pervasive child development disorders


Summary: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.

Top Publications

  1. Pinto D, Pagnamenta A, Klei L, Anney R, Merico D, Regan R, et al. Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders. Nature. 2010;466:368-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways. ..
  2. García Nonell C, Ratera E, Harris S, Hessl D, Ono M, Tartaglia N, et al. Secondary medical diagnosis in fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:1911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Medical problems that affect the CNS are more likely to occur in those with FXS + ASD and it is probable that additional brain dysfunction associated with these medical problems enhance the risk of autism in those with FXS. ..
  3. Williams E, Thomas K, Sidebotham H, Emond A. Prevalence and characteristics of autistic spectrum disorders in the ALSPAC cohort. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008;50:672-7 pubmed publisher
    ..7%, epilepsy in 10.3%, and mixed developmental disorder in 4.4%. We conclude that the prevalence of ASD diagnosed at 11 years in a UK representative population-based sample is at least 51.1/10,000. ..
  4. Durkin M, Maenner M, Newschaffer C, Lee L, Cunniff C, Daniels J, et al. Advanced parental age and the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:1268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..1, 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 4.7). The increase in autism risk with both maternal and paternal age has potential implications for public health planning and investigations of autism etiology. ..
  5. Nijmeijer J, Hoekstra P, Minderaa R, Buitelaar J, Altink M, Buschgens C, et al. PDD symptoms in ADHD, an independent familial trait?. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2009;37:443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirm that children with ADHD have high levels of PDD symptoms, and further suggest that the familiality of subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD is largely independent from ADHD familiality. ..
  6. Jonsson L, Ljunggren E, Bremer A, Pedersen C, Landen M, Thuresson K, et al. Mutation screening of melatonin-related genes in patients with autism spectrum disorders. BMC Med Genomics. 2010;3:10 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further studies of the novel variants identified in this study are warranted to shed light on their potential role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. ..
  7. Goldstein S, Schwebach A. The comorbidity of Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: results of a retrospective chart review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34:329-39 pubmed
    ..If further findings are replicated, the current exclusionary DSM-IV-TR criteria of making such a comorbid diagnosis should be re-considered. ..
  8. Turner L, Stone W. Variability in outcome for children with an ASD diagnosis at age 2. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48:793-802 pubmed
    ..The stability of ASD was lower in the present study than has been reported previously, a finding largely attributable to children who were diagnosed at 30 months or younger. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. ..
  9. Charman T, Baird G, Simonoff E, Loucas T, Chandler S, Meldrum D, et al. Efficacy of three screening instruments in the identification of autistic-spectrum disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:554-9 pubmed
    ..The SCQ, SRS and CCC showed strong to moderate ability to identify autistic-spectrum disorder in this at-risk sample of school-age children with special educational needs. ..

More Information


  1. Koyama T, Miyake Y, Kurita H. Parental ages at birth of children with pervasive developmental disorders are higher than those of children in the general population. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;61:200-2 pubmed
    ..2/33.6 in the national statistics in 2003. This first Japanese study to report elevated parental ages at birth of PDD children underscores the need of further extensive studies. ..
  2. Ooi Y, Lam C, Sung M, Tan W, Goh T, Fung D, et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on anxiety for children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:215-20 pubmed
    ..Interpretation of the findings, recommendations for future research and implications of the present study are presented. ..
  3. Edwards H, Done A. Caring for Sophie. A child with pervasive refusal syndrome. Paediatr Nurs. 2004;16:39-42 pubmed
  4. Gadow K, DeVincent C, Pomeroy J, Azizian A. Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34:379-93 pubmed
    ..The concept of comorbidity warrants further exploration, as does informant-specific syndromes as validators of diagnostic constructs. ..
  5. Hartman C, Luteijn E, Serra M, Minderaa R. Refinement of the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ): an instrument that describes the diverse problems seen in milder forms of PDD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36:325-42 pubmed
    ..Estimates for internal, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability, and for convergent and divergent validity were good. Different clinical and control groups showed the hypothesized patterns in nature and degree of their problems. ..
  6. Fombonne E. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66 Suppl 10:3-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, data from many of these surveys indicate correlates of autistic disorder and other PDDs with IQ, gender, and other medical disorders. ..
