paranoid personality disorder


Summary: A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.

Top Publications

  1. Steinberg P. A case of paranoid disorder associated with hyperthyroidism. Can J Psychiatry. 1994;39:153-6 pubmed
    ..Another indication for further medical investigation in a patient with psychiatric symptoms is the absence of a psychological explanation for a worsening of the psychiatric symptoms. ..
  2. Kärkkäinen J, Räisänen M, Huttunen M, Kallio E, Naukkarinen H, Virkkunen M. Urinary excretion of bufotenin (N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is increased in suspicious violent offenders: a confirmatory study. Psychiatry Res. 1995;58:145-52 pubmed
    ..The results are in keeping with the earlier finding that violent offenders with paranoid personality traits have higher urinary levels of bufotenin than other violent offenders. ..
  3. Welander Vatn A, Ystrom E, Tambs K, Neale M, Kendler K, Reichborn Kjennerud T, et al. The relationship between anxiety disorders and dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: A co-twin control study. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:349-356 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate specific environmental factors for comorbidity of ADs and borderline and avoidant PDs that are not shared with other PDs. ..
  4. Disney K, Weinstein Y, Oltmanns T. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency. J Fam Psychol. 2012;26:959-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. ..
  5. Arntz A, Bernstein D, Gielen D, van Nieuwenhuyzen M, Penders K, Haslam N, et al. Taxometric evidence for the dimensional structure of cluster-C, paranoid, and borderline personality disorders. J Pers Disord. 2009;23:606-28 pubmed publisher
    ..23, SD = .09. Only two analyses yielded ambiguous evidence (CCFI in the .40-.60 range) and none indicated taxonic structure. ..
  6. Benyamin R, Vallejo R, Kramer J, Rafeyan R. Corticosteroid induced psychosis in the pain management setting. Pain Physician. 2008;11:917-20 pubmed
    ..We further discuss this potential side effect of utilizing corticosteroids and emphasize the need for guidelines regarding steroid utilization. ..
  7. Legris P. [Paranoid delirium of cognition]. Encephale. 2005;31 Pt 2:S38-41 pubmed
  8. Haselton M, Nettle D. The paranoid optimist: an integrative evolutionary model of cognitive biases. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2006;10:47-66 pubmed
    ..This perspective integrates a diverse array of effects under a single explanatory umbrella, and it yields new content-specific predictions. ..
  9. Opjordsmoen S. Hypochondriacal psychoses: a long-term follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988;77:587-97 pubmed
    ..Implications for the clinician in diagnosing and treating are discussed, and the importance of early detection of correct diagnostic category is stressed. ..

More Information


  1. Silber D, Karp S, Holmstrom R. Recommendations for the clinical use of the Apperceptive Personality Test. J Pers Assess. 1990;55:790-9 pubmed
  2. Levinson D, Mowry B. Defining the schizophrenia spectrum: issues for genetic linkage studies. Schizophr Bull. 1991;17:491-514 pubmed
    ..As an illustration, the clinical model for the authors' schizophrenia linkage study is described. ..
  3. Reich J. The effect of personality on placebo response in panic patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1990;178:699-702 pubmed
    ..For those continuing beyond 3 weeks, there were negative correlations between the paranoid and borderline personality traits and a global outcome measure. Spontaneous panic attacks were not affected by personality. ..
  4. Berman M, Fallon A, Coccaro E. The relationship between personality psychopathology and aggressive behavior in research volunteers. J Abnorm Psychol. 1998;107:651-8 pubmed
    ..When all personality disorders were considered simultaneously, paranoid and passive-aggressive criteria were significant predictors of aggressive behavior. ..
  5. Cassady S, Adami H, Moran M, Kunkel R, Thaker G. Spontaneous dyskinesia in subjects with schizophrenia spectrum personality. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:70-5 pubmed
    ..A failure of normal behavioral sensitization mechanisms after dextroamphetamine challenge is seen in subjects with schizophrenia spectrum personality. ..
  6. Kendler K, Czajkowski N, Tambs K, Torgersen S, Aggen S, Neale M, et al. Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster A personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: a multivariate study. Psychol Med. 2006;36:1583-91 pubmed
    ..Schizotypal PD most closely reflects the genetic and environmental liability common to all three Cluster A disorders. These results should be interpreted in the context of the limited power of this sample. ..
