depressive disorder


Summary: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Top Publications

  1. Araya R, Montero Marín J, Barroilhet S, Fritsch R, Gaete J, Montgomery A. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:122 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. ..
  2. Kessler R, Bromet E. The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annu Rev Public Health. 2013;34:119-38 pubmed publisher
    ..g., low marital quality, low work performance, low earnings), elevated risk of onset, persistence and severity of a wide range of secondary disorders, and increased risk of early mortality due to physical disorders and suicide. ..
  3. Andrew G, Cohen A, Salgaonkar S, Patel V. The explanatory models of depression and anxiety in primary care: a qualitative study from India. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:499 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also elicits important gender differences in the experience of CMD. ..
  4. Baardseth T, Goldberg S, Pace B, Wislocki A, Frost N, Siddiqui J, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus other therapies: redux. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses, in combination with previous meta-analytic findings, fail to provide corroborative evidence for the conjecture that CBT is superior to bona fide non-CBT treatments. ..
  5. Galecki P, Talarowska M, Moczulski D, Bobinska K, Opuchlik K, Galecka E, et al. Working memory impairment as a common component in recurrent depressive disorder and certain somatic diseases. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013;34:436-45 pubmed
    ..was to compare the effectiveness of working memory in 4 groups of patients: 1) diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (rDD), 2) with diabetes type 1 (DM1), 3) with diabetes type 2 (DM2), 4) with arterial hypertension (HA) and ..
  6. Vareka T, Vecka M, Jirak R, Tvrzicka E, Macásek J, Zak A, et al. Plasma fatty acid profile in depressive disorder resembles insulin resistance state. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012;33 Suppl 2:83-6 pubmed
    b>Depressive disorder is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  7. Bufferd S, Dougherty L, Carlson G, Rose S, Klein D. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: continuity from ages 3 to 6. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:1157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that preschool psychiatric disorders are moderately stable, with rates of disorders and patterns of homotypic and heterotypic continuity similar to those observed in samples of older children. ..
  8. Cox G, Fisher C, de Silva S, Phelan M, Akinwale O, Simmons M, et al. Interventions for preventing relapse and recurrence of a depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD007504 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a growing body of evidence supporting effective treatments during the acute phase of a depressive disorder. However, little is known about treatments for preventing relapse or recurrence of depression once an ..
  9. Chen Y, Keller J, Kang J, Hsieh H, Lin H. Obstructive sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of depressive disorder: a population-based follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This nationwide, population-based study thus aimed at assessing the risk of depressive disorder within the first year following a diagnosis with OSA. Gender effects were further examined. Cohort study...

More Information


  1. Rai D, Lee B, Dalman C, Golding J, Lewis G, Magnusson C. Parental depression, maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population based case-control study. BMJ. 2013;346:f2059 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the association between parental depression and maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy with autism spectrum disorders in offspring...
  2. Gage S, Smith G, Zammit S, Hickman M, Munafo M. Using Mendelian randomisation to infer causality in depression and anxiety research. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30:1185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Linkage disequilibrium, pleiotropy, and population stratification, which can distort Mendelian randomisation studies, are also discussed. ..
  3. Bower P, Kontopantelis E, Sutton A, Kendrick T, Richards D, Gilbody S, et al. Influence of initial severity of depression on effectiveness of low intensity interventions: meta-analysis of individual patient data. BMJ. 2013;346:f540 pubmed publisher
  4. Hollander A, Bruce D, Ekberg J, Burstrom B, Ekblad S. Hospitalisation for depressive disorder following unemployment--differentials by gender and immigrant status: a population-based cohort study in Sweden. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013;67:875-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to study whether experiencing unemployment was a risk factor for hospitalisation for depressive disorder specifically, and whether gender and immigrant status modified the hypothesised risk...
  5. Anglin R, Samaan Z, Walter S, McDonald S. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:100-7 pubmed publisher
  6. Donkin L, Hickie I, Christensen H, Naismith S, Neal B, Cockayne N, et al. Sampling bias in an internet treatment trial for depression. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e174 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no indication that such self-selection biased the trial results or would limit the generalizability and translation into a public or clinical setting. ..
  7. Moritz S, Schröder J, Meyer B, Hauschildt M. The more it is needed, the less it is wanted: attitudes toward face-to-face intervention among depressed patients undergoing online treatment. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30:157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..An alarming paradox emerged: when a depressed person is in greatest need of help, motivation to seek face-to-face treatment is lowest. ..
