stereotypic movement disorder


Summary: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)

Top Publications

  1. Stein D, Garner J, Keuthen N, Franklin M, Walkup J, Woods D. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2007;9:301-2 pubmed
    ..not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are ..
  2. Chao H, Chen H, Samaco R, Xue M, Chahrour M, Yoo J, et al. Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes. Nature. 2010;468:263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that MeCP2 is critical for normal function of GABA-releasing neurons and that subtle dysfunction of GABAergic neurons contributes to numerous neuropsychiatric phenotypes. ..
  3. Stein D, Grant J, Franklin M, Keuthen N, Lochner C, Singer H, et al. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27:611-26 pubmed publisher
    ..category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence...
  4. Stein D, Flessner C, Franklin M, Keuthen N, Lochner C, Woods D. Is trichotillomania a stereotypic movement disorder? An analysis of body-focused repetitive behaviors in people with hair-pulling. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2008;20:194-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is characterized by nonfunctional repetitive movements, is typically diagnosed in people with intellectual disability, and by definition excludes people with trichotillomania (TTM)...
  5. Fan C, Lin S, Huang M. Disulfiram-induced punding. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:473-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Padro L, Rovira R. [Diagnosis of seizures originating in the amygdala and the hippocampus]. Rev Neurol. 1998;26:261-5 pubmed
    ..It is very important to know the contribution of the hippocampus and the amygdala to the symptomatology of temporal lobe seizures due to the progress of MRI diagnostic possibilities that are improving the surgical outcome. ..
  7. Anderson K, Smith I, Shneerson J. Rhythmic movement disorder (head banging) in an adult during rapid eye movement sleep. Mov Disord. 2006;21:866-7 pubmed
    ..This man is the oldest subject with this presentation reported to date and highlights the importance of recognizing this nocturnal movement disorder when it does occur in adults. ..
  8. Zandt F, Prior M, Kyrios M. Repetitive behaviour in children with high functioning autism and obsessive compulsive disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:251-9 pubmed
    ..Sameness behaviour was more prevalent in younger children with OCD, but for children with ASD, age was not significantly related to sameness behaviour, repetitive movements, compulsions, or obsessions. ..
  9. Lecavalier L, Aman M, Hammer D, Stoica W, Mathews G. Factor analysis of the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34:709-21 pubmed
    ..Confirmatory factor analyses indicated good fits for the social competence items and acceptable fits for the problem behavior items. Overall, results supported the construct validity of the NCBRF in children and adolescents with ASDs. ..

More Information


  1. Murphy K, Saunders M, Saunders R, Olswang L. Effects of ambient stimuli on measures of behavioral state and microswitch use in adults with profound multiple impairments. Res Dev Disabil. 2004;25:355-70 pubmed
    ..Results suggest the importance of considering environmental stimuli in relationship to switch use when working with individuals with profound multiple impairments. ..
  2. Michelotti J, Charman T, Slonims V, Baird G. Follow-up of children with language delay and features of autism from preschool years to middle childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44:812-9 pubmed
    ..The findings are discussed in relation to the unclear boundary between autism spectrum disorders and language delay/disorder. ..
  3. Woods D. Introduction to the special issue on repetitive behavior problems. Behav Modif. 2002;26:315-9 pubmed
  4. Abekawa T, Honda M, Ito K, Inoue T, Koyama T. Effect of MS-153 on the development of behavioral sensitization to stereotypy-inducing effect of phencyclidine. Brain Res. 2002;926:176-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the attenuation of glutamatergic neural transmission enhances acute effect of PCP, but in contrast, blocks the behavioral sensitization to PCP. ..
  5. Shprecher D, Kurlan R. The management of tics. Mov Disord. 2009;24:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A comprehensive evaluation accounting for secondary causes, psychosocial factors, and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions is essential to successful treatment of tic disorders...
  6. Pickles K, Berger J, Davies R, Roser J, Madigan J. Use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone vaccine in headshaking horses. Vet Rec. 2011;168:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination reactions were observed in four of 15 horses (27 per cent), including one case of severe, presumed immune-mediated, myositis. ..
  7. Singer H. Motor control, habits, complex motor stereotypies, and Tourette syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1304:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Which, if any, transmitter is the primary pathological factor in TS and primary CMS remains to be definitively determined. ..
  8. Goldman S, Wang C, Salgado M, Greene P, Kim M, Rapin I. Motor stereotypies in children with autism and other developmental disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Stereotypies are environmentally modulated movement disorders, some highly suggestive, but not pathognomonic, of autism. Their underlying brain basis and genetic correlates need investigation. ..