  7. Mottron L, Soulieres I, Ménard E. [Elements of a clinical differential diagnosis between Asperger syndrome and the schizoid/paranoid personality]. Sante Ment Que. 2007;32:367-75 pubmed
    ..Consequences for case management are also reported. ..
  8. Falkum E, Pedersen G, Karterud S. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, paranoid personality disorder diagnosis: a unitary or a two-dimensional construct?. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50:533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..validity aspects of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) paranoid personality disorder (PPD) diagnosis...
  9. Reichborn Kjennerud T, Czajkowski N, Røysamb E, Ørstavik R, Neale M, Torgersen S, et al. Major depression and dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: a population-based twin study. Psychol Med. 2010;40:1475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Dimensional representations of borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD) were independently and significantly associated with increased risk for MDD...
  10. Aronson T. Paranoia and narcissism in psychoanalytic theory. Contributions of self psychology to the theory and therapy of the paranoid disorders. Psychoanal Rev. 1989;76:329-51 pubmed
    ..The vicissitudes of the self simply add another perspective or vantage point from which to understand and respond to the patient, one which has perhaps more applicability for preoedipally disordered patients. ..
  11. Fenigstein A, Vanable P. Paranoia and self-consciousness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992;62:129-38 pubmed
    ..Discussion focuses on paranoid cognition as characteristic of everyday thought and the implications of self-attention for social perception processes. ..
  12. Munro A. Delusional (paranoid) disorders. Can J Psychiatry. 1988;33:399-404 pubmed
    ..Precise history taking and mental status examination and, above all, an up-to-date knowledge of their existence are essential to the recognition and appropriate treatment of the delusional disorders. ..
  13. Fossati A, Feeney J, Donati D, Donini M, Novella L, Bagnato M, et al. Personality disorders and adult attachment dimensions in a mixed psychiatric sample: a multivariate study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003;191:30-7 pubmed
    ..The results extend previous studies linking personality disorders and attachment patterns and suggest the importance of focusing on specific constellations of symptoms associated with dimensions of insecurity. ..
  14. Fogelson D, Nuechterlein K, Asarnow R, Payne D, Subotnik K. Validity of the family history method for diagnosing schizophrenia, schizophrenia-related psychoses, and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands. Schizophr Res. 2004;68:309-17 pubmed
    ..576). Using the family history method, the validity of making schizophrenia-related personality disorder diagnoses was comparable to that of making psychotic disorder diagnoses. ..
  15. Opjordsmoen S, Retterstöl N. Delusional disorder: the predictive validity of the concept. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991;84:250-4 pubmed
    ..Based on the data, a minimal duration of 6 months is proposed for persistent delusional disorder. ..
  16. Daniels J, Wirth J, Herrera D, Simpson E, Auchincloss E, Occhiogrosso M, et al. Head banging on an inpatient psychiatric unit: a vicious circle. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007;15:70-9 pubmed
  17. Boxer P. Assessment of potential violence in the paranoid worker. J Occup Med. 1993;35:127-31 pubmed
    Violence in the workplace is sometimes a manifestation of an untreated psychiatric disorder. Paranoid personality disorder, paranoid schizophrenia, and delusional (paranoid) disorder are three psychiatric syndromes in which paranoid ..
  18. Coryell W, Zimmerman M. Personality disorder in the families of depressed, schizophrenic, and never-ill probands. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:496-502 pubmed
    ..However, depressed probands with normal dexamethasone test results had a significantly higher familial loading for the DSM-III cluster of histrionic, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorders. ..
  19. Salvatore G, Nicolo G, Dimaggio G. Impoverished dialogical relationship patterns in paranoid personality disorder. Am J Psychother. 2005;59:247-65 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis we discuss in this article is that patients suffering from paranoid personality disorder (PPD) present impoverished dialogical relationship patterns...
  20. Rienzi B, Scrams D. Gender stereotypes for paranoid, antisocial, compulsive, dependent, and histrionic personality disorders. Psychol Rep. 1991;69:976-8 pubmed
    ..The description of schizoid personality disorder was not significantly gender-typed. ..
  21. Mann M, Vaughn A, Barrantes Vidal N, Raulin M, Kwapil T. The schizotypal ambivalence scale as a marker of schizotypy. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008;196:399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..The SAS seems to be a promising measure of schizotypy in young adults. ..
  22. Zimmerman M, Coryell W. DSM-III personality disorder diagnoses in a nonpatient sample. Demographic correlates and comorbidity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:682-9 pubmed
    ..The demographic correlates and frequency of Axis I disorders in individuals with each specific PD were examined, and all but histrionic and passive-aggressive PDs had distinctive profiles. ..
