and gender on schizotypal personality traits in the normal population. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;63:663-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Psychological changes related to adolescence and better social adaptation as a result of life experience might contribute to the age- and gender-related differences in schizotypy. ..
  12. Shapiro D, Cubells J, Ousley O, Rockers K, Walker E. Prodromal symptoms in adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2011;129:20-8 pubmed publisher
    Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) are at increased risk for the development of psychosis based, respectively, on genetic or behavioral factors...
  13. Barneveld P, Pieterse J, De Sonneville L, van Rijn S, Lahuis B, van Engeland H, et al. Overlap of autistic and schizotypal traits in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Schizophr Res. 2011;126:231-6 pubmed publisher
  14. Fonseca Pedrero E, Paino M, Lemos Giráldez S, Sierra Baigrie S, Muñiz J. Measurement invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief across gender and age. Psychiatry Res. 2011;190:309-15 pubmed publisher
  15. Phillips L, Seidman L. Emotion processing in persons at risk for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2008;34:888-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The most robust findings in at-risk groups are in the areas of reduced emotion perception, self-reported anhedonia, and increased negative affect. We conclude with an agenda for future research. ..
  16. Chan R, Wang Y, Cheung E, Cui J, Deng Y, Yuan Y, et al. Sustained attention deficit along the psychosis proneness continuum: a study on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Cogn Behav Neurol. 2009;22:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation demonstrated the potential value of a relatively new sustained attention paradigm for research in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ..
  17. Fonseca Pedrero E, Paino M, Santarén Rosell M, Lemos Giráldez S. Cluster A maladaptive personality patterns in a non-clinical adolescent population. Psicothema. 2013;25:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data yield new clues that improve the understanding of Cluster A traits in this sector of the population, and advance in early detection of adolescents at risk of personality disorders. ..
  18. Fonseca Pedrero E, Paíno Piñeiro M, Lemos Giráldez S, Villazón García U, Muñiz J. Validation of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form in adolescents. Schizophr Res. 2009;111:53-60 pubmed publisher
  19. Sanislow C, Little T, Ansell E, Grilo C, Daversa M, Markowitz J, et al. Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118:507-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher correlation among the constructs in later years may reflect greater shared base of pathology for chronic personality disorders. ..
  20. Cohen A, Matthews R, Najolia G, Brown L. Toward a more psychometrically sound brief measure of schizotypal traits: introducing the SPQ-Brief Revised. J Pers Disord. 2010;24:516-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The end product of these studies is the SPQ-Brief Revised, which offers a subordinate seven-factor and super-ordinate three or four factor solution, employs a Likert-scale format to improve sensitivity, and is brief (34 items). ..
  21. Vohs J, Hetrick W, Kieffaber P, Bodkins M, Bismark A, Shekhar A, et al. Visual event-related potentials in schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol. 2008;117:119-31 pubmed publisher
    Schizophrenia (SZ) occurs among a spectrum of disorders with similar characteristics, including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)...
  22. Goldstein K, Hazlett E, Savage K, Berlin H, Hamilton H, Zelmanova Y, et al. Dorso- and ventro-lateral prefrontal volume and spatial working memory in schizotypal personality disorder. Behav Brain Res. 2011;218:335-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) individuals and borderline personality disorder (BPD) individuals have been reported to show neuropsychological impairments and abnormalities in brain structure...
  23. Shi Y, Wang Y, Cao X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Zong J, et al. Experience of pleasure and emotional expression in individuals with schizotypal personality features. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34147 pubmed publisher
    ..of pleasure and emotional expression in college students who demonstrated high and low levels of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) traits on self-report questionnaires...
  24. Thakkar K, Park S. Empathy, schizotypy, and visuospatial transformations. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2010;15:477-500 pubmed publisher
  25. Henry J, Green M, Restuccia C, de Lucia A, Rendell P, McDonald S, et al. Emotion dysregulation and schizotypy. Psychiatry Res. 2009;166:116-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for understanding blunted affect in schizophrenia and related disorders are discussed. ..
