passive aggressive personality disorder


Summary: A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Bekker M, Bachrach N, Croon M. The relationships of antisocial behavior with attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness, and alexithymia. J Clin Psychol. 2007;63:507-27 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed against the background of other recent findings concerning alexithymia and autonomy- connectedeness. ..
  2. Mohr P, Neumann P, Franco S, Marainen J, Lockridge R, Ting G. The case for daily dialysis: its impact on costs and quality of life. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37:777-89 pubmed
    ..Given this constraint to broader acceptance, we address several policy options to gain a better understanding of the potential risks and benefits of daily dialysis. ..
  3. Hopwood C, Morey L, Markowitz J, Pinto A, Skodol A, Gunderson J, et al. The construct validity of passive-aggressive personality disorder. Psychiatry. 2009;72:256-67 pubmed publisher
    Although Passive Aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) plays an important role in many theories of personality pathology, it was consigned to the appendix of the fourth edition of the DSM...
  4. Burt S, Mikolajewski A, Larson C. Do aggression and rule-breaking have different interpersonal correlates? A study of antisocial behavior subtypes, negative affect, and hostile perceptions of others. Aggress Behav. 2009;35:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Such results provide additional support for clinically meaningful differences between the behavioral subtypes of aggression and nonaggressive rule-breaking and for the independent role of hostile perceptions in aggressive behavior. ..
  5. Burket R, Myers W. Axis I and personality comorbidity in adolescents with conduct disorder. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1995;23:73-82 pubmed
    ..These findings support conduct disorder as a complex illness with extensive Axis I and II involvement as well as some gender differences in presentation. ..
  6. Sloore H. Use of the MMPI in the prediction of dangerous behavior. Acta Psychiatr Belg. 1988;88:42-51 pubmed
    ..Can the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) be of any help in predicting dangerous behavior? DSM-III disorders in which violent behavior has a high probability to occur, and the corresponding MMPI profiles are discussed. ..
  7. Houston J. Premeditated assaults on young boys by a man with spina bifida and hydrocephalus--a cognitive-behavioural approach to treatment. Med Sci Law. 1992;32:133-8 pubmed
    ..Cognitive and behavioural treatment techniques were adapted where necessary, with a good outcome. A gap in services for physically handicapped people with behavioural problems is noted and briefly discussed. ..
  8. Tanner B. Composite descriptions associated with rare MMPI two-point code types: codes that involve scale 5. J Clin Psychol. 1990;46:425-31 pubmed
  9. Gaddis S. Ego-boosters versus ego-busters. Ala Nurse. 2005;32:1-2 pubmed

