motor skills disorders


Summary: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)

Top Publications

  1. Lingam R, Jongmans M, Ellis M, Hunt L, Golding J, Emond A. Mental health difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention and treatment of mental health difficulties should be a key element of intervention for children with DCD. ..
  2. Bair W, Barela J, Whitall J, Jeka J, Clark J. Children with developmental coordination disorder benefit from using vision in combination with touch information for quiet standing. Gait Posture. 2011;34:183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Internal model deficits, combined with other known deficits such as postural muscles activation timing deficits, may exacerbate the balance impairment in children with DCD. ..
  3. Rivilis I, Hay J, Cairney J, Klentrou P, Liu J, Faught B. Physical activity and fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:894-910 pubmed publisher
    ..However, differences in flexibility were not conclusive as the results on this parameter are mixed. Studies' limitations and the impact of results on future work are discussed. ..
  4. Cherng R, Hsu Y, Chen Y, Chen J. Standing balance of children with developmental coordination disorder under altered sensory conditions. Hum Mov Sci. 2007;26:913-26 pubmed
  5. Wilson B, Crawford S, Green D, Roberts G, Aylott A, Kaplan B. Psychometric properties of the revised Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2009;29:182-202 pubmed publisher
    ..55) and Test of Visual-Motor Integration (r = .42) scores support concurrent validity. The results provide evidence that the revised DCDQ is a valid clinical screening tool for DCD. ..
  6. Smits Engelsman B, Niemeijer A, Van Waelvelde H. Is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition a reliable instrument to measure motor performance in 3 year old children?. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:1370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..76. In conclusion, the revised test can be applied to assess motor performance in typically developing 3-year old children. Future studies are needed to confirm if the same can be said for children with motor delays. ..
  7. Missiuna C, Moll S, Law M, King S, King G. Mysteries and mazes: parents' experiences of children with developmental coordination disorder. Can J Occup Ther. 2006;73:7-17 pubmed
    ..For occupational therapists, the study findings illustrate the importance of focusing on occupational performance issues for children with DCD, facilitating the understanding of parents, and the need for early intervention. ..
  8. Zwicker J, Missiuna C, Harris S, Boyd L. Brain activation of children with developmental coordination disorder is different than peers. Pediatrics. 2010;126:e678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the small sample size, our results contribute to a growing body of literature suggesting that children with DCD exhibit differences in neural networks and patterns of brain activation relative to same-age peers. ..
  9. Ho A, Wilmut K. Speech and oro-motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot study. Hum Mov Sci. 2010;29:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that children with DCD demonstrate inferior motor control for complex speech gestures, suggesting that the motor deficit in DCD may indeed be a more generalized phenomenon affecting the speech motor system. ..

More Information


  1. Tseng M, Fu C, Wilson B, Hu F. Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire in community-based children. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This adaptation of the DCDQ could be used for identifying motor coordination problems in Chinese-speaking societies. ..
  2. Tsai C. The effectiveness of exercise intervention on inhibitory control in children with developmental coordination disorder: using a visuospatial attention paradigm as a model. Res Dev Disabil. 2009;30:1268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, future research efforts should continue to clarify whether the performance gains could be maintained over time. ..
  3. Lingam R, Hunt L, Golding J, Jongmans M, Emond A. Prevalence of developmental coordination disorder using the DSM-IV at 7 years of age: a UK population-based study. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..A prevalence of 1.7% is lower than studies that have not taken into account the impact of poor motor coordination on daily living but indicates that poor coordination is an important, and often hidden, cause of disability in childhood. ..
  4. Missiuna C, Gaines R, Soucie H. Why every office needs a tennis ball: a new approach to assessing the clumsy child. CMAJ. 2006;175:471-3 pubmed
  5. Smits Engelsman B, Westenberg Y, Duysens J. Children with developmental coordination disorder are equally able to generate force but show more variability than typically developing children. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27:296-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Since younger DCD children are much more affected than older ones it is suggested that these children are able to learn a strategy to cope with their increased stochastic variability, especially at higher force levels. ..
  6. Deconinck F, De Clercq D, Van Coster R, Ooostra A, Dewitte G, Savelsbergh G, et al. Sensory contributions to balance in boys with developmental coordination disorder. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2008;25:17-35 pubmed
  7. Tseng M, Howe T, Chuang I, Hsieh C. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder. Int J Rehabil Res. 2007;30:327-32 pubmed
    ..The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral. ..
