bulimia nervosa

Summary

Summary: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.

Top Publications

  1. Waller G, Gray E, Hinrichsen H, Mountford V, Lawson R, Patient E. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and atypical bulimic nervosa: effectiveness in clinical settings. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventy-eight adult women with bulimic disorders (bulimia nervosa and atypical bulimia nervosa) undertook individual CBT, with few exclusion criteria and a treatment protocol ..
  2. Glasner Edwards S, Mooney L, Marinelli Casey P, Hillhouse M, Ang A, Rawson R. Bulimia nervosa among methamphetamine dependent adults: association with outcomes three years after treatment. Eat Disord. 2011;19:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined psychiatric, substance use, and functional outcomes of MA users (N = 526) with bulimia nervosa 3 years after treatment for MA dependence. Bulimia nervosa was observed among 2...
  3. Wu M, Giel K, Skunde M, Schag K, Rudofsky G, de Zwaan M, et al. Inhibitory control and decision making under risk in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46:721-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate neuropsychological mechanisms of impulsivity in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED)...
  4. Monteleone P, Scognamiglio P, Canestrelli B, Serino I, Monteleone A, Maj M. Asymmetry of salivary cortisol and ?-amylase responses to psychosocial stress in anorexia nervosa but not in bulimia nervosa. Psychol Med. 2011;41:1963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..proposed, the study of the psychobiology of the stress response in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) should be helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of these disorders...
  5. van den Eynde F, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Uher R, Andrew C, Harvey P, et al. Brain responses to body image stimuli but not food are altered in women with bulimia nervosa. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:302 pubmed publisher
    Research into the neural correlates of bulimia nervosa (BN) psychopathology remains limited...
  6. Bergin J, Wade T. A cross-sectional analysis of the cognitive model of bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:776-86 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to directly test Cooper et al.'s cognitive model of the maintenance of bulimia nervosa. The major predictions of the model were tested cross-sectionally using multiple regression analyses and structural equation ..
  7. Schebendach J, Broft A, Foltin R, Walsh B. Can the reinforcing value of food be measured in bulimia nervosa?. Appetite. 2013;62:70-5 pubmed publisher
    Binge eating is a core clinical feature of bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  8. Bodell L, Joiner T, Keel P. Comorbidity-independent risk for suicidality increases with bulimia nervosa but not with anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:617-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A multiple regression model including eating and comorbid disorders indicated that bulimia nervosa (BN) was significantly associated with suicidality above and beyond risk predicted by comorbid disorders...
  9. Mohr H, Roder C, Zimmermann J, Hummel D, Negele A, Grabhorn R. Body image distortions in bulimia nervosa: investigating body size overestimation and body size satisfaction by fMRI. Neuroimage. 2011;56:1822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of the body image using fMRI: satisfaction rating and size estimation of distorted own body photographs in bulimia nervosa patients (15) and controls (16)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kaye W, Wierenga C, Bailer U, Simmons A, Wagner A, Bischoff Grethe A. Does a shared neurobiology for foods and drugs of abuse contribute to extremes of food ingestion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa?. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73:836-42 pubmed publisher
    Is starvation in anorexia nervosa (AN) or overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN) a form of addiction? Alternatively, why are individuals with BN more vulnerable and individuals with AN protected from substance abuse? Such questions have been ..
  2. Roberts M, Tchanturia K, Treasure J. Is attention to detail a similarly strong candidate endophenotype for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013;14:452-63 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether attention to detail is a similarly strong candidate endophenotype of anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and to explore the incidence and clinical correlates of attention to detail...
  3. Brewerton T, Costin C. Long-term outcome of residential treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Eat Disord. 2011;19:132-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 66) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 52) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and a ..
  4. Monteleone P, Di Genio M, Monteleone A, Di Filippo C, Maj M. Investigation of factors associated to crossover from anorexia nervosa restricting type (ANR) and anorexia nervosa binge-purging type (ANBP) to bulimia nervosa and comparison of bulimia nervosa patients with or without previous ANR or ANBP. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..crossover from anorexia nervosa restricting type (ANR) and anorexia nervosa binge-purging type (ANBP) to bulimia nervosa (BN) and to compare BN individuals with initial ANR or ANBP to subjects with stable BN...
  5. Wallace L, von Ranson K. Treatment manuals: use in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:815-20 pubmed publisher
    ..eating disorder professionals examined use of manuals with 259 clinicians' most recent client with bulimia nervosa. Although evidence-based manuals for bulimia nervosa exist, only 35.9% of clinicians reported using a manual...
  6. Franko D, Keshaviah A, Eddy K, Krishna M, Davis M, Keel P, et al. A longitudinal investigation of mortality in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..METHOD Beginning in 1987, 246 treatment-seeking female patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa were interviewed every 6 months for a median of 9...
