schizoid personality disorder


Summary: A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.

Top Publications

  1. McWilliams N. Some thoughts about schizoid dynamics. Psychoanal Rev. 2006;93:1-24 pubmed
  2. Sass H, Junemann K. [Etiological and therapeutic aspects of schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2001;69 Suppl 2:S120-6 pubmed
    ..Current prospective studies on early detected schizophrenia-spectrum disorders will broaden our knowledge about prevention and therapy. ..
  3. Kunz J, Gross A. Victim's scalp on the killer's head. An unusual case of criminal postmortem mutilation. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2001;22:327-31 pubmed
    ..The motive of the murder was revenge, and the postmortem mutilation was the realization of the perpetrator's fantasies, symbolically representing a penalty for the reprehensible past life of his father. ..
  4. Alexander R, Cooray S. Diagnosis of personality disorders in learning disability. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2003;44:S28-31 pubmed
    ..Developing consensus diagnostic criteria, specific for various developmental levels, is one way forward. Such criteria may need to include objective proxy measures such as behavioural observations and informant accounts. ..
  5. Figueiredo L. Belief, hope and faith. Int J Psychoanal. 2004;85:1439-53 pubmed
    ..Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex. ..
  6. Thylstrup B, Hesse M. "I am not complaining"--ambivalence construct in schizoid personality disorder. Am J Psychother. 2009;63:147-67 pubmed
    ..introduces different diagnostic and theoretical descriptions of the ambivalence construct in the schizoid personality disorder. The discussion is elaborated by means of a case example, presenting both the patient's and ..
  7. De Groote D. [Personality disorders related to schizophrenia]. Acta Psychiatr Belg. 1991;91:34-51 pubmed
    ..Until now such a link is not found between schizoid personality and schizophrenia. Future research in the field of those personality disorders will bring a better knowledge in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ..
  8. Krejci E. Immersion in the surface. Int J Psychoanal. 2009;90:827-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This method of working is grounded in Bion's theory of thinking. A case vignette illustrates a development of this kind. ..
  9. Asai T, Tanno Y. Why must we attribute our own action to ourselves? Auditory hallucination like-experiences as the results both from the explicit self-other attribution and implicit regulation in speech. Psychiatry Res. 2013;207:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed in relation to the sense-of-agency model, wherein people are understood to construct the online "self" monitoring of action. ..

More Information


  1. Zlotnick Woldenberg C. Felicia's journey: an object-relational study of psychopathy. Am J Psychother. 2001;55:40-50 pubmed
    ..Finally, the relationship between his psychopathy and his functioning in the schizoid position is considered. ..
  2. Coen S. How to play with patients who would rather remain remote. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2005;53:811-34 pubmed
    ..The analyst's light, playful approach to these patients' life-and-death terrors of hating and loving aims to show them that they have grossly exaggerated the powers of their hatred and their love. ..
  3. Ross S, Lutz C, Bailley S. Positive and negative symptoms of schizotypy and the Five-factor model: a domain and facet level analysis. J Pers Assess. 2002;79:53-72 pubmed
    ..Previous studies suggest that these measures reflect the core symptoms found in schizotypal and schizoid personality disorder (Bailey, West, Widiger, & Freiman, 1993)...
  4. Modestin J, Hermann S, Endrass J. Schizoidia in schizophrenia spectrum and personality disorders: role of dissociation. Psychiatry Res. 2007;153:111-8 pubmed
    ..The purported relationship between dissociation and schizoidia could not be confirmed; the existence of schizophrenia-inherent dissociation appears questionable. ..
  5. Ma W, Wu P, Yang S, Cheng K, Chiu H, Lane H. Sensitivity and specificity of the Chinese version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief for identifying undergraduate students susceptible to psychosis. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47:1535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Other screening tools need to be used in future studies with the CSPQ-B to improve the accuracy of identifying susceptibility to psychosis among young adults. ..
  6. Kavaler Adler S. Anatomy of regret: a developmental view of the depressive position and a critical turn toward love and creativity in the transforming schizoid personality. Am J Psychoanal. 2004;64:39-76 pubmed
    This article deals with critical psychic transformation in a schizoid personality disorder that evolves in an object relations psychoanalysis in which "developmental mourning" plays a central role...
