agoraphobia

Summary

Summary: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.

Top Publications

  1. Mosing M, Gordon S, Medland S, Statham D, Nelson E, Heath A, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on the co-morbidity between depression, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social phobia: a twin study. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:1004-11 pubmed publisher
    Major depression (MD) and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia (AG), and social phobia (SP) are heritable and highly co-morbid...
  2. Perugi G, Frare F, Toni C. Diagnosis and treatment of agoraphobia with panic disorder. CNS Drugs. 2007;21:741-64 pubmed
    b>Agoraphobia with panic disorder is a phobic-anxious syndrome where patients avoid situations or places in which they fear being embarrassed, or being unable to escape or get help if a panic attack occurs...
  3. Galassi F, Quercioli S, Charismas D, Niccolai V, Barciulli E. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia. J Clin Psychol. 2007;63:409-16 pubmed
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is well documented in the treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia; however, little is known about the efficacy of group treatment...
  4. Wittchen H, Gloster A, Beesdo Baum K, Fava G, Craske M. Agoraphobia: a review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27:113-33 pubmed publisher
    The status of agoraphobia (AG) as an independent diagnostic category is reviewed and preliminary options and recommendations for the fifth edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) are presented...
  5. Vögele C, Ehlers A, Meyer A, Frank M, Hahlweg K, Margraf J. Cognitive mediation of clinical improvement after intensive exposure therapy of agoraphobia and social phobia. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27:294-301 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated cognitive mediation of clinical improvement in patients with agoraphobia (N=427) or social phobia (N=98) receiving high-density exposure therapy in a naturalistic clinical treatment setting...
  6. Sánchez Meca J, Rosa Alcázar A, Marín Martínez F, Gómez Conesa A. Psychological treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30:37-50 pubmed publisher
    Although the efficacy of psychological treatment for panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia has been the subject of a great deal of research, the specific contribution of techniques such as exposure, cognitive therapy, ..
  7. Tsuchiya M, Kawakami N, Ono Y, Nakane Y, Nakamura Y, Tachimori H, et al. Lifetime comorbidities between phobic disorders and major depression in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:949-55 pubmed publisher
    ..hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status ..
  8. Faravelli C, Cosci F, Rotella F, Faravelli L, Catena Dell Osso M. Agoraphobia between panic and phobias: clinical epidemiology from the Sesto Fiorentino Study. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49:283-7 pubmed publisher
    In the last few decades, there has been a long debate on the existence of agoraphobia (AG) without a history of panic attacks (PAs)...
  9. Marazziti D, Carlini M, Dell osso L. Treatment strategies of obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder/agoraphobia. Curr Top Med Chem. 2012;12:238-53 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Na K, Ham B, Lee M, Kim L, Kim Y, Lee H, et al. Decreased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a preliminary study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;45:195-200 pubmed publisher
    Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) have clinical symptoms such as the fear of being outside or of open spaces from which escape would be difficult...
  2. Gloster A, Wittchen H, Einsle F, Hofler M, Lang T, Helbig Lang S, et al. Mechanism of action in CBT (MAC): methods of a multi-center randomized controlled trial in 369 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;259 Suppl 2:S155-66 pubmed publisher
    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/A). Nevertheless, the active ingredients of treatment and the mechanisms through which CBT achieves its effects remain largely unknown...
  3. van Apeldoorn F, van Hout W, Mersch P, Huisman M, Slaap B, Hale W, et al. Is a combined therapy more effective than either CBT or SSRI alone? Results of a multicenter trial on panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117:260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with PD (n = 150) with or without agoraphobia received CBT, SSRI or CBT + SSRI. Outcome was assessed after 9 months, before medication taper...
  4. Hayward C, Wilson K. Anxiety sensitivity: a missing piece to the agoraphobia-without-panic puzzle. Behav Modif. 2007;31:162-73 pubmed
    This article reviews the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of agoraphobia without panic attacks and proposes a key role for anxiety sensitivity in explaining agoraphobic avoidance among those who have never experienced panic...