  23. Bellino S, Zizza M, Paradiso E, Rivarossa A, Fulcheri M, Bogetto F. Dysmorphic concern symptoms and personality disorders: a clinical investigation in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Psychiatry Res. 2006;144:73-8 pubmed
    ..Preoperative assessment could help to define the clinical profile of patients in cosmetic surgery settings. ..
  24. Mather A, Cox B, Enns M, Sareen J. Associations between body weight and personality disorders in a nationally representative sample. Psychosom Med. 2008;70:1012-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible clinical implications of this research are discussed. ..
  25. Livesley W, Schroeder M. Dimensions of personality disorder. The DSM-III-R cluster A diagnoses. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1990;178:627-35 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the results support a dimensional representation of these diagnoses using three dimensions: paranoid behaviors, social avoidance, and perceptual cognitive distortion. ..
  26. Tien A, Costa P, Eaton W. Covariance of personality, neurocognition, and schizophrenia spectrum traits in the community. Schizophr Res. 1992;7:149-58 pubmed
    ..In logistic regression models, subjects with Schizotypal, Schizoid, or Paranoid Traits differed in terms of normal personality profiles and WCST performance. ..
  27. Pang A, Ungvari G, Lum F, Lai K, Leung C. Querulous paranoia in Chinese patients: a cultural paradox. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1996;30:463-6 pubmed
    ..The case histories of these three patients are reported. Possible reasons for the low reporting rate are discussed and the importance of sociocultural traditions in the development and recognition of querulous paranoia is emphasised. ..
  28. Akhtar S. Paranoid personality disorder: a synthesis of developmental, dynamic, and descriptive features. Am J Psychother. 1990;44:5-25 pubmed
  29. Binetti G, Bianchetti A, Padovani A, Lenzi G, De Leo D, Trabucchi M. Delusions in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993;88:5-9 pubmed
    ..With regard to the content, no significant differences were observed between AD and MID patients; 53% of psychotic symptoms were found to be paranoid delusions while 47% were misidentification delusions. ..
  30. Arntz A, Dietzel R, Dreessen L. Assumptions in borderline personality disorder: specificity, stability and relationship with etiological factors. Behav Res Ther. 1999;37:545-57 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that a set of assumptions is characteristic of BPD, and is relatively stable despite the instability of the behaviour of people diagnosed as having BPD. ..
  31. Siever L, Silverman J, Horvath T, Klar H, Coccaro E, Keefe R, et al. Increased morbid risk for schizophrenia-related disorders in relatives of schizotypal personality disordered patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:634-40 pubmed
    To evaluate whether probands from a clinical sample diagnosed as having DSM-III schizotypal and/or paranoid personality disorder have a familial relationship to the schizophrenia-related disorders, the morbid risk for schizophrenia-..
  32. Zanarini M, Frankenburg F, Reich D, Fitzmaurice G. Attainment and stability of sustained symptomatic remission and recovery among patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects: a 16-year prospective follow-up study. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:476-83 pubmed
  33. Pavlovsky P. [Paranoid syndrome, paranoid reaction, paranoia]. Cas Lek Cesk. 2006;145:178-80 pubmed
    ..If a paranoid reaction becomes more serious, formation of a paranoid delusion should be taken to account. In our koncept the term paranoid and paranoidity should be used only as a psychopathological term. ..
  34. Parnas J, Jorgensen A. Pre-morbid psychopathology in schizophrenia spectrum. Br J Psychiatry. 1989;155:623-7 pubmed
    ..Pre-schizophrenics', as compared with 'pre-schizotypes', were characterised by affective dyscontrol, reflected in less introverted and more disturbed behaviour. ..
  35. Gladis M, Levinson D, Mowry B. Delusions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: diagnostic issues. Schizophr Bull. 1994;20:747-54 pubmed
    ..probands) who received a DSM-III-R diagnosis of a nonaffective psychotic disorder or schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder. Eleven exhibited episodic or chronic delusions that resulted in diagnostic dilemmas, often arising ..
  36. Alper K, Devinsky O, Westbrook L, Luciano D, Pacia S, Perrine K, et al. Premorbid psychiatric risk factors for postictal psychosis. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;13:492-9 pubmed
    ..49, P=0.001). Possible mechanisms linking vulnerability toward mood disorders and the development of psychotic symptoms in epilepsy are discussed. ..