  7. Lindal E, Stefansson J. [The prevalence of personality disorders in the greater-Reykjavik area]. Laeknabladid. 2009;95:179-84 pubmed
    ..Similarly, among the men, schizotypal personality disorder was the most common, and most commonly found in the 1971 age group. ..
  8. Muzaffar H. Violence as proof of existence: Joyce Carol Oates and the construction of Shelley the schizoid. Am J Psychoanal. 2005;65:189-96 pubmed
  9. Konings M, Bak M, Hanssen M, van Os J, Krabbendam L. Validity and reliability of the CAPE: a self-report instrument for the measurement of psychotic experiences in the general population. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2006;114:55-61 pubmed
    ..5) and with their equivalent self-reported measure (standardized effect sizes of 0.6-0.8). The results indicate that self-reported dimensions of psychotic experiences in general population samples appear to be stable, reliable and valid. ..
  10. Devresse A, Maldague P, Coulier B, Pierard F, Gielen I. Focal parietal necrosis of the sigmoid due to atypical neuroleptics: a case report. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2012;75:263-5 pubmed
    We present the case of a 26-year-old man with schizoid personality disorder who suffered from a very focal and transparietal necrosis of the sigmoid after an overdose of atypical neuroleptics...
  11. Hayward B. Cluster A personality disorders: considering the 'odd-eccentric' in psychiatric nursing. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2007;16:15-21 pubmed
    ..It is also strongly indicated that the discipline of psychiatric nursing has not yet begun to address the care of persons with cluster A personality disorders. ..
  12. Fonseca Pedrero E, Paino M, Santarén Rosell M, Lemos Giráldez S. Cluster A maladaptive personality patterns in a non-clinical adolescent population. Psicothema. 2013;25:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data yield new clues that improve the understanding of Cluster A traits in this sector of the population, and advance in early detection of adolescents at risk of personality disorders. ..
  13. Ferraro F, Okerlund M. Failure to inhibit irrelevant information in non-clinical schizotypal individuals. J Clin Psychol. 1996;52:389-94 pubmed
    ..Both groups did not differ on a simple reaction time control task, ruling out the possibility that observed negative priming differences across groups were the result of a simple motor reaction time difference. ..
  14. Pluzhnikov I, Omelchenko M, Krylova E, Kaleda V. [Neuropsychological syndromes of non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013;113:19-25 pubmed
    ..were stratified into 3 groups by diagnosis: cyclothymia (20 patients), pubertal decompensation of schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients)...
  15. Fulton M, winokur G. A comparative study of paranoid and schizoid personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1363-7 pubmed
    ..or "paranoid personality" were examined to identify patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizoid personality disorder (N = 34) or paranoid personality disorder (N = 19)...
  16. Raja M, Azzoni A. Thought disorder in Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia: issues in the differential diagnosis. A series of case reports. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:944-52 pubmed
    ..Recognizing and emphasizing the diagnosis of AS is not only important for clinicians to tailor the therapeutic strategy to the features of patients, but also for the patients and their relatives. ..
  17. Zemlan F, Thienhaus O, Garver D. Length of psychiatric hospitalization and prediction of antipsychotic response. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1990;14:13-24 pubmed
  18. Martín Murcia F, Cangas A, Pozo E, Martínez Sánchez M, López Pérez M. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients]. Psicothema. 2009;21:33-8 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed. ..
  19. Chrzastowski S. [Links between burden of care in parents of patients with schizophrenia or personality disorders and family interactions]. Psychiatr Pol. 2006;40:901-11 pubmed
    ..Father's burden was positively correlated with mother's expelling in all groups of families. This study suggests that the degree of parental burden may have an impact on family interactions. ..
  20. Spero M. After hours: temporal developments at the edge of the analytic session. Psychoanal Q. 2010;79:395-419 pubmed
  21. Milivojević L, Strkalj Ivezić S. Importance of object relations theories for development of capacity for mature love. Croat Med J. 2004;45:18-24 pubmed
    ..Obstacles in the development of object relationships from pre-object to object phase, from symbiotic to separation and individuation phase can impair the capacity to love. ..
  22. Waska R. Fragmented attachments: the paranoid-schizoid experience of loss and persecution. Bull Menninger Clin. 2003;67:50-64 pubmed
    ..If the analytic relationship is able to withstand passage through these difficult phases, the patient begins to work through more core issues of persecutory loss and annihilation. Case material is used for illustration. ..