  5. Meuret A, Wolitzky Taylor K, Twohig M, Craske M. Coping skills and exposure therapy in panic disorder and agoraphobia: latest advances and future directions. Behav Ther. 2012;43:271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine the extant evidence on the role of traditional coping skills in augmenting exposure for panic disorder, discuss the limitations of existing research, and offer recommendations for methodological advances. ..
  6. Klein B, Richards J, Austin D. Efficacy of internet therapy for panic disorder. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2006;37:213-38 pubmed
    ..Internet treatment was more effective than CBT manual in reducing clinician-rated agoraphobia and number of GP visits at post-assessment...
  7. Siegmund A, Golfels F, Finck C, Halisch A, Räth D, Plag J, et al. D-cycloserine does not improve but might slightly speed up the outcome of in-vivo exposure therapy in patients with severe agoraphobia and panic disorder in a randomized double blind clinical trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:1042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied whether DCS can also improve the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder...
  8. Goodwin R, Faravelli C, Rosi S, Cosci F, Truglia E, de Graaf R, et al. The epidemiology of panic disorder and agoraphobia in Europe. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;15:435-43 pubmed
    ..The 12-month prevalence of panic disorder and agoraphobia without history of panic were estimated to be 1.8% (0.7-2.2) and 1.3% (0.7-2.0) respectively across studies...
  9. McTeague L, Lang P, Laplante M, Bradley M. Aversive imagery in panic disorder: agoraphobia severity, comorbidity, and defensive physiology. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel aim of this research was to investigate whether severity of agoraphobia within panic disorder covaries with the intensity of physiological reactions to imagery of panic attacks and ..
  10. Marchand A, Coutu M, Dupuis G, Fleet R, Borgeat F, Todorov C, et al. Treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia: randomized placebo-controlled trial of four psychosocial treatments combined with imipramine or placebo. Cogn Behav Ther. 2008;37:146-59 pubmed publisher
    Few randomized controlled trials have included panic disorder patients with moderate to severe agoraphobia. Therefore, this population was studied using pharmacotherapy as well as psychotherapy...
  11. Mitte K. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of psycho- and pharmacotherapy in panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. J Affect Disord. 2005;88:27-45 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences between (C)BT alone and a combination approach but characteristics of studies have to be considered. ..
  12. van Apeldoorn F, Timmerman M, Mersch P, van Hout W, Visser S, Van Dyck R, et al. A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or both combined for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: treatment results through 1-year follow-up. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:574-86 pubmed publisher
    To establish the long-term effectiveness of 3 treatments for DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination ..
  13. Zvolensky M, Feldner M, Leen Feldner E, McLeish A. Smoking and panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia: a review of the empirical literature. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:761-89 pubmed
    The empirical literature regarding panic-spectrum problems (i.e., panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) and cigarette smoking is reviewed...
  14. Milrod B, Leon A, Busch F, Rudden M, Schwalberg M, Clarkin J, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:265-72 pubmed
    ..The secondary outcome, change in psychosocial functioning, mirrored these results. Despite the small cohort size of this trial, it has demonstrated preliminary efficacy of panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for panic disorder. ..
  15. Gloster A, Wittchen H, Einsle F, Lang T, Helbig Lang S, Fydrich T, et al. Psychological treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia: a randomized controlled trial to examine the role of therapist-guided exposure in situ in CBT. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:406-20 pubmed publisher
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Nevertheless, an understanding of its mechanisms and particularly the role of therapist-guided exposure is lacking...
  16. Grant B, Hasin D, Stinson F, Dawson D, Goldstein R, Smith S, et al. The epidemiology of DSM-IV panic disorder and agoraphobia in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:363-74 pubmed
    ..correlates, and comorbidity of DSM-IV panic disorder (PAN), including the differentiation between panic with agoraphobia (PDA) and without agoraphobia (PDWA) and agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder (AG)...
  17. Day S, Holmes E, Hackmann A. Occurrence of imagery and its link with early memories in agoraphobia. Memory. 2004;12:416-27 pubmed
    ..g., de Silva, 1986; Hackmann, Surawy, & Clark, 1998). However, imagery is relatively unexplored within agoraphobia. Such images are also thought to be useful in uncovering memories that occurred around the onset of a disorder (..
