asperger syndrome


Summary: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)

Top Publications

  1. Jung N, Janzarik W, Delvendahl I, Munchau A, Biscaldi M, Mainberger F, et al. Impaired induction of long-term potentiation-like plasticity in patients with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LTP)-like plasticity by paired associative stimulation (PAS) in patients with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS)...
  2. Semrud Clikeman M, Walkowiak J, Wilkinson A, Christopher G. Neuropsychological differences among children with Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and controls. Dev Neuropsychol. 2010;35:582-600 pubmed publisher
    Confusion is present as to possible diagnostic differences between Asperger syndrome (AS) and Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) and the relation of these disorders to attentional difficulties...
  3. Mattila M, Hurtig T, Haapsamo H, Jussila K, Kuusikko Gauffin S, Kielinen M, et al. Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: a community- and clinic-based study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:1080-93 pubmed publisher
    The present study identifies the prevalence and types of comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome (AS)/high-functioning autism (HFA) in a combined community- and clinic-based sample of fifty 9- to 16-year-old ..
  4. Marsh L, Hamilton A. Dissociation of mirroring and mentalising systems in autism. Neuroimage. 2011;56:1511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, brain regions associated with mirroring and mentalising functions are differentially affected in autistic spectrum conditions. ..
  5. Sofronoff K, Dark E, Stone V. Social vulnerability and bullying in children with Asperger syndrome. Autism. 2011;15:355-72 pubmed publisher
    Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills...
  6. Pugliese L, Catani M, Ameis S, Dell Acqua F, Thiebaut de Schotten M, Murphy C, et al. The anatomy of extended limbic pathways in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging tractography study. Neuroimage. 2009;47:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..microstructural integrity and age-related differences in the extended limbic pathways between subjects with Asperger syndrome and healthy controls...
  7. Enticott P, Bradshaw J, Iansek R, Tonge B, Rinehart N. Electrophysiological signs of supplementary-motor-area deficits in high-functioning autism but not Asperger syndrome: an examination of internally cued movement-related potentials. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51:787-91 pubmed publisher
    Motor dysfunction is common to both autism and Asperger syndrome, but the underlying neurophysiological impairments are unclear...
  8. Sahyoun C, Soulieres I, Belliveau J, Mottron L, MODY M. Cognitive differences in pictorial reasoning between high-functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39:1014-23 pubmed publisher
    ..HFA participants appeared to favor visuospatial over linguistic mediation. The results support the use of linguistic versus visuospatial tasks for characterizing subtypes on the autism spectrum. ..
  9. Bloemen O, Deeley Q, Sundram F, Daly E, Barker G, Jones D, et al. White matter integrity in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study in adults. Autism Res. 2010;3:203-13 pubmed publisher
    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome and autism, is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder...

More Information


  1. Yu K, Cheung C, Chua S, McAlonan G. Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011;36:412-21 pubmed publisher
    The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention...
  2. Falck Ytter T. Young children with autism spectrum disorder use predictive eye movements in action observation. Biol Lett. 2010;6:375-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Gaze was reactive in the self-propelled condition, suggesting that prediction is linked to seeing a hand-object interaction. This study does not support the view that ASD is characterized by a global dysfunction in the MNS. ..
  3. Cederlund M, Hagberg B, Gillberg C. Asperger syndrome in adolescent and young adult males. Interview, self- and parent assessment of social, emotional, and cognitive problems. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31:287-98 pubmed publisher
    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social ..
  4. O Brien F, Page L, O Gorman R, Bolton P, Sharma A, Baird G, et al. Maturation of limbic regions in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res. 2010;184:77-85 pubmed publisher
    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, including Asperger syndrome) may have developmental abnormalities in the amygdala-hippocampal complex (AHC)...
  5. Chakrabarti B, Dudbridge F, Kent L, Wheelwright S, Hill Cawthorne G, Allison C, et al. Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome. Autism Res. 2009;2:157-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a study of common genetic variation in candidate genes associated with autistic traits and Asperger syndrome (AS)...
  6. Brosnan M, Turner Cobb J, Munro Naan Z, Jessop D. Absence of a normal cortisol awakening response (CAR) in adolescent males with Asperger syndrome (AS). Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:1095-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined whether the CAR was evident in 20 adolescent males with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and 18 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 11-16)...
