feeding and eating disorders of childhood


Summary: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.

Top Publications

  1. Chial H, Camilleri M, Williams D, Litzinger K, Perrault J. Rumination syndrome in children and adolescents: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Pediatrics. 2003;111:158-62 pubmed
    ..Extensive diagnostic testing is unnecessary. Early behavioral therapy is advocated, and patient outcomes are generally favorable. ..
  2. Tanofsky Kraff M, Yanovski S, Schvey N, Olsen C, Gustafson J, Yanovski J. A prospective study of loss of control eating for body weight gain in children at high risk for adult obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..4 kg of weight per year. LOC is a salient predictor of weight gain during middle childhood. Interventions that decrease LOC eating should be evaluated for their ability to prevent excessive pediatric weight gain. ..
  3. Nicholls D, Bryant Waugh R. Eating disorders of infancy and childhood: definition, symptomatology, epidemiology, and comorbidity. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009;18:17-30 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; ..
  4. Green A, Alioto A, Mousa H, Di Lorenzo C. Severe pediatric rumination syndrome: successful interdisciplinary inpatient management. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;52:414-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They left with complete caloric intake orally. This treatment protocol could benefit pediatric gastroenterologists, pediatricians, and child psychologists in managing both standard and severe cases of rumination syndrome. ..
  5. Forslund C, Johansson B. Pervasive refusal syndrome among inpatient asylum-seeking children and adolescents: a follow-up study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;22:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..At follow-up, 1-8 years after discharge, all subjects were recovered. Although a severe condition, our five cases suggest a good prognosis for PRS among asylum-seeking children and adolescents. ..
  6. Silverman A, Kirby M, Clifford L, Fischer E, Berlin K, Rudolph C, et al. Nutritional and psychosocial outcomes of gastrostomy tube-dependent children completing an intensive inpatient behavioral treatment program. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients maintained nutritional stability at the 1-year posttreatment follow-up appointment. Inpatient behavioral interventions are highly effective and safe for transitioning long-term tube feeding children to oral feeding. ..
  7. Lepach A, Lehmkuhl G, Petermann F. [Neuropsychological issues in child psychology and child psychiatry]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2010;59:576-87 pubmed
    ..An intensified dialogue of the disciplines is essential for developing advanced guidelines for diagnostics and therapy. ..
  8. Sanders Dewey N, Larson M. Chronic rumination reduction in a severely developmentally disabled adult following combined use of positive and negative contingencies. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2006;37:140-5 pubmed
    ..A 95.4% decrease in rumination events occurred from baseline to follow-up. This procedure is offered as an effective and convenient treatment for chronic rumination. ..
  9. Berlin K, Lobato D, Pinkos B, Cerezo C, LeLeiko N. Patterns of medical and developmental comorbidities among children presenting with feeding problems: a latent class analysis. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011;32:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that medical and developmental conditions confer general, rather than specific, risk for feeding problems in children. ..

More Information


  1. McSweeney M, Jiang H, Deutsch A, Atmadja M, Lightdale J. Long-term outcomes of infants and children undergoing percutaneous endoscopy gastrostomy tube placement. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Major complications can occur many years after PEG placement. Larger prospective studies may be useful to assess risk factors for PEG-related complications in pediatrics. ..
  2. Seiverling L, Hendy H, Williams K. The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems applied to children (STEP-CHILD): psychometric characteristics and associations with child and parent variables. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:1122-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Strauss M, Pedrina F, Martí D. [How much food for a soul? Psychosomatic treatment of infantile feeding disorders]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2011;60:430-51 pubmed
    ..Clinical approach and course of treatment are illustrated by three case reports, highlighting specific psychotherapeutic interventions with the parent-infant relationship in the context of a paediatric clinic. ..
  4. Adams Chapman I, Bann C, Carter S, Stoll B. Language outcomes among ELBW infants in early childhood. Early Hum Dev. 2015;91:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to further explore the relationship between early predictors of language delay and the use of monolingual language assessments in non-English speaking patients with a history of prematurity. ..
  5. Heckathorn D, Speyer R, Taylor J, Cordier R. Systematic Review: Non-Instrumental Swallowing and Feeding Assessments in Pediatrics. Dysphagia. 2016;31:1-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, most assessments need to be used with caution. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the assessments. ..