  18. Kessler R, Chiu W, Jin R, Ruscio A, Shear K, Walters E. The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:415-24 pubmed
    ..To present nationally representative data about the epidemiology of PAs and PD with or without agoraphobia (AG) on the basis of the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication findings...
  19. Yamamoto I, Nakano Y, Watanabe N, Noda Y, Furukawa T, Kanai T, et al. Cross-cultural evaluation of the Panic Disorder Severity Scale in Japan. Depress Anxiety. 2004;20:17-22 pubmed
    ..and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity among Japanese patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. We also established rules of thumb for interpreting PDSS total scores, taking the Clinical Global Impression ..
  20. Huang M, Yen C, Lung F. Moderators and mediators among panic, agoraphobia symptoms, and suicidal ideation in patients with panic disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Medication for Panic Disorder, and Social Status Rating Scale were used to understand the severity of panic and agoraphobia, social support, drug adverse effects, and social status...
  21. Boldrini M, Del Pace L, Placidi G, Keilp J, Ellis S, Signori S, et al. Selective cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to panic disorder with agoraphobia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;111:150-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated their specificity comparing cognitive function in OCD, panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/A) and controls by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
  22. Roberge P, Marchand A, Reinharz D, Savard P. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia: a randomized, controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. Behav Modif. 2008;32:333-51 pubmed publisher
    ..was conducted to examine the cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia. A total of 100 participants were randomly assigned to standard (n = 33), group (n = 35), and brief (n = 32) ..
  23. Carlbring P, Nilsson Ihrfelt E, Waara J, Kollenstam C, Buhrman M, Kaldo V, et al. Treatment of panic disorder: live therapy vs. self-help via the Internet. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43:1321-33 pubmed
    ..comparing 10 individual weekly sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia with a 10-module self-help program on the Internet...
  24. Siegmund A, Köster L, Meves A, Plag J, Stoy M, Strohle A. Stress hormones during flooding therapy and their relationship to therapy outcome in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, 10 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia were treated with cognitive behavioural therapy including 3 in-vivo exposures (flooding) to individual phobic ..
  25. Salkovskis P, Hackmann A, Wells A, Gelder M, Clark D. Belief disconfirmation versus habituation approaches to situational exposure in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a pilot study. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:877-85 pubmed
    ..Exposure therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) are both effective in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Cognitive theories suggest that the way in which exposure to avoided situations is implemented in either ..
  26. Chambless D, Sharpless B, Rodriguez D, McCarthy K, Milrod B, Khalsa S, et al. Psychometric properties of the mobility inventory for agoraphobia: convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity. Behav Ther. 2011;42:689-99 pubmed publisher
    Aims of this study were (a) to summarize the psychometric literature on the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA), (b) to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the MIA's Avoidance Alone and Avoidance Accompanied rating ..
  27. Zvolensky M, Bernstein A, Marshall E, Feldner M. Panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia: associations with substance use, abuse, and dependence. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2006;8:279-85 pubmed
    ..of this literature, with a specific focus on panic-spectrum psychopathology (panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) and its associations with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence...
  28. Heldt E, Blaya C, Isolan L, Kipper L, Teruchkin B, Otto M, et al. Quality of life and treatment outcome in panic disorder: cognitive behavior group therapy effects in patients refractory to medication treatment. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75:183-6 pubmed
    ..094). CBGT was efficacious in the treatment of PD; the symptoms of anticipatory anxiety and avoidance appear to be more important than episodic panic episodes in affecting QoL. ..
  29. Farvolden P, Denisoff E, Selby P, Bagby R, Rudy L. Usage and longitudinal effectiveness of a Web-based self-help cognitive behavioral therapy program for panic disorder. J Med Internet Res. 2005;7:e7 pubmed
    ..of a freely available, 12-session, Web-based, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for panic disorder and agoraphobia. Cumulative anonymous data were analyzed from 99695 users of the Panic Center...
