mannans

Summary

Summary: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.

Top Publications

  1. Machová E, Bystricky S. Antioxidant capacities of mannans and glucans are related to their susceptibility of free radical degradation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;61:308-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper presents antioxidant properties of prepared yeast mannans, commercial ?-glucans as well as the chemically prepared carboxymethylated ?-glucan (CM-glucan)...
  2. Aquino V, Nagel F, Andreolla H, De Paris F, Xavier M, Goldani L, et al. The performance of real-time PCR, galactomannan, and fungal culture in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mycopathologia. 2012;174:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR was positive for 10 patients in the study but did not differentiate Aspergillus colonization from infection. The combination of PCR and GM in respiratory samples may be an interesting alternative to diagnose IA in COPD patients. ..
  3. Hall R, Bates S, Lenardon M, MacCallum D, Wagener J, Lowman D, et al. The Mnn2 mannosyltransferase family modulates mannoprotein fibril length, immune recognition and virulence of Candida albicans. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003276 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ?1,2-mannose of N-mannan is important for both immune recognition and virulence of C. albicans...
  4. Tokin C, Cope F, Metz W, Blue M, Potter B, Abbruzzese B, et al. The efficacy of Tilmanocept in sentinel lymph mode mapping and identification in breast cancer patients: a comparative review and meta-analysis of the ??mTc-labeled nanocolloid human serum albumin standard of care. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2012;29:681-6 pubmed publisher
    ..99 % (CI 0.9977-1.0000) localization rate and degree of localization of 2.16 (CI 1.964-2.3600). Tilmanocept was superior to the Nanocoll SOC for both endpoints (P < 0.0001)...
  5. Beaussart A, Alsteens D, El Kirat Chatel S, Lipke P, Kucharíková S, Van Dijck P, et al. Single-molecule imaging and functional analysis of Als adhesins and mannans during Candida albicans morphogenesis. ACS Nano. 2012;6:10950-64 pubmed publisher
    ..to a major increase in the distribution, adhesion, unfolding, and extension of Als adhesins and their associated mannans on the cell surface. We also find that morphogenesis dramatically increases cell surface hydrophobicity...
  6. Mille C, Fradin C, Delplace F, Trinel P, Masset A, François N, et al. Members 5 and 6 of the Candida albicans BMT family encode enzymes acting specifically on ?-mannosylation of the phospholipomannan cell-wall glycosphingolipid. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1332-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Mannose surface expression was not affected, confirming that ?-mannosylation is a process based on specificity of acceptor molecules, but liable to global regulation...
  7. Pandey S, Goswami G, Nanda K. Green synthesis of biopolymer-silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: an optical sensor for ammonia detection. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:583-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Jiang R, Du X, Zhang X, Wang X, Hu D, Meng T, et al. Synthesis and bioassay of ?-(1,4)-D-mannans as potential agents against Alzheimer's disease. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:1585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Synthetic homogeneous short chain ?-(1,4)-D-mannans shows neuroprotective effect against A? peptide toxicity similar to that of heterogeneous oligomannurarate 971 ..
  9. Badia R, Brufau M, Guerrero Zamora A, Lizardo R, Dobrescu I, Martín Venegas R, et al. ?-Galactomannan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii modulate the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:368-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the addition of ?GM inhibits Salmonella-induced proinflammatory profiles in IECs but may promote DC activation, although associated molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Díaz Jiménez D, Mora Montes H, Hernández Cervantes A, Luna Arias J, Gow N, Flores Carreón A. Biochemical characterization of recombinant Candida albicans mannosyltransferases Mnt1, Mnt2 and Mnt5 reveals new functions in O- and N-mannan biosynthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, they also used Saccharomyces cerevisiaeO-mannans as acceptors and generated products with more than three mannose residues, suggesting than Mnt1 and Mnt2 could be ..
  2. Takahashi S, Kudoh A, Okawa Y, Shibata N. Significant differences in the cell-wall mannans from three Candida glabrata strains correlate with antifungal drug sensitivity. FEBS J. 2012;279:1844-56 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the mannans of the two former strains possessed up to the tetraose side chains and the amount of the ?-1,2-linked mannose ..