  7. Kaufmann W, Cortell R, Kau A, Bukelis I, Tierney E, Gray R, et al. Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;129A:225-34 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the diagnosis of ASD in FraX reflects, to a large extent, an impairment in social interaction that is expressed with variable severity in young males with FraX. ..
  8. Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children: confirmation of high prevalence. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1133-41 pubmed
    ..The rate in this study is comparable to that in previous birth cohorts from the same area and surveyed with the same methods, suggesting a stable incidence. ..
  9. Constantino J, Todd R. Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:655-60 pubmed
    ..As has been previously demonstrated in children, heritable subthreshold autistic impairments are measurable in adults and appear continuously distributed in the general population. ..
  10. Parker S, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering L. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004;114:793-804 pubmed
    ..Evidence does not support a change in the standard of practice with regard to administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines in areas of the world where they are used. ..
  11. Yoshida Y, Uchiyama T. The clinical necessity for assessing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) symptoms in children with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;13:307-14 pubmed
    ..We conclude not only that AD/HD symptoms occur frequently in children with PDD, but also that in some cases a dual diagnosis is essential to the implementation of effective treatment. ..
  12. Mulder E, Anderson G, Kema I, de Bildt A, van Lang N, den Boer J, et al. Platelet serotonin levels in pervasive developmental disorders and mental retardation: diagnostic group differences, within-group distribution, and behavioral correlates. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:491-9 pubmed
    ..Platelet 5-HT levels were also increased in PDD-NOS, while no elevation was seen in MR. Platelet 5-HT levels appeared to be bimodally distributed in the PDD group, with an apparent hyperserotonemic subgroup. ..
  13. Magnée M, de Gelder B, van Engeland H, Kemner C. Audiovisual speech integration in pervasive developmental disorder: evidence from event-related potentials. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49:995-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination may very well contribute to the communicative disabilities which are typical for the disorder. ..
  14. Dossetor D. 'All that glitters is not gold': misdiagnosis of psychosis in pervasive developmental disorders--a case series. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;12:537-48 pubmed
    ..It is evident that more needs to be done to improve diagnostic reliability of psychosis in PDD, by improving clinical awareness and research tools. ..
  15. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:613-27 pubmed
  16. Wassink T, Losh M, Piven J, Sheffield V, Ashley E, Westin E, et al. Systematic screening for subtelomeric anomalies in a clinical sample of autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:703-8 pubmed
    ..2 in subgroups of our sample. We conclude that while karyotyping may be more broadly indicated for autism than previously supposed, subtelomere FISH appears less likely to be a useful screening tool for unselected PDD populations. ..
  17. Glasson E, Bower C, Petterson B, de Klerk N, Chaney G, Hallmayer J. Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:618-27 pubmed
    ..The increased prevalence of obstetric complications among autism cases is most likely due to the underlying genetic factors or an interaction of these factors with the environment. ..
  18. Fombonne E, Zakarian R, Bennett A, Meng L, McLean Heywood D. Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e139-50 pubmed
  19. Lauritsen M, Pedersen C, Mortensen P. Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: a nationwide register-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:963-71 pubmed
    ..The highest risk of autism was found in families with a history of autism, or Asperger's syndrome and other PDDs in siblings, supporting the commonly accepted knowledge that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of autism. ..
  20. de Bildt A, Sytema S, Kraijer D, Minderaa R. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with mental retardation. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:275-86 pubmed
    ..The height of the prevalence should alert professionals that PDD is widespread in the population with MR. ..
  21. Croen L, Najjar D, Fireman B, Grether J. Maternal and paternal age and risk of autism spectrum disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:334-40 pubmed
    ..99-1.55). Associations with parental age were somewhat stronger for girls than for boys, although sex differences were not statistically significant. Advanced maternal and paternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk. ..
  22. Williams White S, Keonig K, Scahill L. Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review of the intervention research. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:1858-68 pubmed
    ..Based on this review, the empirical support for this approach is incomplete, but promising intervention strategies were identified. Recommendations for the design of future treatment trials to guide clinical practice are offered. ..