  30. Bienvenu O, Hettema J, Neale M, Prescott C, Kendler K. Low extraversion and high neuroticism as indices of genetic and environmental risk for social phobia, agoraphobia, and animal phobia. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1714-21 pubmed
    ..extraversion and neuroticism) index the genetic and environmental risk for three phobias (social phobia, agoraphobia, and animal phobia) in twins ascertained from a large, population-based registry...
  31. Bergstrom J, Andersson G, Karlsson A, Andreewitch S, Ruck C, Carlbring P, et al. An open study of the effectiveness of Internet treatment for panic disorder delivered in a psychiatric setting. Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63:44-50 pubmed publisher
    Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) is common and can be treated effectively with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication or cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT)...
  32. Hoffart A, Hedley L, Thornes K, Larsen S, Friis S. Therapists' emotional reactions to patients as a mediator in cognitive behavioural treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Cogn Behav Ther. 2006;35:174-82 pubmed
    ..after the end of residential cognitive or guided mastery therapy for 46 inpatients with panic disorder with agoraphobia. The severity of DSM-III-R personality disorder was related to therapists' insecurity feelings, but not to ..
  33. Ramnerö J, Ost L. Prediction of outcome in the behavioural treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Cogn Behav Ther. 2004;33:176-80 pubmed
    ..predicted from pre-treatment characteristics for 62 patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia of moderate to severe magnitude who were treated with 16 sessions of behavioural therapy...
  34. Bienvenu O, Stein M, Samuels J, Onyike C, Eaton W, Nestadt G. Personality disorder traits as predictors of subsequent first-onset panic disorder or agoraphobia. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50:209-14 pubmed publisher
    Determining how personality disorder traits and panic disorder and/or agoraphobia relate longitudinally is an important step in developing a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of panic/agoraphobia...
  35. Furukawa T, Watanabe N, Churchill R. Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:305-12 pubmed
    ..96, 95% CI 0.79-1.16). Either combined therapy or psychotherapy alone may be chosen as first-line treatment for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, depending on the patient's preferences.
  36. Richter J, Hamm A, Pané Farré C, Gerlach A, Gloster A, Wittchen H, et al. Dynamics of defensive reactivity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia: implications for the etiology of panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72:512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..by investigating the dynamics of defensive reactivity in a large group of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG)...
  37. Freire R, de Carvalho M, Joffily M, Zin W, Nardi A. Anxiogenic properties of a computer simulation for panic disorder with agoraphobia. J Affect Disord. 2010;125:301-6 pubmed publisher
    There are several useful methods to induce anxiety in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). Our aim was to ascertain if a computer simulation (CS) could induce anxiety and physiologic alterations in PDA patients...
  38. Lueken U, Muehlhan M, Wittchen H, Kellermann T, Reinhardt I, Konrad C, et al. (Don't) panic in the scanner! How panic patients with agoraphobia experience a functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:516-25 pubmed publisher
    ..management strategies during an fMRI experiment in a comprehensive sample of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG)...
  39. Wittchen H, Nocon A, Beesdo K, Pine D, Hofler M, Lieb R, et al. Agoraphobia and panic. Prospective-longitudinal relations suggest a rethinking of diagnostic concepts. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77:147-57 pubmed publisher
    The relationship of panic attacks (PA), panic disorder (PD) and agoraphobia (AG) is controversial...
  40. Furukawa T, Katherine Shear M, Barlow D, Gorman J, Woods S, Money R, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for interpretation of the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:922-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The interpretation of the PDSS total score differed according to the presence or absence of agoraphobia. When the patients were not agoraphobic, score ranges 0-1 corresponded with "Normal," 2-5 with "..
  41. Pitti C, Peñate W, de la Fuente J, Bethencourt J, Acosta L, Villaverde M, et al. [Agoraphobia: combined treatment and virtual reality. Preliminary results]. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2008;36:94-101 pubmed
    ..cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and combined treatment as effective procedures for the treatment of agoraphobia. Recent findings suggest that agoraphobia can also be treated with virtual reality techniques (VRET) as an ..