  7. Wagner G, Penelo E, Wanner C, Gwinner P, Trofaier M, Imgart H, et al. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy v. conventional guided self-help for bulimia nervosa: long-term evaluation of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:135-41 pubmed publisher
    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)-based guided self-help is recommended as a first step in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. To evaluate in a randomised controlled trial (Clinicaltrials...
  8. van den Eynde F, Guillaume S, Broadbent H, Stahl D, Campbell I, Schmidt U, et al. Neurocognition in bulimic eating disorders: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;124:120-40 pubmed publisher
    ..databases (Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched combining the search terms 'bulimic disorder', 'bulimia nervosa (BN)', 'binge-eating disorder (BED)' with terms referring to cognitive domains (e.g. 'executive functions')...
  9. Blechert J, Feige B, Joos A, Zeeck A, Tuschen Caffier B. Electrocortical processing of food and emotional pictures in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Psychosom Med. 2011;73:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the electrocortical processing of food pictures in participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 21), bulimia nervosa (n = 22), and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 32) by measuring the early posterior negativity, an event-related ..
  10. Umberg E, Shader R, Hsu L, Greenblatt D. From disordered eating to addiction: the "food drug" in bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32:376-89 pubmed publisher
    The high prevalence of substance abuse in individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and the pervasive symptom substitution in many types of drug addiction suggest that a number of substances--including food--can impair an individual's self-..
  11. Aguera Z, Krug I, Sanchez I, Granero R, Penelo E, Peñas Lledó E, et al. Personality changes in bulimia nervosa after a cognitive behaviour therapy. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:379-85 pubmed publisher
    The goals of this study were to evaluate changes in personality traits in outpatients with bulimia nervosa and specific clinical predictors of such personality changes, after cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)...
  12. Marsh R, Horga G, Wang Z, Wang P, Klahr K, Berner L, et al. An FMRI study of self-regulatory control and conflict resolution in adolescents with bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:1210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..frontostriatal systems that mediate self-regulatory capacities and conflict resolution in adolescents with bulimia nervosa. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in 18 female ..
  13. Lavender J, De Young K, Franko D, Eddy K, Kass A, Sears M, et al. An investigation of the joint longitudinal trajectories of low body weight, binge eating, and purging in women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..eating disorder symptoms-low body weight, binge eating, and purging-in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) using a novel statistical approach...
  14. van den Eynde F, Samarawickrema N, Kenyon M, Dejong H, Lavender A, Startup H, et al. A study of neurocognition in bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified-bulimia type. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34:67-77 pubmed publisher
    Neurocognition in bulimia nervosa (BN) is under-researched...
  15. Spangler D, Allen M. An fMRI investigation of emotional processing of body shape in bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:17-25 pubmed publisher
  16. Bailer U, Bloss C, Frank G, Price J, Meltzer C, Mathis C, et al. 5-HT?A receptor binding is increased after recovery from bulimia nervosa compared to control women and is associated with behavioral inhibition in both groups. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:477-87 pubmed publisher
    Because altered serotonin (5-HT) function appears to persist after recovery from bulimia nervosa (RBN), we investigated the 5-HT(1A) receptor, which could contribute to regulation of appetite, mood, impulse control, or the response to ..
  17. Sedláčková D, Kopečková J, Papezova H, Vybiral S, Kvasnickova H, Hill M, et al. Changes of plasma obestatin, ghrelin and NPY in anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients before and after a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Physiol Res. 2011;60:165-73 pubmed
    ..of energy homeostasis, the imbalance of which is associated with eating disorders anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  18. Lavender A, Startup H, Naumann U, Samarawickrema N, Dejong H, Kenyon M, et al. Emotional and social mind training: a randomised controlled trial of a new group-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46047 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that ESM may be a viable alternative to CBT for some individuals. Further research will be required to identify and preferentially allocate suitable individuals accordingly. ISRCTN61115988. ..
  19. Avena N, Bocarsly M. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa...
  20. Kostopoulou M, Varsou E, Stalikas A. Thought-Shape Fusion in bulimia nervosa: an experimental investigation. Eat Weight Disord. 2011;16:e86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..was to experimentally investigate a cognitive distortion, 'Thought Shape Fusion' (TSF), in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  21. Kim K, Ku J, Lee J, Lee H, Jung Y. Functional and effective connectivity of anterior insula in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Neurosci Lett. 2012;521:152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is still poorly understood how the anterior insula is involved in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), which are characterized by opposite motivational responses to food...
  22. Spielmans G, Benish S, Marin C, Bowman W, Menster M, Wheeler A. Specificity of psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder? A meta-analysis of direct comparisons. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33:460-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy are the best-supported psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa (BN) and that CBT is the preferred psychological treatment for binge eating disorder (BED)...