  7. Lerner M, Mikami A, Levine K. Socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention for adolescents with asperger syndrome & high functioning autism: pilot study. Autism. 2011;15:21-42 pubmed publisher
    ..affective-relational intervention' (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses...
  8. Senju A, Southgate V, White S, Frith U. Mindblind eyes: an absence of spontaneous theory of mind in Asperger syndrome. Science. 2009;325:883-5 pubmed publisher
    Adults with Asperger syndrome can understand mental states such as desires and beliefs (mentalizing) when explicitly prompted to do so, despite having impairments in social communication...
  9. Spek A, Scholte E, Van Berckelaer Onnes I. Theory of mind in adults with HFA and Asperger syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:280-9 pubmed publisher
    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults...
  10. Sintes A, Arranz B, Ramirez N, Rueda I, San L. Asperger syndrome: can the disorder be diagnosed in the adult age?. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2011;39:196-200 pubmed
    b>Asperger Syndrome (AS) is characterized by a qualitative disorder of social interaction, a pattern of restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, interests and activities, with normal intellectual capacity and normal language ..
  11. Hurtig T, Kuusikko S, Mattila M, Haapsamo H, Ebeling H, Jussila K, et al. Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism. Autism. 2009;13:583-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-..
  12. Barttfeld P, Wicker B, Cukier S, Navarta S, Lew S, Sigman M. A big-world network in ASD: dynamical connectivity analysis reflects a deficit in long-range connections and an excess of short-range connections. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results show that delta-band coherence reveal qualitative and quantitative aspects associated with ASD pathology. ..
  13. Spek A, Scholte E, Van Berckelaer Onnes I. Local information processing in adults with high functioning autism and asperger syndrome: the usefulness of neuropsychological tests and self-reports. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011;41:859-69 pubmed publisher
    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined...
  14. Kleinhans N, Richards T, Weaver K, Liang O, Dawson G, Aylward E. Brief report: biochemical correlates of clinical impairment in high functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that altered metabolite levels in the amygdala may be associated with a more severe early developmental course in ASD. ..
  15. Beacher F, Radulescu E, Minati L, Baron Cohen S, Lombardo M, Lai M, et al. Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38355 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS), and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during ..
  16. Griffith G, Totsika V, Nash S, Hastings R. 'I just don't fit anywhere': support experiences and future support needs of individuals with Asperger syndrome in middle adulthood. Autism. 2012;16:532-46 pubmed publisher
    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services...
  17. Girgis R, Slifstein M, Xu X, Frankle W, Anagnostou E, Wasserman S, et al. The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB. Psychiatry Res. 2011;194:230-234 pubmed publisher
    ..This study failed to find significant alterations in binding parameters of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters in adult subjects with Asperger's disorder. ..
  18. McAlonan G, Cheung C, Cheung V, Wong N, Suckling J, Chua S. Differential effects on white-matter systems in high-functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psychol Med. 2009;39:1885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..History of language acquisition is a potentially valuable marker to refine our search for causes and treatments in autism spectrum. ..
  19. Elwin M, Ek L, Schröder A, Kjellin L. Autobiographical accounts of sensing in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2012;26:420-9 pubmed publisher
    Sensory experiences in Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) were explored by qualitative content analysis of autobiographical texts by persons with AS/HFA...
  20. Lugnegård T, Hallerbäck M, Gillberg C. Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:1910-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome...
  21. Mattila M, Kielinen M, Linna S, Jussila K, Ebeling H, Bloigu R, et al. Autism spectrum disorders according to DSM-IV-TR and comparison with DSM-5 draft criteria: an epidemiological study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50:583-592.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..DSM-IV-TR helps with the definition of ASDs only up to a point. We suggest modifications to five details of DSM-5 draft criteria posted by the APA in February 2010. Completing revision of DSM criteria for ASDs is a challenging task. ..
  22. Schwarz E, Guest P, Rahmoune H, Wang L, Levin Y, Ingudomnukul E, et al. Sex-specific serum biomarker patterns in adults with Asperger's syndrome. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:1213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that to understand the etiology and development of autism spectrum conditions, stratification by sex is essential. ..
  23. Markoulakis R, Scharoun S, Bryden P, Fletcher P. An examination of handedness and footedness in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:2192-201 pubmed
    Motor control deficits have been documented in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), but the extent to which these disorders affect the children's footedness must be delineated...