  3. Sondak V, King D, Zager J, Schneebaum S, Kim J, Leong S, et al. Combined analysis of phase III trials evaluating [??mTc]tilmanocept and vital blue dye for identification of sentinel lymph nodes in clinically node-negative cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..99m)Tc]Tilmanocept is a CD206 receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical designed for sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification. Two nearly identical nonrandomized phase III trials compared [(99m)Tc]tilmanocept to vital blue dye...
  4. Held J, Kohlberger I, Rappold E, Busse Grawitz A, Hacker G. Comparison of (1->3)-?-D-glucan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies, and Cand-Tec Candida antigen as serum biomarkers for candidemia. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the four tests compared, (1?3)-?-D-glucan and mannan antigen are the superior biomarkers, depending on whether a sensitivity-driven or specificity-driven approach is used. ..
  5. Morrissey C, Chen S, Sorrell T, Milliken S, Bardy P, Bradstock K, et al. Galactomannan and PCR versus culture and histology for directing use of antifungal treatment for invasive aspergillosis in high-risk haematology patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared a standard diagnostic strategy (culture and histology) with a rapid biomarker-based diagnostic strategy (aspergillus galactomannan and PCR) for directing the use of antifungal treatment in this group of patients...
  6. Emerson D, Limmer K, Hall D, Han S, Eckelman W, Kane C, et al. A receptor-targeted fluorescent radiopharmaceutical for multireporter sentinel lymph node imaging. Radiology. 2012;265:186-93 pubmed
    ..To determine the imaging and receptor-binding properties of a multireporter probe designed for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping via nuclear and fluorescence detection...
  7. Shibata N, Okawa Y. Conformational analysis of ?-1,2-linked mannobiose to mannoheptaose, specific antigen of pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:1386-90 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that a mannose unit affects the H-1 chemical shifts of not only the second mannose unit, but also the third and fourth mannose units. ..
  8. Frealle E, Decrucq K, Botterel F, Bouchindhomme B, Camus D, Dei Cas E, et al. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using bronchoalveolar lavage in haematology patients: influence of bronchoalveolar lavage human DNA content on real-time PCR performance. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Using beta-globin for the interpretation of fungal PCR could improve the negative predictive value of this test. ..
  9. Takahara K, Tokieda S, Nagaoka K, Takeda T, Kimura Y, Inaba K. C-type lectin SIGNR1 enhances cellular oxidative burst response against C. albicans in cooperation with Dectin-1. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SIGNR1 plays a significant role in inducing oxidative response to C. albicans by Syk-dependent signaling, possibly through Dectin-1. ..
  10. Mora Montes H, Bates S, Netea M, Castillo L, Brand A, Buurman E, et al. A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12087-95 pubmed publisher
    ..and were responsible for attachment of approximately half of the phosphomannan attached to N-linked mannans. CaMnt4 and CaMnt5 participated in N-mannan branching...
  11. Yu H, Lu J, Xiao C. Preparation and properties of novel hydrogels from oxidized konjac glucomannan cross-linked chitosan for in vitro drug delivery. Macromol Biosci. 2007;7:1100-11 pubmed
    ..Importantly, this process offers an entirely new window of materials preparation when compared with the traditional preparation of CS-based hydrogels with small molecules cross-linking agent. ..
  12. Keppler Ross S, Douglas L, Konopka J, Dean N. Recognition of yeast by murine macrophages requires mannan but not glucan. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mannose side chains or mannosylated proteins are the ligands recognized by murine macrophages prior to fungal uptake. ..
  13. Zhang J, Chen Y, Xin X, Li Q, Li M, Lin L, et al. Oligomannurarate sulfate blocks tumor growth by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that NF-kappaB mediates the JG3-induced arrest of tumor growth. These results define a new mechanism of action of JG3 and highlight the potential for JG3 as a promising lead molecule in cancer therapy. ..
  14. Miller M, Klyosov A, Mayo K. Structural features for ?-galactomannan binding to galectin-1. Glycobiology. 2012;22:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings contribute to better understanding interactions of gal-1 with larger, complex polysaccharides and to the development of GM-based therapeutics for clinical use. ..