  23. de Bruin E, de Nijs P, Verheij F, Hartman C, Ferdinand R. Multiple complex developmental disorder delineated from PDD-NOS. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:1181-91 pubmed
    ..MCDD was associated with anxiety disorders, disruptive behavior, and psychotic thought problems. PDD-NOS was associated with deficits in social contact. MCDD differs from autistic disorder, and can also be delineated from PDD-NOS. ..
  24. Jacquemont M, Sanlaville D, Redon R, Raoul O, Cormier Daire V, Lyonnet S, et al. Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation identifies high frequency of cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in patients with syndromic autism spectrum disorders. J Med Genet. 2006;43:843-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the detailed molecular analysis of the rearranged regions may pave the way for the identification of new ASD genes. ..
  25. Nishiyama T, Notohara M, Sumi S, Takami S, Kishino H. Major contribution of dominant inheritance to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in population-based families. J Hum Genet. 2009;54:721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that the largest proportion of ASD cases is caused by dominant inheritance. We additionally show that Supplementary information regarding prevalence has a crucial role in analyzing proband-ascertained data. ..
  26. Bauminger N, Solomon M, Rogers S. Externalizing and internalizing behaviors in ASD. Autism Res. 2010;3:101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are discussed in light of the two groups' similar relationships between parenting stress and child psychopathology. ..
  27. Phelan S, Steinke L, Mandich A. Exploring a cognitive intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. Can J Occup Ther. 2009;76:23-8 pubmed
    ..Self-report and observer report together provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of the CO-OP approach with children who have PDD supporting the use of CO-OP and suggesting further investigation. ..
  28. Kan C, Buitelaar J, van der Gaag R. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152:1365-9 pubmed
  29. Mouridsen S, Hauschild K. A longitudinal study of autism spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children. Child Care Health Dev. 2009;35:691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0001; odds ratio = 25.5; 95% confidence interval 5.5-116.9). Our results provide additional support to the notion that DLD is a marker of increased vulnerability to the development of ASD. ..
  30. Gomarus H, Wijers A, Minderaa R, Althaus M. ERP correlates of selective attention and working memory capacities in children with ADHD and/or PDD-NOS. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:60-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that a possible differentiation in selectivity and working memory capacities between PDD-NOS and ADHD is hard to find. This may agree with clinical practice, where differential diagnosis is a subject of discussion. ..
  31. Raff M. New routes into the human brain. Cell. 2009;139:1209-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the territory I would explore if I were starting my research career today. ..
  32. Drake J, Redash A, Coleman K, Haimson J, Winner E. 'Autistic' local processing bias also found in children gifted in realistic drawing. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:762-73 pubmed publisher
  33. Michel T, Sheldrick A, Frentzel T, Herpertz Dahlmann B, Herpertz S, Habel U, et al. [Evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic services in German university hospitals for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010;78:402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common differential diagnosis for patients presenting at the clinics were personality disorders and depression. ..
  34. Whitehouse A, Watt H, Line E, Bishop D. Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2009;44:511-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Childhood diagnosis showed some relation to adult psychosocial outcome. However, within-group variation highlights the importance of evaluating children on a case-by-case basis. ..
  35. Reaven J. Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and co-occurring anxiety symptoms: implications for assessment and treatment. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2009;14:192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Modifications necessary to make cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols accessible to children with ASD are presented, along with specific suggestions for evaluating and treating anxiety symptoms. ..
  36. Zandt F, Prior M, Kyrios M. Similarities and differences between children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and those with obsessive compulsive disorder: executive functioning and repetitive behaviour. Autism. 2009;13:43-57 pubmed publisher
    ..There was some limited support for a relationship between EF and repetitive behaviour, but effects tended to be small and variable across groups and measures. ..
  37. Matson J, Mahan S, Kozlowski A, Shoemaker M. Developmental milestones in toddlers with autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified and atypical development. Dev Neurorehabil. 2010;13:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..With basic human motor behaviours also appearing to follow that trend, motor and speech skills should be targeted in early intervention programmes. ..
  38. Oeseburg B, Groothoff J, Dijkstra G, Reijneveld S, Jansen D. Pervasive developmental disorder behavior in adolescents with intellectual disability and co-occurring somatic chronic diseases. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31:496-501 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to strengthen our results about the relationship between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and PDD behavior studies are needed using both the CSBQ and standardized diagnostic instruments. ..