  24. Lugnegård T, Unenge Hallerbäck M, Hjärthag F, Gillberg C. Social cognition impairments in Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2013;143:277-84 pubmed publisher
    Social cognition impairments are well described in both autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome (AS), and in schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
  25. Lazar A, Lázár Z, Bíró A, Gyori M, Tarnok Z, Prekop C, et al. Reduced fronto-cortical brain connectivity during NREM sleep in Asperger syndrome: an EEG spectral and phase coherence study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121:1844-54 pubmed publisher
    ..whether sleep macrostructure and EEG power spectral density and coherence during NREM sleep are different in Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to typically developing children and adolescents...
  26. Tantam D, Girgis S. Recognition and treatment of Asperger syndrome in the community. Br Med Bull. 2009;89:41-62 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a general agreement that Asperger syndrome (AS) is one of the autistic spectrum disorders, that it is a developmental disorder which is either present ..
  27. Szatmari P, Bryson S, Duku E, Vaccarella L, Zwaigenbaum L, Bennett T, et al. Similar developmental trajectories in autism and Asperger syndrome: from early childhood to adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS)...
  28. Ghaziuddin M. Should the DSM V drop Asperger syndrome?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:1146-8 pubmed publisher
    The DSM IV defines Asperger syndrome (AS) as a pervasive developmental (autistic spectrum) disorder characterized by social deficits and rigid focused interests in the absence of language impairment and cognitive delay...
  29. Lepistö T, Kuitunen A, Sussman E, Saalasti S, Jansson Verkasalo E, Nieminen von Wendt T, et al. Auditory stream segregation in children with Asperger syndrome. Biol Psychol. 2009;82:301-7 pubmed publisher
    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) often have difficulties in perceiving speech in noisy environments...
  30. Bonnel A, McAdams S, Smith B, Berthiaume C, Bertone A, Ciocca V, et al. Enhanced pure-tone pitch discrimination among persons with autism but not Asperger syndrome. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:2465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The participants were adolescents and young adults with autism, Asperger syndrome, and typical developmental histories, all with IQs in the normal range...
  31. Aoki Y, Kasai K, Yamasue H. Age-related change in brain metabolite abnormalities in autism: a meta-analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e69 pubmed publisher
  32. Lind S, Bowler D. Recognition memory, self-other source memory, and theory-of-mind in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39:1231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the ASD group, ToM task performance was not significantly correlated with source memory (after controlling for verbal ability). Possible explanations for these relations between source memory and ToM are considered. ..
  33. Ruta L, Mugno D, D Arrigo V, Vitiello B, Mazzone L. Obsessive-compulsive traits in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..occurrence and characteristic features of obsessive-compulsive behaviours in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS), with respect to a matched obsessive compulsive disorder group (OCD) and a typically developing control ..
  34. Parellada M, Moreno C, Mac Dowell K, Leza J, Giráldez M, Bailón C, et al. Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, there has been no study focusing on oxidative metabolism specifically in Asperger syndrome (a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders...
  35. Soulieres I, Dawson M, Gernsbacher M, Mottron L. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25372 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive ..
  36. David N, R Schneider T, Vogeley K, Engel A. Impairments in multisensory processing are not universal to the autism spectrum: no evidence for crossmodal priming deficits in Asperger syndrome. Autism Res. 2011;4:383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifteen adult individuals with Asperger syndrome and 15 control persons participated in a visual-audio priming task, which required the classification of ..
  37. Petrides K, Hudry K, Michalaria G, Swami V, Sevdalis N. A comparison of the trait emotional intelligence profiles of individuals with and without Asperger syndrome. Autism. 2011;15:671-82 pubmed publisher
    The extent to which the socioemotional impairments of Asperger syndrome (AS) might be extreme manifestations of individual differences within the general population remains under-explored...
  38. Tanweer T, Rathbone C, Souchay C. Autobiographical memory, autonoetic consciousness, and identity in Asperger syndrome. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:900-8 pubmed publisher
    Previous results from research on individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) suggest a diminished ability for recalling episodic autobiographical memory (AM)...