  23. Golimbet V, Alfimova M, Shcherbatikh T, Kaleda V, Abramova L, Rogaev E. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and schizoid personality traits in the patients with psychosis and psychiatrically well subjects. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2003;4:25-9 pubmed
  24. Martin E, Cicero D, Kerns J. Social anhedonia, but not positive schizotypy, is associated with poor affective control. Personal Disord. 2012;3:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, there were no differences between the PerMag and control groups. Overall, these results suggest that SocAnh, but not PerMag, is associated with poor controlled affective processing. ..
  25. Meier M. [Suicide attempt with insulin as a cause of myocardial infarct]. Z Kardiol. 2002;91:178-81 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that coronary artery vasospasm induced by hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinemia caused the myocardial infarction. ..
  26. Casadebaig F, Ruffin D, Quemada N. [The population treated in the general psychiatric sector in 1993 and 1998. Clinical and demographic evolution]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2001;49:513-21 pubmed
  27. Cooper L, Balsis S. When less is more: how fewer diagnostic criteria can indicate greater severity. Psychol Assess. 2009;21:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, many response patterns associated with a raw score of 3 (below threshold for the analyzed disorder) indicated greater latent severity than did response patterns associated with a raw score of 4 (at threshold). ..
  28. Park S, Hong J, Lee H, Samuels J, Bienvenu O, Chung H, et al. Relationship between personality disorder dimensions and verbal memory functioning in a community population. Psychiatry Res. 2012;196:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions. ..
  29. Waska R. The Quest for Greatness in the Race to Not Be Forgotten. Psychoanal Rev. 2016;103:17-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of this pathological loyalty has to do with the internalized and projected demand for perfection as the only currency for love and acceptance. Theoretical considerations are offered from a Kleinian perspective. ..
  30. . NATO Advanced Workshop on Schizophrenia and Schizotypy. March 24-27, 2001, Tuscany, Italy. Proceedings of a conference in honor of Peter H. Venables. Schizophr Res. 2002;54:1-186 pubmed
  31. Bogaerts S, Vanheule S, Desmet M. Personality disorders and romantic adult attachment: a comparison of secure and insecure attached child molesters. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2006;50:139-47 pubmed
    ..In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters...
  32. Chang C, Chen W, Liu S, Cheng J, Yang W, Chang H, et al. Morbidity risk of psychiatric disorders among the first degree relatives of schizophrenia patients in Taiwan. Schizophr Bull. 2002;28:379-92 pubmed
    ..4 percent to 8.6 percent for paranoid personality disorder, and 1.3 percent to 3.4 percent for schizoid personality disorder. These figures are significantly higher than the corresponding figures in the general population...
  33. Gadow K. Association of schizophrenia spectrum and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with ASD and clinic controls. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:1289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings were interpreted as supporting the deconstruction of complex clinical phenotypes as a means of better understanding interrelations among psychiatric syndromes. ..
  34. Jones G. Autistic spectrum disorder: diagnostic difficulties. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;63:33-6 pubmed
    ..From a clinical perspective, there are many alternative diagnoses in an individual with autistic-like symptoms, and thorough investigation is necessary to exclude these. ..
  35. Harvey P, Reichenberg A, Romero M, Granholm E, Siever L. Dual-task information processing in schizotypal personality disorder: evidence of impaired processing capacity. Neuropsychology. 2006;20:453-60 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss the implications of these processing capacity limitations for understanding both the signature of cognitive impairment within the schizophrenia spectrum and general abnormalities in working memory. ..
  36. Steinberg N. Hidden gifts of love: a clinical application of object relations theory. Int J Psychoanal. 2010;91:839-58 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of these dynamics helps inform the psychoanalytic treatment process and can serve as a type of roadmap in navigating through challenging transference-countertransference enactments. ..
  37. Abi Dargham A, Kegeles L, Zea Ponce Y, Mawlawi O, Martinez D, Mitropoulou V, et al. Striatal amphetamine-induced dopamine release in patients with schizotypal personality disorder studied with single photon emission computed tomography and [123I]iodobenzamide. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:1001-6 pubmed
  38. Triebwasser J, Chemerinski E, Roussos P, Siever L. Schizoid personality disorder. J Pers Disord. 2012;26:919-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Schizoid personality disorder (ScPD) is one of the "odd cluster" or "cluster A" personality disorders in DSM-IV...