  6. Bailey R, Stoner J, Angell M, Fetzer A. School-based speech-language pathologists' perspectives on dysphagia management in the schools. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2008;39:441-50 pubmed publisher
  7. Hilt L, Sander L, Nolen Hoeksema S, Simen A. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predicts rumination and depression differently in young adolescent girls and their mothers. Neurosci Lett. 2007;429:12-6 pubmed
    ..Rumination may be an endophenotype in the pathway from the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism to depression. Future work should further explore this mechanism and pursue explanations for its effects at different times in development. ..
  8. Bessell A, Watkins E, Williams W. Depressive rumination reduces specificity of autobiographical memory recall in acquired brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14:63-70 pubmed
    ..Higher baseline levels of depression and rumination were also associated with less specificity in recall. These findings indicate the value of identifying and treating depression among this population. ..
  9. Dundas I, Vøllestad J, Binder P, Sivertsen B. The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire in Norway. Scand J Psychol. 2013;54:250-60 pubmed publisher
  10. Forward K, Cummings E, Blake K. Risk factors for poor bone health in adolescents and adults with CHARGE syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:839-45 pubmed
    ..Education is necessary to raise awareness regarding the importance of HRT, proper nutrition and weight-bearing activity for healthy bone development and maintenance in individuals with CHARGE syndrome. ..
  11. Roofthooft M, van Meer H, Rietman W, Ebels T, Berger R. Down syndrome and aberrant right subclavian artery. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:1033-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of ARSA is not synonymous to the cause of feeding problems in patients with DS and corrective surgery of this vascular anomaly should be restricted to selected cases. ..
  12. Papousek M. [Regulatory disorders in early childhood. Family physician counseling for crying, sleeping and feeding disorders]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005;147:32-4, 36, 38 pubmed
    ..A range of proven methods are available to support counseling on child development in the physician's office. ..
  13. Nunn K, Lask B, Owen I. Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) 21 years on: a re-conceptualisation and a renaming. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23:163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..It touches upon the clinical implications and suggests a new name for the condition reflecting what we believe to be a more sophisticated understanding of the disorder than was available when it was first described. ..
  14. Goeb J, Azcona B, Troussier F, Malka J, Ginies J, Duverger P. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality]. Arch Pediatr. 2005;12:1419-23 pubmed
    ..The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs. ..
  15. Iannaccone S, Owens H, Scott J, Teitell B. Postoperative malnutrition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:17-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that pre- and postoperative management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy should include feeding evaluation and determination of postural changes. ..
  16. Gisel E, Alphonce E, Ramsay M. Assessment of ingestive and oral praxis skills: children with cerebral palsy vs. controls. Dysphagia. 2000;15:236-44 pubmed
    ..Excellent reliable and valid assessment instruments are available to the practicing clinician. They cover a wide range of oral-motor performance and, so, must be used judiciously and for the purpose that they have been developed. ..
  17. Antunes H, Gonçalves J, Silva E, Teles N. A novel de novo deletion of chromosome 7 [46,XX,del(7)(p14.2 p15.1)] in a child with feeding problems. Gene. 2012;503:152-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first case report of a patient with this de novo small interstitial deletion on chromosome 7. This rare chromosomal abnormality was associated with severe feeding problems in the first years of life. ..
  18. Ostberg M, Hagelin E. Feeding and sleeping problems in infancy--a follow-up at early school age. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37:11-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A clinical recommendation for child health care is to take both child and family factors into account, to individualize contacts, work with an all-inclusive perspective and have close follow-ups. ..
  19. Sharp W, Stubbs K, Adams H, Wells B, Lesack R, Criado K, et al. Intensive, Manual-based Intervention for Pediatric Feeding Disorders: Results From a Randomized Pilot Trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;62:658-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings support the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this manual-based approach to intervention. These results warrant a large-scale randomized trial to test the safety and efficacy of this intervention. ..
  20. Rood L, Roelofs J, Bögels S, Meesters C. Stress-reactive rumination, negative cognitive style, and stressors in relationship to depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth. J Youth Adolesc. 2012;41:414-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Current findings highlight the importance of taking into account domain specifity when examining models of depression in youth. ..
  21. Kliebert M, Tiger J. Direct and distal effects of noncontingent juice on rumination exhibited by a child with autism. J Appl Behav Anal. 2011;44:955-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Noncontingent juice suppressed rumination, but this suppression was not maintained after delivery termination. ..