  26. Goldstein K, Hazlett E, New A, Haznedar M, Newmark R, Zelmanova Y, et al. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2009;112:14-23 pubmed publisher
    Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum...
  27. Levitt J, Styner M, Niethammer M, Bouix S, Koo M, Voglmaier M, et al. Shape abnormalities of caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2009;110:127-39 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported abnormal volume and global shape in the caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)...
  28. Somers M, Sommer I, Boks M, Kahn R. Hand-preference and population schizotypy: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2009;108:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilateral language organisation may underlie loosening of association, possibly leading to higher schizotypy scores. ..
  29. Bryson F, Grimshaw G, Wilson M. The role of intellectual openness in the relationship between hand preference and positive schizotypy. Laterality. 2009;14:441-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that responses on handedness questionnaires partially reflect personality variables, and such effects should be considered in future research on the nature of the relationship between handedness and schizotypy. ..
  30. Schultze Lutter F, Ruhrmann S, Berning J, Maier W, Klosterkotter J. Basic symptoms and ultrahigh risk criteria: symptom development in the initial prodromal state. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36:182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, as regards the criteria, the results support the notion of BS as at least a complementary approach to the ultrahigh risk criteria, which may also allow for an earlier detection of psychosis. ..
  31. Dickey C, Morocz I, Niznikiewicz M, Voglmaier M, Toner S, Khan U, et al. Auditory processing abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder: an fMRI experiment using tones of deviant pitch and duration. Schizophr Res. 2008;103:26-39 pubmed publisher
    One of the cardinal features of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is language abnormalities...
  32. Aguirre F, Sergi M, Levy C. Emotional intelligence and social functioning in persons with schizotypy. Schizophr Res. 2008;104:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning. ..
  33. Esterberg M, Trotman H, Brasfield J, Compton M, Walker E. Childhood and current autistic features in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2008;104:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined childhood and current signs of autistic disorder (AD) in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) or other personality disorders, as well as healthy controls...
  34. Rass O, Forsyth J, Krishnan G, Hetrick W, Klaunig M, Breier A, et al. Auditory steady state response in the schizophrenia, first-degree relatives, and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res. 2012;136:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity of the 40 Hz ASSR to schizophrenia spectrum phenotypes, such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), or to familial risk has been less well characterized...
  35. Anglin D, Corcoran C, Brown A, Chen H, Lighty Q, Brook J, et al. Early cannabis use and schizotypal personality disorder symptoms from adolescence to middle adulthood. Schizophr Res. 2012;137:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e., schizotypal personality disorder traits...
  36. Ericson M, Tuvblad C, Raine A, YOUNG WOLFF K, Baker L. Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence. Behav Genet. 2011;41:499-511 pubmed publisher
  37. Chan R, Wang Y, Ma Z, Hong X, Yuan Y, Yu X, et al. Objective measures of prospective memory do not correlate with subjective complaints in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2008;103:229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..poorer performance in all domains of memory function except visual memory than individuals with schizotypal personality disorder and healthy controls...
  38. Chan R, Li X, Lai M, Li H, Wang Y, Cui J, et al. Exploratory study on the base-rate of paranoid ideation in a non-clinical Chinese sample. Psychiatry Res. 2011;185:254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants were classified into individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features based on the SPQ. For the frequency subscale, 2.1-18...
  39. Sheldrick A, Krug A, Markov V, Leube D, Michel T, Zerres K, et al. Effect of COMT val158met genotype on cognition and personality. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we replicated findings from a recent study whereby the COMT genotype also predicts disorganized personality features. ..
  40. Noguchi H, Hori H, Kunugi H. Schizotypal traits and cognitive function in healthy adults. Psychiatry Res. 2008;161:162-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Dickey C, McCarley R, Voglmaier M, Frumin M, Niznikiewicz M, Hirayasu Y, et al. Smaller left Heschl's gyrus volume in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1521-7 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown smaller gray matter volume in patients with schizotypal personality disorder than in matched comparison subjects in the left superior temporal gyrus, an area important for ..