  39. Kamp Becker I, Smidt J, Ghahreman M, Heinzel Gutenbrunner M, Becker K, Remschmidt H. Categorical and dimensional structure of autism spectrum disorders: the nosologic validity of Asperger Syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:921-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, it provides evidence that e.g. AS and autism are not qualitatively distinct disorders, but rather different quantitative manifestations of the same disorder. ..
  40. Fan X, Miles J, Takahashi N, Yao G. Abnormal transient pupillary light reflex in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39:1499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..It is anticipated that as potential biomarkers, these pupillary light reflex measurements will advance our understanding of neurodevelopmental differences in the autism brain. ..
  41. Sizoo B, van den Brink W, Franke B, Vasquez A, van Wijngaarden Cremers P, van der Gaag R. Do candidate genes discriminate patients with an autism spectrum disorder from those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and is there an effect of lifetime substance use disorders?. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:699-708 pubmed publisher
    ..The results were independent of lifetime SUD status. Serotonergic genes could prove to play an important role in differentiating between ASD and ADHD, but the results of this exploratory study need replication. ..
  42. Charles J, Carpenter L, Jenner W, Nicholas J. Recent advances in autism spectrum disorders. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2008;38:133-40 pubmed
    ..Current and anticipated federal funding, policy changes, and large scale research projects provide promise for increasing knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorders. ..
  43. Watson L, Baranek G, Roberts J, David F, Perryman T. Behavioral and physiological responses to child-directed speech as predictors of communication outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2010;53:1052-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying variable responses to CDS among children with ASD. ..
  44. Lam S, Wong B, Leung D, Ho D, Au Yeung P. How parents perceive and feel about participation in community activities. The comparison between parents of preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism. 2010;14:359-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern of association was not evident among the parents of preschoolers without ASD. ..
  45. Kliemann D, Dziobek I, Hatri A, Steimke R, Heekeren H. Atypical reflexive gaze patterns on emotional faces in autism spectrum disorders. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thereby give important insights into the social pathology of ASD, with implications for future research and interventions. ..
  46. Qiu A, Adler M, Crocetti D, Miller M, Mostofsky S. Basal ganglia shapes predict social, communication, and motor dysfunctions in boys with autism spectrum disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:539-51, 551.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest abnormalities within parallel frontal-subcortical circuits are differentially associated with impaired acquisition of motor and reciprocal social and communicative skills in ASD. ..
  47. Farr W, Yuill N, Raffle H. Social benefits of a tangible user interface for children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions. Autism. 2010;14:237-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observed differences in play sequences between TD and ASC children, and discuss how different play materials might produce specific patterns of play in these two groups. ..
  48. Noland J, Steven Reznick J, Stone W, Walden T, Sheridan E. Better working memory for non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Dev Sci. 2010;13:244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This early emerging strength is discussed as a developmental pathway that may have implications for social attention and learning in children at risk for ASD. ..
  49. Sung M, Fung D, Cai Y, Ooi Y. Pharmacological management in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010;44:410-28 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a paucity of systemic, well-conducted trials on the use of pharmacological agents in the management of PDD, and more research in this area is warranted. ..
  50. Freeth M, Chapman P, Ropar D, Mitchell P. Do gaze cues in complex scenes capture and direct the attention of high functioning adolescents with ASD? Evidence from eye-tracking. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:534-47 pubmed publisher
  51. Oosterling I, Wensing M, Swinkels S, van der Gaag R, Visser J, Woudenberg T, et al. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51:250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The integrated early detection programme appears to be clinically relevant and led to the earlier detection of ASD, mainly in children with a low IQ. ..
  52. Wang L, Angley M, Gerber J, Young R, Abarno D, McKinnon R, et al. Is urinary indolyl-3-acryloylglycine a biomarker for autism with gastrointestinal symptoms?. Biomarkers. 2009;14:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary IAG, however, was not statistically significantly higher in children with ASD, compared with siblings or unrelated controls without ASD. ..
  53. Bostrom P, Broberg M, Hwang C. Different, difficult or distinct? Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of temperament in children with and without intellectual disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2010;54:806-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite great variability in temperament among children with mixed ID/DD, results indicated common temperamental characteristics among children with ASD, ID/DD and other diagnosis. ..