  22. Tanoue K, Matsui K, Takamasu T. Fried-potato diet causes vitamin A deficiency in an autistic child. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012;36:753-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention to possible vitamin A deficiency is essential when fried potatoes are consumed exclusively...
  23. Lähdeaho M, Ukkola O, Jokela M, Huhtala H, Knip M, Kesaniemi Y, et al. Peptide hormones in infants with feeding disorders. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2013;73:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-sectional association does not necessarily imply causal relationship. Thus, further studies with larger number of cases will be needed to clarify the role of adiponectin in the eating problems in infants. ..
  24. Skovgaard A, Houmann T, Christiansen E, Olsen E, Landorph S, Lichtenberg A, et al. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;17:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A general health surveillance program seems to have potentials to identify infants at risk for mental health problems provided standardised measures and specific training of the involved health professionals. ..
  25. Idaira Y, Nomura Y, Tamaki Y, Katsumura S, Kodama S, Kurata K, et al. Factors affecting the oral condition of patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Oral Dis. 2008;14:435-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some specific factors in this patient population affect the dental caries and tooth extraction and oral programs targeting these factors may reduce dental degeneration in these patients. ..
  26. Gibbons B, Williams K, Riegel K. Reducing tube feeds and tongue thrust: combining an oral-motor and behavioral approach to feeding. Am J Occup Ther. 2007;61:384-91 pubmed
    ..This intervention demonstrated the successful combination of oral-motor and behavioral components in the treatment of a severe feeding problem. It could serve as a model for the development of future interventions. ..
  27. Lindberg L, Ostberg M, Isacson I, Dannaeus M. Feeding disorders related to nutrition. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:425-9 pubmed
    ..The relation between nutrition and growth in feeding disorders has not, to our knowledge, been reported in previous research. ..
  28. Kadey H, Piazza C, Rivas K, Zeleny J. An evaluation of texture manipulations to increase swallowing. J Appl Behav Anal. 2013;46:539-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A single-food assessment identified individual problematic foods. We used the results of these assessments to inform treatment, resulting in high levels of mouth clean across foods. ..
  29. McNicholas F, Prior C, Bates G. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;18:137-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder. ..
  30. Przyrembel H. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60 Suppl 2:8-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. ..
  31. Bagby R, Rector N, Segal Z, Joffe R, Levitt A, Kennedy S, et al. Rumination and distraction in major depression: assessing response to pharmacological treatment. J Affect Disord. 1999;55:225-9 pubmed
    ..As the data in this study was retrieved from a clinical database, the conclusions of this report must be viewed tentatively. Replication with other clinical samples is needed. ..
  32. Imms C. Impact on parents of feeding young children with congenital or acquired cardiac disease. Cardiol Young. 2000;10:574-81 pubmed
    ..Emerging themes from qualitative analysis of the data suggested that having a child with congenital cardiac disease producing difficulty in feeding had a strong negative impact on the whole family. ..
  33. Dawson J, Piazza C, Sevin B, Gulotta C, Lerman D, Kelley M. Use of the high-probability instructional sequence and escape extinction in a child with food refusal. J Appl Behav Anal. 2003;36:105-8 pubmed
    ..Acceptance increased and refusal decreased only with the introduction of escape extinction. These results raise important questions about the high-p sequence in the treatment of food refusal. ..
  34. Sonnappa S, Cohen G, Ramsay A, Dinwiddie R, Jaffe A. A baby with cough and poor feeding. Localised persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema of the left lung. Eur Respir J. 2003;22:182-5 pubmed
  35. Nissen G. [Bed-wetters, finicky eaters, stutterers. Great progress has been made in research into causes and treatment]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145:25 pubmed
  36. Lucarelli L, Cimino S, D Olimpio F, Ammaniti M. Feeding disorders of early childhood: an empirical study of diagnostic subtypes. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Definitions by FD subtypes, using operational diagnostic criteria, and the assessment of mother-child interactions are relevant to target interventions strategies to treat specific disorders. ..
  37. Tzschach A, Krause Plonka I, Menzel C, Kalscheuer V, Toennies H, Scherthan H, et al. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of a de novo interstitial deletion of 5q23.3q31.2 and its phenotypic consequences. Am J Med Genet A. 2006;140:496-502 pubmed
  38. Khan A, Hyde R, Dutra A, Mohide P, Liu P. Core binding factor beta (CBFB) haploinsufficiency due to an interstitial deletion at 16q21q22 resulting in delayed cranial ossification, cleft palate, congenital heart anomalies, and feeding difficulties but favorable outcome. Am J Med Genet A. 2006;140:2349-54 pubmed
    ..The finding of CBFB haploinsufficiency in our case and the similarity of cranial ossification defects with a mouse model of CBFB deletion suggest a role for CBFB in cranial bone development in humans. ..