  23. Micali N, De Stavola B, Dos Santos Silva I, Steenweg de Graaff J, Jansen P, Jaddoe V, et al. Perinatal outcomes and gestational weight gain in women with eating disorders: a population-based cohort study. BJOG. 2012;119:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..gain trajectories in women with lifetime (current/past) eating disorders (ED: anorexia nervosa [AN] and bulimia nervosa [BN]). A longitudinal population-based birth cohort. Rotterdam, the Netherlands...
  24. Pichika R, Buchsbaum M, Bailer U, Hoh C, Decastro A, Buchsbaum B, et al. Serotonin transporter binding after recovery from bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..contribute to a susceptibility to develop appetitive and behavioral alterations that are characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  25. Frank G, Reynolds J, Shott M, O Reilly R. Altered temporal difference learning in bulimia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:728-35 pubmed publisher
    The neurobiology of bulimia nervosa (BN) is poorly understood. Recent animal literature suggests that binge eating is associated with altered brain dopamine (DA) reward function...
  26. van den Eynde F, Koskina A, Syrad H, Guillaume S, Broadbent H, Campbell I, et al. State and trait food craving in people with bulimic eating disorders. Eat Behav. 2012;13:414-7 pubmed publisher
    In two studies, we examined trait and state food craving levels in people with a bulimic disorder (BD) (bulimia nervosa and related disorders) and healthy controls (HC) using multidimensional self-report assessments...
  27. Fassino S, Amianto F, Rocca G, Daga G. Parental bonding and eating psychopathology in bulimia nervosa: personality traits as possible mediators. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2010;19:214-22 pubmed
    ..Self-directedness mediates with different degrees between parenting and eating psychopathology. Clinical implications are discussed. ..
  28. Davies H, Swan N, Schmidt U, Tchanturia K. An experimental investigation of verbal expression of emotion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:476-83 pubmed publisher
    ..aims to use an experimental design to investigate verbal expression of emotion in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  29. Bailer U, Frank G, Price J, Meltzer C, Becker C, Mathis C, et al. Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2013;211:160-8 pubmed publisher
    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a ..
  30. Yilmaz Z, Kaplan A, Zai C, Levitan R, Kennedy J. COMT Val158Met variant and functional haplotypes associated with childhood ADHD history in women with bulimia nervosa. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:948-52 pubmed publisher
    Up to one third of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) report a history of ADHD symptoms, and both disorders may also be associated with dopaminergic abnormalities...
  31. Kemps E, Wilsdon A. Preliminary evidence for a role for impulsivity in cognitive disinhibition in bulimia nervosa. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010;32:515-21 pubmed
    The present study investigated cognitive disinhibition in bulimia nervosa (BN) and examined whether impulsivity could account for this neuropsychological deficiency...
  32. Bohon C, Stice E. Reward abnormalities among women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:585-95 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women...
  33. Gerard N, Pieters G, Goffin K, Bormans G, Van Laere K. Brain type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated 16 female bulimia nervosa patients (BN) (age = 23.8 ± 7.1 years) and 14 female anorexia nervosa patients (AN) (age = 20.5 ± 3...
  34. Sánchez Ortiz V, Munro C, Startup H, Treasure J, Schmidt U. The role of email guidance in internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-care treatment for bulimia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2011;19:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Emails sent by therapists were mainly supportive in content, with only a small amount of time being required by therapists to provide email support. ..
  35. Castellini G, Lo Sauro C, Mannucci E, Ravaldi C, Rotella C, Faravelli C, et al. Diagnostic crossover and outcome predictors in eating disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-V proposed criteria: a 6-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 793 patients (including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and EDs not otherwise specified) were evaluated on the first day of admission, at the ..
  36. Dejong H, van den Eynde F, Broadbent H, Kenyon M, Lavender A, Startup H, et al. Social cognition in bulimia nervosa: a systematic review. Eur Psychiatry. 2013;28:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Clinical accounts and previous evidence suggest that socio-emotional impairments may be present in people with bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  37. Fagundo A, Santamaría J, Forcano L, Giner Bartolome C, Jimenez Murcia S, Sanchez I, et al. Video game therapy for emotional regulation and impulsivity control in a series of treated cases with bulimia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013;21:493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to describe the results from a consecutive series of nine bulimia nervosa patients who were treated with the VG in addition to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)...
  38. Williams S, Watts T, Wade T. A review of the definitions of outcome used in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32:292-300 pubmed publisher
    There are many terms used to describe treatment outcome for bulimia nervosa. However, the way such terms are conceptualised across various studies differs dramatically, making comparison of outcomes difficult...