  9. Andersson G, Gillberg C, Miniscalco C. Pre-school children with suspected autism spectrum disorders: do girls and boys have the same profiles?. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..More research with a much larger population representative study samples is required. ..
  10. Bishop S, Hus V, Duncan A, Huerta M, Gotham K, Pickles A, et al. Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:1287-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. ..
  11. Cuccaro M, Nations L, Brinkley J, Abramson R, Wright H, Hall A, et al. A comparison of repetitive behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and high functioning autism. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2007;37:347-60 pubmed
    ..These findings add to the body of literature showing that HFA and ASP fail to differ with respect to repetitive behaviors. The implications of the findings for neurobiologic and genetic studies are discussed. ..
  12. Davanzo P, Belin T, Widawski M, King B. Paroxetine treatment of aggression and self-injury in persons with mental retardation. Am J Ment Retard. 1998;102:427-37 pubmed
    ..The apparent diminution of effectiveness after 4 weeks of treatment may suggest adaptive changes warranting further study. ..
  13. Lanovaz M, Rapp J, Maciw I, Dorion C, Prégent Pelletier É. Preliminary effects of parent-implemented behavioural interventions for stereotypy. Dev Neurorehabil. 2016;19:193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e. weekly to monthly), follow-up meetings to monitor the effects of behavioural interventions in outpatient and home-based service delivery models. ..
  14. McDougle C, Scahill L, Aman M, McCracken J, Tierney E, Davies M, et al. Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: results from the study by the autism network of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1142-8 pubmed
    ..Further research is necessary to develop effective treatments for the core social and communicative impairments of autism. ..
  15. Wilhelm S, Keuthen N, Deckersbach T, Engelhard I, Forker A, Baer L, et al. Self-injurious skin picking: clinical characteristics and comorbidity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60:454-9 pubmed
    ..It may be conceptualized as a variant of OCD or impulse-control disorder with self-injurious features and may, in some cases, represent an attempt to regulate intense emotions. ..
  16. Gasior M, Ungard J, Beekman M, Carter R, Witkin J. Acute and chronic effects of the synthetic neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone, against the convulsive and lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol in seizure-kindled mice: comparison with diazepam and valproate. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39:1184-96 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results of the present study add to accumulating evidence of the unique anticonvulsive/behavioral profile of neuroactive steroids. ..
  17. Edwards M, Dale R, Church A, Trikouli E, Quinn N, Lees A, et al. Adult-onset tic disorder, motor stereotypies, and behavioural disturbance associated with antibasal ganglia antibodies. Mov Disord. 2004;19:1190-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest that there might be a causal relationship between ABGA and the clinical syndrome in these cases and that ABGA should be considered as a possible etiology for adult-onset tics. ..
  18. Rojahn J, Matson J, Lott D, Esbensen A, Smalls Y. The Behavior Problems Inventory: an instrument for the assessment of self-injury, stereotyped behavior, and aggression/destruction in individuals with developmental disabilities. J Autism Dev Disord. 2001;31:577-88 pubmed
    ..Strengths and limitations of the instrument are discussed. ..
  19. McGrath C, Kennedy R, Hoye W, Yablon S. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury. Brain Inj. 2002;16:447-51 pubmed
    b>Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation...
  20. Szatmari P, Bryson S, Duku E, Vaccarella L, Zwaigenbaum L, Bennett T, et al. Similar developmental trajectories in autism and Asperger syndrome: from early childhood to adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinguishing between autism and Asperger syndrome based on the presence or absence of StrLI appears to be a clinically useful way of classifying ASD sub-types. ..
  21. Brasic J. Clinical assessment of tics. Psychol Rep. 2001;89:48-50 pubmed
  22. Singer H. Motor stereotypies. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2009;16:77-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although some view these movements as behaviors produced to alter a state of arousal, there is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been used with varying effect. ..
  23. Delafield Butt J. Stereotypical movements. Clin Ter. 2010;161:487-8 pubmed
  24. Schaaf R, Toth Cohen S, Johnson S, Outten G, Benevides T. The everyday routines of families of children with autism: examining the impact of sensory processing difficulties on the family. Autism. 2011;15:373-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This information has important implications for professionals who work with families of children with autism to decrease caregiver stress and to increase life satisfaction for the child and family. ..
  25. Hattier M, Matson J, Tureck K, Horovitz M. The effects of gender and age on repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests in adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:2346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There was not a significant main effect of age range or a significant interaction between gender and age range. Results and implications are discussed. ..