  15. Husain S, Paterson D, Studer S, Crespo M, Pilewski J, Durkin M, et al. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2007;83:1330-6 pubmed
    ..A Platelia EIA index cut-off > or =1.0 in the BAL fluid in a lung transplant recipient with a compatible clinical illness may be considered as suggestive of IA. ..
  16. Desai R, Ross L, Hoffman J. The role of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in the diagnosis of pediatric invasive aspergillosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:283-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also noted a linear relationship between serum and BAL GM values. Receiver operating characteristic curves obtained from our pediatric data validate the current cut off for serum and suggest a possible cut off for BAL specimens. ..
  17. Del Bono V, Mikulska M, Viscoli C. Invasive aspergillosis: diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. Curr Opin Hematol. 2008;15:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Posaconazole showed to be active in prophylaxis, though its effectiveness in the global patient population is still controversial. ..
  18. Schmalhorst P, Krappmann S, Vervecken W, Rohde M, Muller M, Braus G, et al. Contribution of galactofuranose to the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1268-77 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus. Its absence from mammalian cells indeed offers a considerable advantage to achieve therapeutic selectivity. ..
  19. Sainz J, Perez E, Gómez Lopera S, Jurado M. IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms and its haplotypes may predict the risk to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and modulate C-reactive protein level. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:473-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a critical role of IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms in the susceptibility to IPA infection and CRP production. ..
  20. Lai C, Hsu H, Lee L, Hsueh P. Assessment of Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40:148-53 pubmed
    ..The Platelia Aspergillus EIA is a useful screening test for the detection of IA. Regular monitoring of the kinetics of GM-EIA indices is a useful predictor of clinical course and outcome. ..
  21. Meersseman W, Lagrou K, Maertens J, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Vanderschueren S, et al. Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a tool for diagnosing aspergillosis in intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:27-34 pubmed
    ..IA is common in immunocompromised, critically ill patients. GM detection in BAL fluid seems to be useful in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of IA in the ICU. ..
  22. Wijagkanalan W, Kawakami S, Takenaga M, Igarashi R, Yamashita F, Hashida M. Efficient targeting to alveolar macrophages by intratracheal administration of mannosylated liposomes in rats. J Control Release. 2008;125:121-30 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the efficient targeting to alveolar macrophages by the intratracheally administered Man-liposomes via mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis. ..
  23. Dhawan S, Kaur J. Microbial mannanases: an overview of production and applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2007;27:197-216 pubmed
    ..The reference to plant and animal mannanases has been made to complete the overview. However, the major emphasis of the review is on the microbial mannanases. ..
  24. Wheat L, Walsh T. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by galactomannan antigenemia detection using an enzyme immunoassay. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..False positivity can be seen with concomitant administration of some antibiotics and infection by fungi other than Aspergillus. ..
  25. Sendid B, Dotan N, Nseir S, Savaux C, Vandewalle P, Standaert A, et al. Antibodies against glucan, chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan as new biomarkers of Candida albicans infection that complement tests based on C. albicans mannan. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Future trials are necessary to assess the value of these tests in multiparametric analysis, as well as their pathophysiological relevance. ..
  26. Smith D, Nagy T, Wilson L, Dong S, Barnes S, Allison D. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:995-9 pubmed publisher
    ..247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer. ..
  27. Paugam A, Baixench M, Lebuisson A, Dupouy Camet J. [Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: value of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan for immunocompromised patients]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The determination of GM is definitely more sensitive than the ED. Excellent specificity (98%) allows its implementation as a screening test in patients at risk. ..
  28. Chua M, Baldwin T, Hocking T, Chan K. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible directions for future research and development and standardisation of production and classification of this versatile natural product will be discussed. ..
  29. Lambou K, Perkhofer S, Fontaine T, Latge J. Comparative functional analysis of the OCH1 mannosyltransferase families in Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2010;27:625-36 pubmed publisher
    Alpha1,6-linked mannans are an essential component of the Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan, which is either GPI-anchored to the plasma membrane or covalently bound to the polysaccharide core of the cell wall...