More Information


  1. Howe E. Overcoming the downside of asymmetry. J Clin Ethics. 2003;14:137-51 pubmed
  2. Bottlender M, Bottlender R, Scharfenberg C, Soyka M. [Effectiveness of outpatient treatment for alcoholism - impact of personality disorders on course of treatment]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2003;53:384-9 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that patients with comorbid personality disorder can be successfully integrated into a high-structured outpatient therapy. ..
  3. Joiner T, Rudd M. The incremental validity of passive-aggressive personality symptoms rivals or exceeds that of other personality symptoms in suicidal outpatients. J Pers Assess. 2002;79:161-70 pubmed
  4. Jack D. Understanding women's anger: a description of relational patterns. Health Care Women Int. 2001;22:385-400 pubmed
    ..Implications of differing patterns for women's health are discussed. ..
  5. Fine M, Overholser J, Berkoff K. Diagnostic validity of the passive-aggressive personality disorder: suggestions for reform. Am J Psychother. 1992;46:470-84 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that the model's characterization of P-A in concrete and testable terms will facilitate research into the utility of the passive-aggressiveness construct. ..
  6. Johnson R, Gilchrist E, Beech A, Weston S, Takriti R, Freeman R. A psychometric typology of U.K. domestic violence offenders. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21:1270-85 pubmed
    ..However, the reliance on psychometric measurement and lack of corroborative evidence from partners means that further research is necessary to test these findings. ..
  7. Wetzler S, Morey L. Passive-aggressive personality disorder: the demise of a syndrome. Psychiatry. 1999;62:49-59 pubmed
    ..Because PAPD is no less valid than other personality disorders, and describes clinical phenomena that are unique among personality disorders, we recommend the reinstatement of PAPD in the official diagnostic nomenclature. ..
  8. Ambro B, Wright R. Psychological considerations in revision rhinoplasty. Facial Plast Surg. 2008;24:288-92 pubmed publisher
  9. Grilo C, McGlashan T, Quinlan D, Walker M, Greenfeld D, Edell W. Frequency of personality disorders in two age cohorts of psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:140-2 pubmed
    ..The isomorphism of relative frequencies among psychiatric inpatients suggests that what is seen in adolescents are valid forms of most adult personality disorders. ..
  10. Turley B, Bates G, Edwards J, Jackson H. MCMI-II personality disorders in recent-onset bipolar disorders. J Clin Psychol. 1992;48:320-9 pubmed
    ..Implications of the discrepancies between these instruments and suggestions for future research are discussed. ..
  11. Tallis F, Rosen K, Shafran R. Investigation into the relationship between personality traits and OCD: a replication employing a clinical population. Behav Res Ther. 1996;34:649-53 pubmed
    ..Obsessive Compulsive Disorder was not associated with any other grouping of traits as specified in the DSM-III-R (Axis II) classification system. ..
  12. Wiese K. Bombers, complainers and clams, oh my! Dealing with difficult people. Prairie Rose. 2003;72:18-24; quiz 25 pubmed
  13. Rotenstein O, McDermut W, Bergman A, Young D, Zimmerman M, Chelminski I. The validity of DSM-IV passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder. J Pers Disord. 2007;21:28-41 pubmed
    ..A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor model fit the data better than a unidimensional model. We discuss implications of these results for the future of the NEGPD diagnosis. ..
  14. Czajkowski N, Kendler K, Jacobson K, Tambs K, R√łysamb E, Reichborn Kjennerud T. Passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder: a population-based twin study. J Pers Disord. 2008;22:109-22 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the familial aggregation of passive aggressive personality disorder (PAPD), and explore issues regarding PAPD raised by the DSM-IV Personality Disorder Work Group...
  15. Eckhardt C, Holtzworth Munroe A, Norlander B, Sibley A, Cahill M. Readiness to change, partner violence subtypes, and treatment outcomes among men in treatment for partner assault. Violence Vict. 2008;23:446-75 pubmed
    ..Men rearrested scored higher on the precontemplative stage of change and were more likely to be in the BD and GVA subtypes. Implications for counseling strategies are discussed. ..
  16. Bradley R, Shedler J, Westen D. Is the appendix a useful appendage? An empirical examination of depressive, passive-aggressive (negativistic), sadistic, and self-defeating personality disorders. J Pers Disord. 2006;20:524-40 pubmed
    ..Sadistic and self-defeating PD do not appear to represent distinct disorders, although they include personality traits (sadism and revictimization) associated with distinct developmental histories. ..
  17. Zimmerman M, Coryell W. DSM-III personality disorder diagnoses in a nonpatient sample. Demographic correlates and comorbidity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:682-9 pubmed
    ..The demographic correlates and frequency of Axis I disorders in individuals with each specific PD were examined, and all but histrionic and passive-aggressive PDs had distinctive profiles. ..
  18. Berman M, Fallon A, Coccaro E. The relationship between personality psychopathology and aggressive behavior in research volunteers. J Abnorm Psychol. 1998;107:651-8 pubmed
    ..When all personality disorders were considered simultaneously, paranoid and passive-aggressive criteria were significant predictors of aggressive behavior. ..
  19. Sprock J, Hunsucker L. Symptoms of prototypic patients with passive-aggressive personality disorder: DSM-IIIR versus DSM-IV negativistic. Compr Psychiatry. 1998;39:287-95 pubmed
    ..Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including the need to integrate research findings from the differing perspectives on personality disorders. ..
  20. Hamberger L, Lohr J, Bonge D, Tolin D. A large sample empirical typology of male spouse abusers and its relationship to dimensions of abuse. Violence Vict. 1996;11:277-92 pubmed
    ..Passive aggressive-dependent men had the highest frequency of violence. Clinical, theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. ..
  21. Goulet J. [Passive-aggressive personality and dependent personality-- current status of the question]. Can J Psychiatry. 1988;33:140-6 pubmed
  22. Fossati A, Maffei C, Bagnato M, Donati D, Donini M, Fiorilli M, et al. A psychometric study of DSM-IV passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder criteria. J Pers Disord. 2000;14:72-83 pubmed
    ..38, 95% CI = 4.83-22.30) was observed between DSM-IV PAPD and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that DSM-IV PAPD should be considered as a subtype of a broader narcissistic disorder. ..