  26. Morgan L, Wetherby A, Barber A. Repetitive and stereotyped movements in children with autism spectrum disorders late in the second year of life. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49:826-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides support for the diagnostic significance of RSM in children under 24 months of age and documents the utility of this RSM measurement tool as a companion to the CSBS. ..
  27. Daniels J, Wirth J, Herrera D, Simpson E, Auchincloss E, Occhiogrosso M, et al. Head banging on an inpatient psychiatric unit: a vicious circle. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007;15:70-9 pubmed
  28. Damiano C, Nahmias A, Hogan Brown A, Stone W. What do repetitive and stereotyped movements mean for infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:1326-35 pubmed publisher
    ..However preliminary evidence suggests that qualitative differences in RSM type warrant further investigation as early diagnostic markers. ..
  29. Ruggieri V, Arberas C. [Non-epileptic motor paroxysmal phenomena in wakefulness in childhood]. Rev Neurol. 2013;57 Suppl 1:S105-14 pubmed
    ..Seguramente la identificacion de los aspectos moleculares y la comprension de los mecanismos fisiopatologicos de muchas de ellas permitiran en un futuro no muy lejano tratamientos especificos que beneficiaran a los pacientes. ..
  30. Crosland K, Zarcone J, Schroeder S, Zarcone T, Fowler S. Use of an antecedent analysis and a force sensitive platform to compare stereotyped movements and motor tics. Am J Ment Retard. 2005;110:181-92 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that stereotyped movements and tics differ both quantitatively and qualitatively and support the use of new technologies, such as force plate technology, to more accurately evaluate these differences...
  31. Haliloglu G, Gross C, Senbil N, Talim B, Hehr U, Uyanik G, et al. Clinical spectrum of muscle-eye-brain disease: from the typical presentation to severe autistic features. Acta Myol. 2004;23:137-9 pubmed
    ..These two cases represent different spectrums of one disorder. To the best of our knowledge, autistic features and stereotypical movements have not been included thus far as a part of broad and heterogeneous MEB spectrum. ..
  32. Rojahn J, Rowe E, Sharber A, Hastings R, Matson J, Didden R, et al. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form for individuals with intellectual disabilities: part I: development and provisional clinical reference data. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012;56:527-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined sex ranges are also provided by age and level of ID. In summary, the BPI-S is a very useful alternative to the BPI-01, especially for research and evaluation purposes involving groups of individuals. ..
  33. Freeman R, Soltanifar A, Baer S. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52:733-8 pubmed publisher
    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies...
  34. Burd L, Stenehjem A, Franceschini L, Kerbeshian J. A 15-year follow-up of a boy with pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-dependent seizures with autism, breath holding, and severe mental retardation. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:763-5 pubmed
    ..This complex outcome should alert clinicians to the wide range of neuropsychiatric outcomes associated with this disorder. ..
  35. Le Meur N, Holder Espinasse M, Jaillard S, Goldenberg A, Joriot S, Amati Bonneau P, et al. MEF2C haploinsufficiency caused by either microdeletion of the 5q14.3 region or mutation is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic movements, epilepsy and/or cerebral malformations. J Med Genet. 2010;47:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results strongly suggest that haploinsufficiency of MEF2C is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic movements, seizures and/or cerebral malformations. ..
  36. Ronald A, Happe F, Price T, Baron Cohen S, Plomin R. Phenotypic and genetic overlap between autistic traits at the extremes of the general population. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45:1206-14 pubmed
    ..This new finding has relevance for both clinical models and future molecular genetic studies. ..
  37. Szucs A, Fogarasi A, Rasonyi G, Kelemen A, Narula L, Toth V, et al. Peri-ictal water drinking in temporal lobe epilepsy: Is it a reliable lateralizing sign?. Epilepsy Behav. 2007;11:578-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we could not find any evidence for the lateralization value of peri-ictal water drinking in TLE. ..
  38. Ishiguro A, Inagaki M, Kaga M. Stereotypic circling behavior in mice with vestibular dysfunction: asymmetrical effects of intrastriatal microinjection of a dopamine agonist. Int J Neurosci. 2007;117:1049-64 pubmed
    ..0026). These results suggested that the stereotypic circling behavior involves striatum and is based on striatal asymmetry. ..
  39. Borrero J, Vollmer T, Wright C, Lerman D, Kelley M. Further evaluation of the role of protective equipment in the functional analysis of self-injurious behavior. J Appl Behav Anal. 2002;35:69-72 pubmed
    ..Results of our analyses revealed that the use of protective equipment during functional analyses of SIB suppressed levels of responding such that a behavioral function could not be identified. ..