  37. Rowlands M. Psychiatric and legal aspects of persistent litigation. Br J Psychiatry. 1988;153:317-23 pubmed
    ..Four of these people are barred from further litigation by the courts (vexatious litigants) and were contacted directly for the purpose of this study. ..
  38. André C. [Personality disorder]. Rev Prat. 2008;58:551-6; quiz 575 pubmed
  39. de Portugal E, Gonzalez N, Haro J, Autonell J, Cervilla J. A descriptive case-register study of delusional disorder. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23:125-33 pubmed
    ..higher among those with the jealous subtype) and 42% had a comorbid axis II diagnosis (mostly paranoid personality disorder). Depression was significantly more frequent among the persecutory and jealous types...
  40. Zalewska A, Kondras K, Narbutt J, Sysa Jedrzejowska A. Dermatitis artefacta in a patient with paranoid syndrome. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2007;16:37-9 pubmed
    ..We discuss the reasons for such behavior and the possibilities of dermatological and general interventions. ..
  41. Sauvayre P. The relationship between the court and the doctor on the issue of an inpatient's refusal of psychotropic medication. J Forensic Sci. 1991;36:219-25 pubmed
    ..While abstract arguments both in favor of and against these new procedures can be drawn from the same data, the concrete relationship still remains poorly understood. ..
  42. Cooper A. Paranoia: a part of most analyses. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1993;41:423-42 pubmed
    ..A case vignette is provided to demonstrate the analysis of a neurotic patient without borderline features who showed prominent paranoid formation. ..
  43. Arntz A, Dreessen L, Schouten E, Weertman A. Beliefs in personality disorders: a test with the personality disorder belief questionnaire. Behav Res Ther. 2004;42:1215-25 pubmed
    ..Another explanation is that many patients' position on the underlying dimensions is not high enough to lead to a DSM PD diagnosis, but high enough to lead to an elevated belief score. ..
  44. Ostling S, Börjesson Hanson A, Skoog I. Psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation in a population-based sample of 95-year-olds. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;15:999-1004 pubmed
    ..Most of the symptoms were elucidated by information from key informants, illustrating the importance of including relatives in the evaluation of elderly persons. ..
  45. Kendler K. Familial aggregation of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Evaluation of conflicting results. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:377-83 pubmed
    ..The convincing demonstration of this would be of considerable interest and should lead to a constructive search for the source of the interpopulation differences. ..
  46. Baron M, Gruen R. Schizophrenia and affective disorder: are they genetically linked?. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;159:267-70 pubmed
    ..These results lend support to the notion that a subset of affective disorders is associated with the liability to schizophrenia. ..
  47. Kendler K, Gruenberg A, Kinney D. Independent diagnoses of adoptees and relatives as defined by DSM-III in the provincial and national samples of the Danish Adoption Study of Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:456-68 pubmed
    ..We found no evidence for the familial environment transmission of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. These results are consistent with the findings reported by Kety and coworkers from their diagnostic review. ..
  48. Hutchesson E, Volans G. Unsubstantiated complaints of being poisoned. Psychopathology of patients referred to the national poisons unit. Br J Psychiatry. 1989;154:34-40 pubmed
    ..The need for and value of this service are discussed. ..
  49. Kendler K, McGuire M, Gruenberg A, O HARE A, Spellman M, Walsh D. The Roscommon Family Study. III. Schizophrenia-related personality disorders in relatives. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:781-8 pubmed
    ..Fitness effects may substantially influence the pattern of schizophrenia-related personality disorders in relatives. ..
  50. Bartak A, Andrea H, Spreeuwenberg M, Thunnissen M, Ziegler U, Dekker J, et al. Patients with cluster a personality disorders in psychotherapy: an effectiveness study. Psychother Psychosom. 2011;80:88-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should focus more on psychotherapeutic treatment to gain further insight into effective treatment options for this patient group. ..
  51. Auchincloss E, Weiss R. Paranoid character and the intolerance of indifference. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1992;40:1013-37 pubmed
  52. Rosenberg S, Freedman M, Schmaling K, Rose C. Personality styles of patients asserting environmental illness. J Occup Med. 1990;32:678-81 pubmed
    ..Further illustration is provided by a case report with psychological test data. Finally, treatment recommendations based upon this distinction are delineated. ..
  53. Coryell W, Zimmerman M. The heritability of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. A family study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:323-7 pubmed