  30. Lu Y, Chen Y, Guo Y, Qin S, Wu C, Wang K. Diagnosis of invasive fungal disease using serum (1?3)-?-D-glucan: a bivariate meta-analysis. Intern Med. 2011;50:2783-91 pubmed
    ..The combination of galactomannan and BG was sufficient for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. Since the BG assay is not absolutely sensitive and specific for IFD, the BG results should be interpreted in parallel with clinical findings. ..
  31. Maertens J, Theunissen K, Lodewyck T, Lagrou K, Van Eldere J. Advances in the serological diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus infections in patients with haematological disorders. Mycoses. 2007;50 Suppl 1:2-17 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on the diagnostic utility as well as on the pitfalls of serial screening for the presence of circulating fungal antigens in haematology patients. ..
  32. Naoumkina M, Torres Jerez I, Allen S, He J, Zhao P, Dixon R, et al. Analysis of cDNA libraries from developing seeds of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub). BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:62 pubmed
    ..To better understand regulation of guar seed development and galactomannan metabolism we created cDNA libraries and a resulting EST dataset from different developmental stages of guar seeds...
  33. Li Y, Yang P, Meng K, Wang Y, Luo H, Wu N, et al. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel beta-mannanase from Bacillus circulans CGMCC 1416. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:160-6 pubmed
    ..6. The hydrolysis product on substrate locust bean gum included a monosaccharide and mainly oligosaccharides. The recombinant MANB48 may be of potential use in the feed industry. ..
  34. Pré M, Caillet V, Sobilo J, McCarthy J. Characterization and expression analysis of genes directing galactomannan synthesis in coffee. Ann Bot. 2008;102:207-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The data obtained will enable more detailed studies on the biosynthesis of this important component of coffee grain and contribute to a better understanding of some functional differences between grain from C. arabica and C. canephora. ..
  35. Nochta I, Tuboly T, Halas V, Babinszky L. Effect of different levels of mannan-oligosaccharide supplementation on some immunological variables in weaned piglets. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2009;93:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 1 g/kg MOS supplementation group also showed some advantage in local immune responsiveness. Therefore, based on the studied immune variables, 1 g/kg MOS product is suggested in the diet of weaned piglets. ..
  36. Bergeron A, Belle A, Sulahian A, Lacroix C, Chevret S, Raffoux E, et al. Contribution of galactomannan antigen detection in BAL to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Chest. 2010;137:410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of GM in BAL is complementary of serum GM testing and mycologic evaluation of the respiratory samples for the diagnosis of IPA. Positive GM BAL was the sole microbiologic criterion in two of 33 patients studied. ..
  37. Park S, Lee S, Choi S, Jeong J, Sung H, Kim M, et al. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan assays in patients with pulmonary aspergilloma. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:e149-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The positivity of serum GM assays was significantly higher in patients with hemoptysis than in those without hemoptysis (52% vs 9%; P=.02). ..
  38. Danpornprasert P, Foongladda S, Tscheikuna J. Impact of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan on the outcome of patients at risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93 Suppl 1:S86-93 pubmed
    ..003). BAL GM detection has a higher positive rate than serum GM in patients at risk for IPA. It is helpful in diagnosis and categorization of IPA, but its impact on clinical outcome cannot be demonstrated in this study. ..
  39. Santander S, Aoki M, Hernandez J, Pombo M, Moins Teisserenc H, Mooney N, et al. Galactomannan from Caesalpinia spinosa induces phenotypic and functional maturation of human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:652-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that Galactomannan obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa promotes effective activation of MDDCs. This adjuvant-like activity may have therapeutic applications in clinical settings where immune responses need boosting. ..
  40. Lowman D, Ensley H, Greene R, Knagge K, Williams D, Kruppa M. Mannan structural complexity is decreased when Candida albicans is cultivated in blood or serum at physiological temperature. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:2752-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that the C. albicans cell wall is a dynamic and adaptive organelle, which alters its structural phenotype in response to growth in host-derived media at physiological temperature. ..
  41. Cambi A, Netea M, Mora Montes H, Gow N, Hato S, Lowman D, et al. Dendritic cell interaction with Candida albicans critically depends on N-linked mannan. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20590-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Better insight in the carbohydrate recognition profile of C-type lectins will ultimately provide relevant information for the development of new drugs targeting specific fungal cell wall antigens. ..