  39. Moran M, Thaker G, LaPorte D, Cassady S, Ross D. Covert visual attention in schizophrenia spectrum personality disordered subjects: visuospatial cuing and alerting effects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996;30:261-75 pubmed
    ..The findings of an asymmetrical deficit in the disengagement and shift of covert visual attention in schizophrenia spectrum subjects are similar to the one's observed in patients with unilateral left hemisphere lesions. ..
  40. Brown G, Ebert M, Goyer P, Jimerson D, Klein W, Bunney W, et al. Aggression, suicide, and serotonin: relationships to CSF amine metabolites. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:741-6 pubmed
    ..Altered serotonin metabolism may be a highly significant contributing factor to these behaviors in whatever diagnostic group they occur. ..
  41. Lenzenweger M. A source, a cascade, a schizoid: a heuristic proposal from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders. Dev Psychopathol. 2010;22:867-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests a possible cascade relevant to one personality disorder: schizoid personality disorder in emerging adulthood...
  42. Slade K, Forrester A. Measuring IPDE-SQ personality disorder prevalence in pre-sentence and early-stage prison populations, with sub-type estimates. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2013;36:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The stark comparison with community samples indicates that a more equitable standard of service delivery within the criminal justice system, focussing on preventive and early intervention services, is now required. ..
  43. Holtzman N, Strube M. Above and beyond short-term mating, long-term mating is uniquely tied to human personality. Evol Psychol. 2013;11:1101-29 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate for the first time that, above and beyond STM, LTM captures variation in personality. ..
  44. Thaker G, Adami H, Moran M, Lahti A, Cassady S. Psychiatric illnesses in families of subjects with schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders: high morbidity risks for unspecified functional psychoses and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:66-71 pubmed
    ..The results from the current study do not rule out the possibility that the schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders are related to psychoses in general rather than specifically to schizophrenia. ..
  45. Cooper S. Exploring a patient's shift from relative silence to verbal expressiveness: observations on an element of the analyst's participation. Int J Psychoanal. 2012;93:897-916 pubmed publisher
  46. Woldt L, Schneider N, Pfeiffer E, Lehmkuhl U, Salbach Andrae H. [Psychiatric disorders among parents of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2010;59:302-13 pubmed
    ..A vulnerability of psychiatric disorders is indicated among parents of patients with eating disorders in general but nonspecific for AN-R or BN. ..
  47. Slauson S, LoVecchio F. Risperidone-induced priapism with rechallenge. J Emerg Med. 2004;27:88-9 pubmed
  48. Portnova A, Serebrovskaia O, Tarasova A. [Clinical symptoms, pathopsychological peculiarities and mechanisms of biographic amnesia]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2004;104:24-7 pubmed
  49. Larsson J, Hellzén M. Patterns of personality disorders in women with chronic eating disorders. Eat Weight Disord. 2004;9:200-5 pubmed
    ..Although the assessment of PD symptoms was limited to self-reports, the high prevalence of PD diagnoses and PD symptoms most probably reflects the severe psychiatric impairments in patients suffering from chronic ED. ..
  50. Goretti G. Projective identification: a theoretical investigation of the concept starting from 'notes on some schizoid mechanisms'. Int J Psychoanal. 2007;88:387-405 pubmed
    ..Covering a large set of phenomena, the author poses the question of whether it is useful to retain the term 'projective identification'. She proposes an answer in the last part of the paper. ..
  51. Øland J, Jensen J, Melsen B, Elklit A. Are personality patterns and clinical syndromes associated with patients' motives and perceived outcome of orthognathic surgery?. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:3007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who showed signs of certain personality patterns and clinical syndromes improved most from treatment in terms of self-concept and social interaction, and such traits did not influence their degree of satisfaction. ..
  52. Mineo M, Jolley T, Rodriguez G. Leech therapy in penile replantation: a case of recurrent penile self-amputation. Urology. 2004;63:981-3 pubmed
    ..At follow-up the patient had glans re-epithelialization with normal voiding, sensation, and erections. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nonmicrosurgical penile replantation with leech therapy. ..
  53. Collins L, Blanchard J, Biondo K. Behavioral signs of schizoidia and schizotypy in social anhedonics. Schizophr Res. 2005;78:309-22 pubmed