  42. Calkins M, Curtis C, Grove W, Iacono W. Multiple dimensions of schizotypy in first degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Bull. 2004;30:317-25 pubmed
  43. McClure M, Barch D, Romero M, Minzenberg M, Triebwasser J, Harvey P, et al. The effects of guanfacine on context processing abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:1157-60 pubmed
    The signature of impaired cognition in people with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) may be centrally related to working memory impairments...
  44. Minzenberg M, Xu K, Mitropoulou V, Harvey P, Finch T, Flory J, et al. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype variation is associated with prefrontal-dependent task performance in schizotypal personality disorder patients and comparison groups. Psychiatr Genet. 2006;16:117-24 pubmed
    ..evaluated the relationship of the COMT genotype with diagnostic status and cognitive performance in schizotypal personality disorder. Unmedicated outpatients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD; n = 67) and non-schizotypal ..
  45. Gooding D, Matts C, Rollmann E. Sustained attention deficits in relation to psychometrically identified schizotypy: evaluating a potential endophenotypic marker. Schizophr Res. 2006;82:27-37 pubmed
    ..The findings add to the converging evidence indicating that sustained attention deficits are a potential endophenotypic indicator of a schizophrenia diathesis. ..
  46. Haznedar M, Buchsbaum M, Hazlett E, Shihabuddin L, New A, Siever L. Cingulate gyrus volume and metabolism in the schizophrenia spectrum. Schizophr Res. 2004;71:249-62 pubmed
    ..Unmedicated patients with schizophrenia (n=27) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) (n=13), as well as sex- and age-matched control subjects (n=32), were studied with (18)F-..
  47. Avramopoulos D, Stefanis N, Hantoumi I, Smyrnis N, Evdokimidis I, Stefanis C. Higher scores of self reported schizotypy in healthy young males carrying the COMT high activity allele. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:706-11 pubmed
    ..This finding is in the same direction as reported findings on schizophrenia and it adds to the list of evidence that COMT or a nearby gene in linkage disequilibrium is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. ..
  48. Mason O, Linney Y, Claridge G. Short scales for measuring schizotypy. Schizophr Res. 2005;78:293-6 pubmed
    ..Preliminary descriptive statistics are reported for the short scales and suggest adequate reliability. New scales offer a time efficient and reliable method of studying proneness to psychosis in large N designs. ..
  49. Dragovic M, Hammond G, Jablensky A. Schizotypy and mixed-handedness revisited. Psychiatry Res. 2005;136:143-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast, there was an expected significant but low in magnitude association between loss of hand dominance and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor of Cognitive Perceptual Dysfunction in schizophrenia patients. ..
  50. Berenbaum H, Boden M, Baker J, Dizen M, Thompson R, Abramowitz A. Emotional correlates of the different dimensions of schizotypal personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2006;115:359-68 pubmed
    Two studies explored which different dimensions of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) were associated with negative affect, attention to emotions, clarity of emotions, and emotional intensity/instability...
  51. Smyrnis N, Avramopoulos D, Evdokimidis I, Stefanis C, Tsekou H, Stefanis N. Effect of schizotypy on cognitive performance and its tuning by COMT val158 met genotype variations in a large population of young men. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:845-53 pubmed
    ..Different schizotypal phenotypes had opposing relations to cognitive performance in the population. COMT genotype modulated the relation between the negative schizotypal phenotype and cognitive performance. ..
  52. Wang Y, Chan R, Xin Yu -, Shi C, Cui J, Deng Y. Prospective memory deficits in subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a comparison study with schizophrenic subjects, psychometrically defined schizotypal subjects, and healthy controls. Schizophr Res. 2008;106:70-80 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that prospective memory be considered a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. ..
  53. Cadenhead K, Light G, Geyer M, McDowell J, Braff D. Neurobiological measures of schizotypal personality disorder: defining an inhibitory endophenotype?. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:869-71 pubmed
    Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder demonstrate deficits in inhibition when assessed on prepulse inhibition, P50 suppression, and antisaccade paradigms...