  8. Bonanno G, Kennedy P, Galatzer Levy I, Lude P, Elfström M. Trajectories of resilience, depression, and anxiety following spinal cord injury. Rehabil Psychol. 2012;57:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are comparable to other recent studies of major health stressors. ..
  9. Hirschfeld R. The epidemiology of depression and the evolution of treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73 Suppl 1:5-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Rodríguez M, Nuevo R, Chatterji S, Ayuso Mateos J. Definitions and factors associated with subthreshold depressive conditions: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:181 pubmed publisher
    ..Current diagnostic systems need to reexamine the thresholds for depressive disorders and distinguish them from ordinary feelings of sadness. ..
  11. Nieuwsma J, Trivedi R, McDuffie J, Kronish I, Benjamin D, Williams J. Brief psychotherapy for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2012;43:129-51 pubmed
    ..Access to non-pharmacologic treatments for depression could be improved by training healthcare providers to deliver brief psychotherapies. ..
  12. Katalinic N, Lai R, Somogyi A, Mitchell P, Glue P, Loo C. Ketamine as a new treatment for depression: a review of its efficacy and adverse effects. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013;47:710-27 pubmed publisher
    ..g. clinical, genetic, pharmacokinetic, environmental), examining different dosing regimens and routes of administration, and strategies to maintain the antidepressant response. ..
  13. Rutledge T, Redwine L, Linke S, Mills P. A meta-analysis of mental health treatments and cardiac rehabilitation for improving clinical outcomes and depression among patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:335-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support a continued role for mental health treatments and a larger role for mental health professionals in cardiac rehabilitation. ..
  14. Roy T, Lloyd C, Parvin M, Mohiuddin K, Rahman M. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:123 pubmed publisher
    ..In a setting where recognition, screening and treatment levels remain low, health care providers need to focus their efforts on diagnosing, referring and effectively treating this important disease in order to improve service delivery. ..
  15. Fisher H, Cohen Woods S, Hosang G, Korszun A, Owen M, Craddock N, et al. Interaction between specific forms of childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) in recurrent depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2013;145:136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unknown whether this gene-environment interaction is present for recurrent depressive disorder and different forms of maltreatment...
  16. Ferrari A, Charlson F, Norman R, Patten S, Freedman G, Murray C, et al. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001547 pubmed publisher
    ..Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted...
  17. Jewett L, Razykov I, Hudson M, Baron M, Thombs B. Prevalence of current, 12-month and lifetime major depressive disorder among patients with systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of problems affecting their quality of life, but only one small study has assessed the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in SSc...
  18. Hamel A, Zaitsoff S, Taylor A, Menna R, le Grange D. Body-related social comparison and disordered eating among adolescent females with an eating disorder, depressive disorder, and healthy controls. Nutrients. 2012;4:1260-72 pubmed publisher
    ..BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after ..
  19. Wang Y, Gorenstein C. Assessment of depression in medical patients: a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68:1274-87 pubmed publisher
  20. Lopez M, Pierce R, Gardner R, Hanson R. Standardized Beck Depression Inventory-II scores for male veterans coping with chronic pain. Psychol Serv. 2013;10:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We highly recommend that clinicians and researchers use the norm-referenced method when interpreting BDI-II scores from individuals suffering from chronic pain. ..
  21. Chu D, Williams L, Harris A, Bryant R, Gatt J. Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underline the relative importance of exposure to 'interpersonal violation' relative to other types of early life stressors and adult trauma in the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults. ..
  22. Bronstein I, Montgomery P, Ott E. Emotional and behavioural problems amongst Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking children: results from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;22:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with other studies on refugee children, it should be stressed that the majority of UASC scored below suggested cut-offs, thus displaying a marked resilience despite the experience of adverse events. ..
  23. van Batenburg Eddes T, Brion M, Henrichs J, Jaddoe V, Hofman A, Verhulst F, et al. Parental depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and attention problems in children: a cross-cohort consistency study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with offspring-attention deficit problems...
  24. Byers A, Vittinghoff E, Lui L, Hoang T, Blazer D, Covinsky K, et al. Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:1073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These associations support the need for intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depressive symptoms into the oldest-old years. ..
  25. Burton C, McKinstry B, Szentagotai Tătar A, Serrano Blanco A, Pagliari C, Wolters M. Activity monitoring in patients with depression: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2013;145:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..either case control or longitudinal studies of actigraphy in adults aged between 18 and 65 diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Outcomes were daytime and night-time activity and actigraphic measures of sleep...