  39. Kamp Becker I, Smidt J, Ghahreman M, Heinzel Gutenbrunner M, Becker K, Remschmidt H. Categorical and dimensional structure of autism spectrum disorders: the nosologic validity of Asperger Syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:921-9 pubmed publisher
    There is an ongoing debate whether a differentiation of autistic subtypes, especially between Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning-autism (HFA) is possible and if so, whether it is a categorical or dimensional one...
  40. Schwarz E, Guest P, Rahmoune H, Harris L, Wang L, Leweke F, et al. Identification of a biological signature for schizophrenia in serum. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:494-502 pubmed publisher
    ..250 first and recent onset SCZ, 35 major depressive disorder (MDD), 32 euthymic bipolar disorder (BPD), 45 Asperger syndrome and 280 control subjects...
  41. Semrud Clikeman M, Walkowiak J, Wilkinson A, Butcher B. Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:1017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF...
  42. Zalla T, Daprati E, Sav A, Chaste P, Nico D, Leboyer M. Memory for self-performed actions in individuals with Asperger syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13370 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS)...
  43. Cleland J, Gibbon F, Peppé S, O Hare A, Rutherford M. Phonetic and phonological errors in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Int J Speech Lang Pathol. 2010;12:69-76 pubmed
    ..Participants were 69 children aged 5-13 years; 30 had high functioning autism and 39 had Asperger syndrome. On a standardized test of articulation, the minority (12%) of participants presented with standard scores ..
  44. Haglund N, Källén K. Risk factors for autism and Asperger syndrome. Perinatal factors and migration. Autism. 2011;15:163-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Birth Registry (MBR), obstetrical and demographic information was retrieved for 250 children with autism or Asperger syndrome who were born in Malmoe, Sweden, and enrolled at the local Child and Youth Habilitation Center...
  45. Magalhães E, Pinto Mariz F, Bastos Pinto S, Pontes A, Prado E, deAzevedo L. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;216:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that atopy is frequent in this subgroup of autism implying that allergic inflammation might be an important feature in Asperger syndrome.
  46. Murphy C, Deeley Q, Daly E, Ecker C, O Brien F, Hallahan B, et al. Anatomy and aging of the amygdala and hippocampus in autism spectrum disorder: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study of Asperger syndrome. Autism Res. 2012;5:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared, using magnetic resonance imaging, the in vivo anatomy of the AH in 32 healthy individuals with Asperger syndrome (12-47 years) and 32 healthy controls who did not differ significantly in age or IQ...
  47. Stichter J, Herzog M, Visovsky K, Schmidt C, Randolph J, Schultz T, et al. Social competence intervention for youth with Asperger Syndrome and high-functioning autism: an initial investigation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:1067-79 pubmed publisher
    Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills...
  48. Wild K, Poliakoff E, Jerrison A, Gowen E. Goal-directed and goal-less imitation in autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:1739-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results increase the evidence for impaired goal-less imitation in ASD, and suggest that there is a reliance on goal-directed strategies for imitation in ASD, even in the absence of visual goals. ..
  49. Paula Pérez I, Martos Perez J, Llorente Comí M. [Alexithymia and Asperger syndrome]. Rev Neurol. 2010;50 Suppl 3:S85-90 pubmed
    ..of bodily sensations that accompany them, are a common denominator of the construct of alexithymia and Asperger syndrome (AS). The study evaluates the levels of alexithymia in nine adult male subjects with AS...
  50. Peterson C, Wellman H, Slaughter V. The mind behind the message: advancing theory-of-mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome. Child Dev. 2012;83:469-85 pubmed publisher
    Children aged 3-12 years (n = 184) with typical development, deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence...
  51. Gold R, Faust M, Goldstein A. Semantic integration during metaphor comprehension in Asperger syndrome. Brain Lang. 2010;113:124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this aspect of language comprehension in Asperger syndrome (AS) specifically has rarely been the subject of formal study...
  52. Yoran Hegesh R, Kertzman S, Vishne T, Weizman A, Kotler M. Neuropsychological mechanisms of Digit Symbol Substitution Test impairment in Asperger Disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2009;166:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Future neuroimaging studies are needed to clarify the neural network involved in the differences in cognitive performance between AD subjects and normal controls. ..
  53. Williams D, Happe F. What did I say? Versus what did I think? Attributing false beliefs to self amongst children with and without autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39:865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals with autism may have greater difficulty representing their own beliefs than the beliefs of other people. ..