  42. Viaud Delmon I, Warusfel O, Seguelas A, Rio E, Jouvent R. High sensitivity to multisensory conflicts in agoraphobia exhibited by virtual reality. Eur Psychiatry. 2006;21:501-8 pubmed
    ..The result of this study points to the multisensory integration deficit of agoraphobic patients and underline the need for further research on multimodal VR systems for clinical use. ..
  43. Bienvenu O, Onyike C, Stein M, Chen L, Samuels J, Nestadt G, et al. Agoraphobia in adults: incidence and longitudinal relationship with panic. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:432-8 pubmed
    Theories regarding how spontaneous panic and agoraphobia relate are based mostly on cross-sectional and/or clinic data...
  44. Kiropoulos L, Klein B, Austin D, Gilson K, Pier C, Mitchell J, et al. Is internet-based CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia as effective as face-to-face CBT?. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22:1273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..CBT intervention, to best-practice face-to-face CBT for people with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Eighty-six people with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder were recruited from Victoria, Australia...
  45. Wittmann A, Schlagenhauf F, John T, Guhn A, Rehbein H, Siegmund A, et al. A new paradigm (Westphal-Paradigm) to study the neural correlates of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;261:185-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Agoraphobia (with and without panic disorder) is a highly prevalent and disabling anxiety disorder. Its neural complexity can be characterized by specific cues in fMRI studies...
  46. Fava G, Rafanelli C, Tossani E, Grandi S. Agoraphobia is a disease: a tribute to Sir Martin Roth. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77:133-8 pubmed publisher
    The evidence which has accumulated on the course of agoraphobia challenges the DSM view that phobic avoidance is secondary to panic attacks. In particular, a longitudinal study by Wittchen et al...
  47. Schmidt N, Salas D, Bernert R, Schatschneider C. Diagnosing agoraphobia in the context of panic disorder: examining the effect of DSM-IV criteria on diagnostic decision-making. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43:1219-29 pubmed
    A diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM)-IV diagnosis of agoraphobia in the context of panic disorder (PD) is based on three nosologically sufficient criteria: (1) avoidance, (2) use of companions, and (3) endurance of situations ..
  48. Roberge P, Marchand A, Reinharz D, Cloutier K, Mainguy N, Miller J, et al. Healthcare utilization following cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Cogn Behav Ther. 2005;34:79-88 pubmed
    ..utilization after providing an empirically supported cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Data on healthcare utilization were collected for a total of 84 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria...
  49. Wilson K, Hayward C. A prospective evaluation of agoraphobia and depression symptoms following panic attacks in a community sample of adolescents. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19:87-103 pubmed
    ..examined the prospective relationships among pre-panic vulnerabilities, panic attack severity, and post-panic agoraphobia and depression symptoms...
  50. Malbos E, Rapee R, Kavakli M. A controlled study of agoraphobia and the independent effect of virtual reality exposure therapy. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013;47:160-8 pubmed publisher
    Past controlled clinical trials centred on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for agoraphobia mostly used multicomponent therapy with success...
  51. Mavissakalian M, Perel J. 2nd year maintenance and discontinuation of imipramine in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2001;13:63-7 pubmed
    The results from our 1 year placebo-controlled maintenance/discontinuation study in remitted panic disorder with agoraphobia patients confirmed the significant prophylactic effectiveness of imipramine maintenance treatment but suggested ..
  52. Starcevic V, Linden M, Uhlenhuth E, Kolar D, Latas M. Treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia in an anxiety disorders clinic: factors influencing psychiatrists' treatment choices. Psychiatry Res. 2004;125:41-52 pubmed
    ..anxiety disorders clinic to make a decision about intensive treatment of patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, CBT plus a high-potency benzodiazepine (CBT+BZ) or CBT ..
  53. Mavissakalian M, Perel J. Duration of imipramine therapy and relapse in panic disorder with agoraphobia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;22:294-9 pubmed
    It has been suggested that maintenance treatment of patients who have remitted panic disorder with agoraphobia beyond the six months of acute phase imipramine treatment may decrease the risk of relapse...