  8. Poulsen A, Ziviani J, Cuskelly M. Perceived freedom in leisure and physical co-ordination ability: impact on out-of-school activity participation and life satisfaction. Child Care Health Dev. 2007;33:432-40 pubmed
    ..The implications for effective intervention and preventive health programmes are discussed. ..
  9. Schott N, Alof V, Hultsch D, Meermann D. Physical fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2007;78:438-50 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the differences in fitness increased with age between children in the DCD groups versus the typically developing groups. ..
  10. Whitall J, Chang T, Horn C, Jung Potter J, McMenamin S, Wilms Floet A, et al. Auditory-motor coupling of bilateral finger tapping in children with and without DCD compared to adults. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27:914-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Three children with DCD were more variable only at higher frequencies and two performed like typically developing children. ..
  11. Cairney J, Hay J, Veldhuizen S, Missiuna C, Faught B. Comparing probable case identification of developmental coordination disorder using the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Movement ABC. Child Care Health Dev. 2009;35:402-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the short form when used for this purpose. ..
  12. Kirby A, Davies R. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Joint Hypermobility Syndrome--overlapping disorders? Implications for research and clinical practice. Child Care Health Dev. 2007;33:513-9 pubmed
    ..Children with DCD and JHS may require appropriate podiatry as well as recognition of their symptoms of pain and how this may affect participation in physical activity. ..
  13. Utley A, Astill S. Developmental sequences of two-handed catching: how do children with and without developmental coordination disorder differ?. Physiother Theory Pract. 2007;23:65-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, over trials children with DCD link together different action patterns of the arm, hand, and body, suggesting that they have not yet developed a stable pattern of coordination to satisfy the task constraints. ..
  14. Niemeijer A, Smits Engelsman B, Schoemaker M. Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: a controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:406-11 pubmed
    ..In older children with poorer motor patterns, NTT's treatment success was higher. The Child Behavior Checklist subscales withdrawn, thought problems, anxious/depressed, and delinquency were determinants of effects on motor patterns. ..
  15. Kashiwagi M, Iwaki S, Narumi Y, Tamai H, Suzuki S. Parietal dysfunction in developmental coordination disorder: a functional MRI study. Neuroreport. 2009;20:1319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the dysfunction of these regions may be the neural underpinnings of impaired motor skill in DCD children. ..
  16. Hillier S, McIntyre A, Plummer L. Aquatic physical therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2010;30:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..058). Participation levels, as measured by a parent questionnaire, showed improvement for both groups. Potential facilitators and barriers to implementation of an aquatic therapy for children with DCD are discussed. ..
  17. Grove C, Lazarus J. Impaired re-weighting of sensory feedback for maintenance of postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2007;26:457-76 pubmed
  18. Schneider J, Decamp E, Koser A, Fritz S, Gonczi H, Syversen T, et al. Effects of chronic manganese exposure on cognitive and motor functioning in non-human primates. Brain Res. 2006;1118:222-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that chronic exposure to levels of manganese achieved in this study may have detrimental effects on behavior, cognition and motor functioning...
  19. van Vliet P, Wulf G. Extrinsic feedback for motor learning after stroke: what is the evidence?. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:831-40 pubmed
    ..Although there are some indications that feedback might enhance motor learning after stroke, there are many areas as yet not examined and there is clearly a need for considerable research in this area. ..
  20. Snider L, Majnemer A, Mazer B, Campbell S, Bos A. Prediction of motor and functional outcomes in infants born preterm assessed at term. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2009;21:2-11 pubmed publisher
    ..93). Delays in functional performance were found. Neonatal tests at term explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in gross motor and daily living skills at 12 months adjusted age. ..
  21. Friedman S, Chen C, Chapman J, Jeruss S, Terrin N, Tighiouart H, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors followed in a multidisciplinary clinic at ages 1 and 3. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Duration of neonatal ventilatory support was a significant predictor of motor problems at age 1. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. ..
  22. Cantell M, Crawford S, Tish Doyle Baker P. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27:344-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, health-related fitness measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and bone mineral density are also recommended. ..