  39. Doyen C, Asch M. [Eating disorders in childhood and early adolescence]. Rev Prat. 2008;58:173-6 pubmed
    ..Outcomes of prepubertal anorexic patients seem to be better than those of pubertal anorexic subjects but it is not the case for subjects affected by very-early-onset anorexia nervosa. ..
  40. Winston K. Feeding a child with mealtime challenges: A mother's work. Work. 2015;50:443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings highlight the difficulty of negotiating daily mealtime occupations and support the connection between mealtime occupations and maternal work as outlined by Ruddick. ..
  41. Field A, Camargo C, Taylor C, Berkey C, Colditz G. Relation of peer and media influences to the development of purging behaviors among preadolescent and adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:1184-9 pubmed
  42. Davis A, Bruce A, Cocjin J, Mousa H, Hyman P. Empirically supported treatments for feeding difficulties in young children. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2010;12:189-94 pubmed publisher
  43. Schädler G, Süss Burghart H, Toschke A, von Voss H, Von Kries R. Feeding disorders in ex-prematures: causes--response to therapy--long term outcome. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:803-8 pubmed
    ..A therapeutic intervention based on behavioural therapy achieved sustained success in almost two thirds of the children. ..
  44. Tack J, Talley N, Camilleri M, Holtmann G, Hu P, Malagelada J, et al. Functional gastroduodenal disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1466-79 pubmed
    ..The proposed classification requires further research and careful validation but the criteria should be of value for clinical practice; for epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical management studies; and for drug development. ..
  45. Lund A, Leonard J. Feeding difficulties in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85:487-8 pubmed
    ..They are an inherent part of the phenotype and it is important to recognise them because of the distress and disruption they cause. ..
  46. Harding C, Faiman A, Wright J. Evaluation of an intensive desensitisation, oral tolerance therapy and hunger provocation program for children who have had prolonged periods of tube feeds. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2010;8:268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this was a small pilot study, there are some strategies used within an intensive multidisciplinary context that can enable children to reduce their reliance on PEG feeds significantly. ..
  47. Hervé M, Paradis M, Rattaz C, Lopez S, Evrard V, White Koning M, et al. Predictors of outcome in infant and toddlers functional or behavioral disorders after a brief parent-infant psychotherapy. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;18:737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study underlines the particular difficulties involved in the treatment of infants and toddlers presenting behavioral disturbances and emotional difficulties, and the value of involving the father in treatment. ..
  48. Berger Gross P, Coletti D, Hirschkorn K, Terranova E, Simpser E. The effectiveness of risperidone in the treatment of three children with feeding disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004;14:621-7 pubmed
    ..These cases suggest that risperidone may be a safe and effective adjunctive treatment, when behavioral feeding therapy is not sufficiently successful for children who have chronic and complicated medical and psychiatric presentations. ..
  49. Rome E. The bare bones: how to recognize eating disorder in children and adolescents. Indian Pediatr. 2004;41:115-8 pubmed
  50. Decaluwé V, Braet C. Prevalence of binge-eating disorder in obese children and adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:404-9 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the importance of considering binge-eating symptoms when devising treatment programmes for children and adolescents suffering from obesity. ..
  51. Maldonado Duran J, Fonagy P, Helmig L, Millhuff C, Moody C, Rosen L, et al. In-depth mental health evaluation of a community sample of nonreferred infants with feeding difficulties. Int J Eat Disord. 2008;41:513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They are not associated with an altered parent-infant relationship nor poor feeding technique. Parents often adapt successfully to the uniqueness of the baby to maintain weight gain. ..
  52. Sevin B, Gulotta C, Sierp B, Rosica L, Miller L. Analysis of response covariationamong multiple topographies of food refusal. J Appl Behav Anal. 2002;35:65-8 pubmed
    ..When expulsion was treated, packing of food increased. Finally, when packing was treated, all refusal behaviors remained low, and acceptance continued to occur at high and stable levels. ..
  53. Premji S, Wilson J, Paes B, Gray S. Cisapride: a review of the evidence supporting its use in premature infants with feeding intolerance. Neonatal Netw. 1997;16:17-21 pubmed