  40. Lance J, Hickie I, Wakefield D, Colebatch J, Cardoso F, Vidailhet M. An akinetic-rigid syndrome, depression, and stereotypies in a young man. Mov Disord. 1998;13:835-44 pubmed
    ..There was no response to L-dopa/cardopa treatment. A course of ECT was followed by a marked improvement in his condition. Attempts to stop ECT for more than a week have led to recurrence of his bradykinesia...
  41. Capone G, Goyal P, Ares W, Lannigan E. Neurobehavioral disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults with Down syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2006;142C:158-72 pubmed
    ..Improvement in physiologic regulation, emotional stability, and neurocognitive processing is one of the most elusive but fundamental goals of pharmacologic intervention in these disorders. ..
  42. Eagle A, Perrine S. Methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in a rodent model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;131:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that SPS alters drug-induced neuroplasticity associated with behavioral sensitization to METH, which may reflect an effect on the shared neurocircuitry underlying PTSD and substance dependence. ..
  43. Iverson J, Wozniak R. Variation in vocal-motor development in infant siblings of children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:158-70 pubmed
    ..In addition, they demonstrated attenuated patterns of change in rhythmic arm activity around the time of reduplicated babble onset; and they were highly likely to exhibit delayed language development at 18 months. ..
  44. Ozonoff S, Williams B, Rauch A, Opitz J. Behavior phenotype of FG syndrome: cognition, personality, and behavior in eleven affected boys. Am J Med Genet. 2000;97:112-8 pubmed
    ..Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. ..
  45. Giles A, St Peter C, Pence S, Gibson A. Preference for blocking or response redirection during stereotypy treatment. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33:1691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..All three participants preferred redirection. Practitioners may wish to consider participant preference when developing and implementing treatments for stereotypy. ..
  46. Colón C, Ahearn W, Clark K, Masalsky J. The effects of verbal operant training and response interruption and redirection on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations. J Appl Behav Anal. 2012;45:107-20 pubmed publisher
  47. Deckersbach T, Wilhelm S, Keuthen N, Baer L, Jenike M. Cognitive-behavior therapy for self-injurious skin picking. A case series. Behav Modif. 2002;26:361-77 pubmed
    ..In the current article, the authors describe the implementation and outcome of cognitive-behavior therapy for three patients with severe self-injurious skin picking, two of which had psychiatric comorbidity. ..
  48. Mutseura M, Tagwireyi D, Gadaga L. Pre-treatment of BALB/c mice with a centrally acting serotonin antagonist (cyproheptadine) reduces mortality from Boophone disticha poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013;51:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cyproheptadine has a dose-dependent protective effect on mortality and toxicity produced by exposure to Boophone disticha in our mouse model of toxicity. ..
  49. Aliane V, Perez S, Bohren Y, Deniau J, Kemel M. Key role of striatal cholinergic interneurons in processes leading to arrest of motor stereotypies. Brain. 2011;134:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that restoration of cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum plays a key role in the arrest of motor stereotypy. ..
  50. Watkins N, Sparling E. The Effectiveness of the Snug Vest on Stereotypic Behaviors in Children Diagnosed With an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Modif. 2014;38:412-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the study show that the Snug Vest failed to reduce any participants' stereotypy. We highlight our findings in the context of professional practice and discuss several potential limitations. ..
  51. Shigenobu K, Ikeda M, Fukuhara R, Maki N, Hokoishi K, Nebu A, et al. The Stereotypy Rating Inventory for frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Psychiatry Res. 2002;110:175-87 pubmed
    ..The SRI appears to be a useful instrument for detecting stereotypic behaviors and monitoring of therapies in FTLD patients. ..
  52. Hagopian L, Paclawskyj T, Kuhn S. The use of conditional probability analysis to identify a response chain leading to the occurrence of eye poking. Res Dev Disabil. 2005;26:393-7 pubmed
    ..Based on the hypothesis that stereotypy and self-injury constituted a response chain, the effects of blocking stereotypy were examined. Reductions in both self-injury and in response effort for treatment implementation were observed. ..
  53. Sato S, Hashimoto T, Nakamura A, Ikeda S. Stereotyped stepping associated with lesions in the bilateral medial frontoparietal cortices. Neurology. 2001;57:711-3 pubmed
    ..The stereotyped stepping in this patient offers clinical evidence indicating the presence of a higher locomotion center in medial frontoparietal cortex. ..