  23. Wang T, Tseng M, Wilson B, Hu F. Functional performance of children with developmental coordination disorder at home and at school. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51:817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The findings show the pervasive impact of DCD on children's functional performance in daily activities at home and at school. ..
  24. Peersman W, Carton W, Cambier D, De Maeseneer J, Van Waelvelde H. Psychometric properties of a motor skill checklist for 3- to 5-year-old children. Child Care Health Dev. 2012;38:350-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most teachers judged the MSC as easy or rather easy to complete. The MSC is a reliable, valid and useful instrument to identify and assess young children with motor difficulties. ..
  25. Picchietti D, Arbuckle R, Abetz L, Durmer J, Ivanenko A, Owens J, et al. Pediatric restless legs syndrome: analysis of symptom descriptions and drawings. J Child Neurol. 2011;26:1365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Drawings provided useful diagnostic information. These detailed empirical data will be useful in clinical practice, as well as in the development of formal diagnostic tools and severity measures...
  26. Chen F, Tsai C, Stoffregen T, Chang C, Wade M. Postural adaptations to a suprapostural memory task among children with and without developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:155-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the postural responses of children with DCD differ from those of typically developing children while engaging in a memory task with various levels of difficulty. ..
  27. Chen F, Wu S. Perceived hole size, performance, and body movement during putting in children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder. Motor Control. 2013;17:382-98 pubmed
    ..These findings help characterize the relationships between perception, performance, and action in children with probable DCD and TDC during golf putting. ..
  28. Wuang Y, Su J, Su C. Reliability and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition Test in children with developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The MABC-2 Test is a reliable and valid measure to assess motor competence in children with DCD. The MID and MDC scores provide the reference point for clinical decision-making in managing the individual child. ..
  29. Shimada K, Motoi Y, Ishiguro K, Kambe T, Matsumoto S, Itaya M, et al. Long-term oral lithium treatment attenuates motor disturbance in tauopathy model mice: implications of autophagy promotion. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggested that oral long-term lithium treatment could attenuate p-tau-induced motor disturbance not only by inhibiting GSK-3 but also by enhancing autophagy in tauopathy model mice. ..
  30. Martin W, Jelsma J, Rogers C. Motor proficiency and dynamic visual acuity in children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:1520-5 pubmed publisher
  31. Mazzone E, Vasco G, Palermo C, Bianco F, Galluccio C, Ricotti V, et al. A critical review of functional assessment tools for upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Each scale provides useful information but none reflects all the different levels of functional ability in activities of daily living observed in individuals with DMD at different ages. ..
  32. Faebo Larsen R, Hvas Mortensen L, Martinussen T, Nybo Andersen A. Determinants of developmental coordination disorder in 7-year-old children: a study of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55:1016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..07-1.91]). Young maternal age and smoking were risk factors among term-born children. The risk of DCD increases with decreasing gestational age. Intrauterine growth restriction is also a strong risk factor, as well as delayed walking. ..
  33. Earls M. The importance of routine screening for strengths and risks in primary care of children and adolescents. N C Med J. 2013;74:60-5 pubmed
    ..PCC's, by implementing routine screening and surveillance, have the opportunity at every encounter with the family to promote healthy development-motor, language, cognitive, and social-emotional. ..
  34. Jeffries L, Fiss A, McCoy S, Bartlett D. Description of Primary and Secondary Impairments in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2016;28:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Young children with CP across GMFCS levels may have already developed secondary impairments that should be addressed within therapy services. ..
  35. Oh H, Sin M, Schepp K, Choi Kwon S. Depressive symptoms and functional impairment among amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in South Korea. Rehabil Nurs. 2012;37:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports high prevalence of depressive symptoms in ALS patients. The findings add to the body of knowledge on emotional health and provide motives for interventions to promote mental health of these patients. ..
  36. Elbasan B, Kayıhan H, Duzgun I. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder. Ital J Pediatr. 2012;38:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder. ..
  37. Merritt B. Validity of using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to determine the need for assistance. Am J Occup Ther. 2011;65:643-50 pubmed
    ..85, specificity = .83). Evidence supports using ADL ability measures from the AMPS to provide evidence of a client's need for assistance in the community. ..