  26. Stallard P, Sayal K, Phillips R, Taylor J, Spears M, Anderson R, et al. Classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in high risk adolescents: pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2012;345:e6058 pubmed publisher
    ..Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN19083628. ..
  27. Lewin A, Jobges M, Werheid K. The influence of self-efficacy, pre-stroke depression and perceived social support on self-reported depressive symptoms during stroke rehabilitation. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2013;23:546-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither ADL nor age significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that consideration of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the inpatient rehabilitation setting may help prevent PSD. ..
  28. Lichtblau N, Schmidt F, Schumann R, Kirkby K, Himmerich H. Cytokines as biomarkers in depressive disorder: current standing and prospects. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2013;25:592-603 pubmed publisher
    ..When applying immunomodulatory therapies, these drugs may increase the risk of specific side effects such as infections or interact with antidepressant drugs on important functions of the body such as the coagulation system. ..
  29. Chen L, Wang L, Qiu X, Yang X, Qiao Z, Yang Y, et al. Depression among Chinese university students: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58379 pubmed publisher
    ..11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students...
  30. Rotella F, Mannucci E. Depression as a risk factor for diabetes: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathogenetic mechanisms connecting depression with diabetes deserve further exploration. Depression should be included among risk factors that indicate intensified screening for diabetes. ..
  31. Thombs B, Roseman M, Coyne J, De Jonge P, Delisle V, Arthurs E, et al. Does evidence support the American Heart Association's recommendation to screen patients for depression in cardiovascular care? An updated systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52654 pubmed publisher
    ..There is still no evidence that routine screening for depression improves depression or cardiac outcomes. The AHA Science Advisory on depression screening should be revised to reflect this lack of evidence. ..
  32. Roy T, Lloyd C. Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2012;142 Suppl:S8-21 pubmed publisher
  33. Schutter D. The cerebello-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation hypothesis in depressive disorder. Med Hypotheses. 2012;79:779-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Depressive disorder can be viewed as an adaptive defense mechanism in response to excessive stress that has gone awry...
  34. Cattaneo A, Gennarelli M, Uher R, Breen G, Farmer A, Aitchison K, et al. Candidate genes expression profile associated with antidepressants response in the GENDEP study: differentiating between baseline 'predictors' and longitudinal 'targets'. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, modulation of the GR complex and of neuroplasticity is needed to observe a therapeutic antidepressant effect. ..
  35. Zannas A, McQuoid D, Payne M, Steffens D, MacFall J, Ashley Koch A, et al. Negative life stress and longitudinal hippocampal volume changes in older adults with and without depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:829-34 pubmed publisher
    Major depressive disorder is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear...
  36. Adams C, Zacharia S, Masters L, Coffey C, Catalan P. Mental health problems in people living with HIV: changes in the last two decades: the London experience 1990-2014. AIDS Care. 2016;28 Suppl 1:56-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A substantial proportion of people with HIV referred to specialist services suffer complex difficulties, which often require the collaboration of both psychiatrists and psychologists to deal effectively with their difficulties. ..
  37. Xue R, Li Y, He X, Jin Z, Fan S, Zhang T, et al. Pharmacokinetic profiles contribute to the differences in behavioral pharmacology of 071031B enantiomers as novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. J Psychopharmacol. 2017;31:377-386 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, current PK-PD study may provide positive exploration for chiral antidepressants development. ..
  38. Gentile G, Frauger E, Giocanti A, Pauly V, Orléans V, Amaslidou D, et al. [Characteristics of subjects under opiate maintenance treatment in primary care using the OPEMA data 2013]. Therapie. 2016;71:307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Misuse associated forms and consumption of other psychoactive substances and illegal drugs are observed. Despite the complexity of management of these patients, general practitioners have a major role to play. ..
  39. van Dessel N, van der Wouden J, Dekker J, van der Horst H. Clinical value of DSM IV and DSM 5 criteria for diagnosing the most prevalent somatoform disorders in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). J Psychosom Res. 2016;82:4-10 pubmed publisher
    ..They are associated with higher symptom severity and lower physical functioning. However, further specification of the positive psychological criteria of DSM 5 SSD may improve utility in research and practice. ..