  39. Józefik B, Iniewicz G, Ulasińska R. [Attachment patterns, self-esteem, gender schema in anorexia and bulimia nervosa]. Psychiatr Pol. 2010;44:665-76 pubmed
    ..of attachment patterns between adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa (restrictive type), bulimia nervosa and healthy peers...
  40. Brewerton T, Costin C. Treatment results of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in a residential treatment program. Eat Disord. 2011;19:117-31 pubmed publisher
    Data on the effectiveness of residential treatment for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are limited. We analyzed patient survey results at admission and discharge from Monte Nido Residential Treatment Program...
  41. Guillaume S, Jaussent I, Olie E, Genty C, Bringer J, Courtet P, et al. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23578 pubmed publisher
    ..AN) has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN). Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing...
  42. Bulik C, Marcus M, Zerwas S, Levine M, Hofmeier S, Trace S, et al. CBT4BN versus CBTF2F: comparison of online versus face-to-face treatment for bulimia nervosa. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012;33:1056-64 pubmed publisher
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is currently the "gold standard" for treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN), and is effective for approximately 40-60% of individuals receiving treatment; however, the majority of individuals in ..
  43. Trace S, Thornton L, Root T, Mazzeo S, Lichtenstein P, Pedersen N, et al. Effects of reducing the frequency and duration criteria for binge eating on lifetime prevalence of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: implications for DSM-5. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of reducing the binge eating frequency and duration thresholds on the diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
  44. Broft A, Berner L, Martinez D, Walsh B. Bulimia nervosa and evidence for striatal dopamine dysregulation: a conceptual review. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..that a better understanding of the role of striatal dopamine (DA) in the initiation and/or maintenance of bulimia nervosa (BN) may result in a clearer characterization of mechanisms underlying BN...
  45. Mitchell J, Agras S, Crow S, Halmi K, Fairburn C, Bryson S, et al. Stepped care and cognitive-behavioural therapy for bulimia nervosa: randomised trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;198:391-7 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the best available treatment for bulimia nervosa, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) augmented by fluoxetine if indicated, with a stepped-care treatment approach in order to enhance treatment effectiveness...
  46. Galderisi S, Bucci P, Mucci A, Bellodi L, Cassano G, Santonastaso P, et al. Neurocognitive functioning in bulimia nervosa: the role of neuroendocrine, personality and clinical aspects. Psychol Med. 2011;41:839-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to define the pattern of neurocognitive impairment in a large sample of bulimia nervosa (BN) patients and to demonstrate that neuroendocrine, personality and clinical characteristics influence ..
  47. Di Paola F, Faravelli C, Ricca V. Perceived expressed emotion in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder and 63 control subjects, according to a case-control procedure...
  48. Sánchez Ortiz V, House J, Munro C, Treasure J, Startup H, Williams C, et al. "A computer isn't gonna judge you": a qualitative study of users' views of an internet-based cognitive behavioural guided self-care treatment package for bulimia nervosa and related disorders. Eat Weight Disord. 2011;16:e93-e101 pubmed
    ..iCBT was received positively as a way of fitting treatment into busy lives. Comments on the layout of some of the package content and the practitioner support offered were identified as areas that could be modified or improved. ..
  49. Easter A, Treasure J, Micali N. Fertility and prenatal attitudes towards pregnancy in women with eating disorders: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. BJOG. 2011;118:1491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and live births were included across four groups of women: lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 171); lifetime bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 199), lifetime anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (AN + BN; n = 82); and the general population (n ..
  50. Graham L, Walton M. Investigating the use of CD-Rom CBT for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in an NHS adult outpatient eating disorders service. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2011;39:443-56 pubmed publisher
    Many patients who experience bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) find it hard to access evidence-based treatments...
  51. Hinney A, Scherag S, Hebebrand J. Genetic findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;94:241-70 pubmed publisher
    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders associated with disordered eating behavior...
  52. Katzman M, Bara Carril N, Rabe Hesketh S, Schmidt U, Troop N, Treasure J. A randomized controlled two-stage trial in the treatment of bulimia nervosa, comparing CBT versus motivational enhancement in Phase 1 followed by group versus individual CBT in Phase 2. Psychosom Med. 2010;72:656-63 pubmed publisher
    To conduct a randomized, controlled, two-stage trial in the treatment of bulimia nervosa, comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus motivational enhancement in Phase 1 followed by group versus individual CBT in Phase 2...
  53. Núñez Navarro A, Jimenez Murcia S, Alvarez Moya E, Villarejo C, Díaz I, Augmantell C, et al. Differentiating purging and nonpurging bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:488-96 pubmed publisher
    ..and differences in clinical and personality variables across three groups: binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa-purging type (BN-P), and bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP)...