  38. Smits Engelsman B, Wilson P. Noise, variability, and motor performance in developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55 Suppl 4:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Issues of task scheduling and use of augmented feedback are important considerations for therapists when treating these children. ..
  39. Guerrot A, Chadie A, Torre S, Rondeau S, Pinto Cardoso G, Abily Donval L, et al. Compared outcomes of very preterm infants born in 2000 and 2005. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:731-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed a reduced use of postnatal corticosteroids and a decreased percentage of neonates with head circumference below the third percentile. ..
  40. Hill E, Brown D. Mood impairments in adults previously diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder. J Ment Health. 2013;22:334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the findings highlight the need for awareness of motor difficulties in those presenting with high levels of anxiety and depression, and vice versa. ..
  41. Spüler M, Bensch M, Kleih S, Rosenstiel W, Bogdan M, Kubler A. Online use of error-related potentials in healthy users and people with severe motor impairment increases performance of a P300-BCI. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:1328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Error-related potentials as a secondary source of information can be used to increase overall bit rate in a P3 BCI. The method should be made available to any patient using the P3 BCI for communication. ..
  42. Yang S, Gustafson J, Gangidine M, Stepien D, Schuster R, Pritts T, et al. A murine model of mild traumatic brain injury exhibiting cognitive and motor deficits. J Surg Res. 2013;184:981-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest that serum cytokines, such as IL-6, may be effective biomarkers for severity of head injury. ..
  43. Kennedy Behr A, Wilson B, Rodger S, Mickan S. Cross-cultural adaptation of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire 2007 for German-speaking countries: DCDQ-G. Neuropediatrics. 2013;44:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The community sample had a sensitivity of 30% and a specificity of 86.7%. The DCDQ-G is a valid instrument for use with a clinic population in the 5.0 to 7.11 age group. Research into older age groups is ongoing. ..
  44. Tallet J, Albaret J, Barral J. Developmental changes in lateralized inhibition of symmetric movements in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:2523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..More theoretically, the specific improvement in selective inhibition of the left finger suggests a progressive development of inter-hemispheric communication during typical development that is absent or delayed in children with DCD. ..
  45. Capistran J, Martini R. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design. Hum Mov Sci. 2016;49:277-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. ..
  46. Goyen T, Lui K, Hummell J. Sensorimotor skills associated with motor dysfunction in children born extremely preterm. Early Hum Dev. 2011;87:489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Praxis or motor planning poses a particular challenge for them. Motor dysfunction in extremely preterm children was related to poorer visual processing and motor planning and may relate to a cognitive processing problem. ..
  47. Creavin A, Lingam R, Northstone K, Williams C. Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014;56:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of untreated ocular abnormalities such as refractive error on the accuracy of the diagnosis of DCD is difficult to ascertain and further work would be of benefit. ..
  48. Kwan M, Cairney J, Hay J, Faught B. Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:3691-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Hua J, Gu G, Meng W, Wu Z. Age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition: exploring its usefulness in mainland China. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:801-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there was a need to adjust part of items to improve the test's psychometric properties when it is used in Chinese children. ..
  50. Ferrari F, Gallo C, Pugliese M, Guidotti I, Gavioli S, Coccolini E, et al. Preterm birth and developmental problems in the preschool age. Part I: minor motor problems. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:2154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Touwen infant neurological examination (TINE) can reliably detect neurological signs of MND even in infancy. However, the prognostic value of these disorders requires further investigations. ..
  51. Stassen M, Preeker N, Ragas A, van de Ven M, Smolders A, Roeleveld N. Metal exposure and reproductive disorders in indigenous communities living along the Pilcomayo River, Bolivia. Sci Total Environ. 2012;427-428:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We found indications for increased risks of small families and delayed walking onset among the Weenhayek living along the Pilcomayo River. Lactants form a high risk group for lead exposure. ..
  52. Breslin C, Rudisill M. The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2011;28:342-53 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that more accurate gross motor quotient scores on the TGMD-2 by children with ASD can be elicited using the picture task card protocol. ..
  53. Gill T, Beavers D, Guralnik J, Pahor M, Fielding R, Hauser M, et al. The effect of intervening hospitalizations on the benefit of structured physical activity in promoting independent mobility among community-living older persons: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Med. 2017;15:65 pubmed publisher identifier NCT01072500 . ..