  40. Hepgul N, King S, Amarasinghe M, Breen G, Grant N, Grey N, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients assessed within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service: results from a naturalistic cohort study (Predicting Outcome Following Psychological Therapy; PROMPT). BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Whilst there are significant challenges associated with researching IAPT populations, we have also confirmed the feasibility of undertaking such research. ..
  41. Wysokiński A, Szczepocka E. Platelet parameters (PLT, MPV, P-LCR) in patients with schizophrenia, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016;237:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative correlation between PLT and age was found in all study groups and positive correlation between age and MPV and P-LCR was found in patients with schizophrenia. ..
  42. Stivanin L, Oliveira C, Santos F, Santos B, Scivoletto S. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016;38:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population. ..
  43. Malhi G, Lingford Hughes A, Young A. Antidepressant treatment response: 'I want it all, and I want it now!'†. Br J Psychiatry. 2016;208:101-3 pubmed publisher
    ..But clinical expediency comes at a cost against which potential benefits need to be considered judiciously. ..
  44. Bitsika V, Sharpley C, Andronicos N, Agnew L. Prevalence, structure and correlates of anxiety-depression in boys with an autism spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;49-50:302-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of anxiety and depression comorbidity from parents and from children with an ASD themselves could provide a valuable adjunct datum when diagnosing ASD. ..
  45. Thomas J, Khanam R, Vohora D. Augmentation of effect of venlafaxine by folic acid in behavioral paradigms of depression in mice: Evidence of serotonergic and pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways. Pharmacol Rep. 2016;68:396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining low dose venlafaxine with an augmenting agent like folic acid, thus, appears to be an optimum strategy to increase its therapeutic efficacy and to reduce its dose. ..
  46. Jalsrai A, Numakawa T, Kunugi H, Dieterich D, Becker A. The neuroprotective effects and possible mechanism of action of a methanol extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis: In vitro and in vivo studies. Neuroscience. 2016;322:452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that AC has antidepressant-like and neuroprotective (reducing infarct size) effects and that activation of pShp-2 and pErK1/2 pathways may be involved in the effects. ..
  47. Tseng C, Hu L, Liu M, Yang A, Shen C, Tsai S. Risk of depressive disorders following sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. J Affect Disord. 2016;197:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicated an increased risk of developing depressive disorders in patients with SSNHL, particularly for younger patients. Symptoms of depression should be regularly evaluated in patients with SSNHL. ..
  48. Apóstolo J, Bobrowicz Campos E, Rodrigues M, Castro I, Cardoso D. The effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions in older adults with depressive disorders: A systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2016;58:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This review considered studies that included adult patients, aged over 65 years with any type of depressive disorder, regardless of comorbidities and any previous treatments, but excluded those with manic or psychotic ..
  49. Duarte Guerra L, Gorenstein C, Paiva Medeiros P, Santo M, Lotufo Neto F, Wang Y. Clinical utility of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale for the detection of depression among bariatric surgery candidates. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:119 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematic application of the abbreviated version of the MADRS can be recommended for enhancing the clinical detection of depression during perioperative period. ..
  50. Li M, D Arcy C, Meng X. Maltreatment in childhood substantially increases the risk of adult depression and anxiety in prospective cohort studies: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proportional attributable fractions. Psychol Med. 2016;46:717-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides robust evidence of childhood maltreatment increasing the risk for depression and anxiety, and reinforces the need for effective programs and policies to reduce its occurrence. ..
  51. Xiao S, Lewis M, Mellor D, McCabe M, Byrne L, Wang T, et al. The China longitudinal ageing study: overview of the demographic, psychosocial and cognitive data of the Shanghai sample. J Ment Health. 2016;25:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..73 (SD?=?6.17). Primary generalised anxiety was detected in 0.4% of the sample. Sub-clinical depression and depressive disorder were diagnosed in 1.7% and 2.4% of the sample, respectively. Most (84...
  52. Khan S, Khan N, Rehman A, Khan I, Samo K, Memon A. Levels of Depression and Anxiety Post-Mastectomy in Breast Cancer Patients at a Public Sector Hospital in Karachi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:1337-40 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that going through mastectomy leads to moderate to severe levels of depression and anxiety, primarily because the females feel incomplete and insecure after losing a part of themselves. ..
  53. Ussher J, Perz J. Evaluation of the relative efficacy of a couple cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for Premenstrual Disorders (PMDs), in comparison to one-to-one CBT and a wait list control: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175068 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that CBT should be available for women reporting moderate-severe PMDs, with couple-based CBT offering additional benefits to a one-to-one modality. ..