  42. Mokaddas E, Burhamah M, Ahmad S, Khan Z. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus terreus: value of DNA, galactomannan and (1->3)-beta-D-glucan detection in serum samples as an adjunct to diagnosis. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1519-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The report highlights the value of surrogate markers in the diagnosis and for monitoring the course of invasive aspergillosis during therapy. ..
  43. Acosta J, Catalan M, del Palacio Pérez Medel A, Lora D, Montejo J, Cuetara M, et al. A prospective comparison of galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis in medical patients under intensive care: comparison with the diagnostic performance of galactomannan and of (1? 3)-?-d-gl. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with IA, GM (90%) and BG (80%) appeared a mean of 4.3 days (range, 1-10 days) before Aspergillus was cultured. GM detection in BAL appears to improve the diagnosis of IA in critical patients. ..
  44. Pasqualotto A, Xavier M, Sánchez L, de Oliveira Costa C, Schio S, Camargo S, et al. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients by detection of galactomannan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Transplantation. 2010;90:306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To minimize the frequency of false-positive results, a higher test cutoff should be applied to BAL samples, in comparison with serum samples. ..
  45. Ting R, Aguilera T, Crisp J, Hall D, Eckelman W, Vera D, et al. Fast 18F labeling of a near-infrared fluorophore enables positron emission tomography and optical imaging of sentinel lymph nodes. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:1811-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Facile incorporation of (18)F into a NIRF probe should promote many synergistic PET and NIRF combinations...
  46. Mokaddas E, Burhamah M, Khan Z, Ahmad S. Levels of (1?3)-?-D-glucan, Candida mannan and Candida DNA in serum samples of pediatric cancer patients colonized with Candida species. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:292 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective surveillance study determined the extent of Candida colonization among pediatric cancer patients and its possible impact on serum levels of (1-3)-?-D-glucan (BDG), Candida mannan and Candida DNA...
  47. Smeekens S, van de Veerdonk F, Van der Meer J, Kullberg B, Joosten L, Netea M. The Candida Th17 response is dependent on mannan- and beta-glucan-induced prostaglandin E2. Int Immunol. 2010;22:889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans and that PGE2 is induced by the fungal components mannan and ?-glucan that are recognized by the MR and the dectin-1/TLR2 pathway, respectively. ..
  48. Hadrich I, Mary C, Makni F, Elloumi M, Dumon H, Ayadi A, et al. Comparison of PCR-ELISA and Real-Time PCR for invasive aspergillosis diagnosis in patients with hematological malignancies. Med Mycol. 2011;49:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining real-time PCR and GMA detection for both serum and BAL samples enhances routine laboratory IA diagnosis. ..
  49. Kruppa M, Greene R, Noss I, Lowman D, Williams D. C. albicans increases cell wall mannoprotein, but not mannan, in response to blood, serum and cultivation at physiological temperature. Glycobiology. 2011;21:1173-80 pubmed publisher
  50. Murciano C, Moyes D, Runglall M, Islam A, Mille C, Fradin C, et al. Candida albicans cell wall glycosylation may be indirectly required for activation of epithelial cell proinflammatory responses. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4902-11 pubmed publisher
  51. Torelli R, Sanguinetti M, Moody A, Pagano L, Caira M, De Carolis E, et al. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from high-risk patients compared to a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more large studies are necessary to firmly establish its clinical utility in high-risk settings. ..
  52. Saijo S, Ikeda S, Yamabe K, Kakuta S, Ishigame H, Akitsu A, et al. Dectin-2 recognition of alpha-mannans and induction of Th17 cell differentiation is essential for host defense against Candida albicans. Immunity. 2010;32:681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Because IL-17A-deficient mice were highly susceptible to systemic candida infection, this study suggests that Dectin-2 is important in host defense against C. albicans by inducing Th17 cell differentiation. ..
  53. Ikeda R, Saito F, Matsuo M, Kurokawa K, Sekimizu K, Yamaguchi M, et al. Contribution of the mannan backbone of cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan and a glycolytic enzyme of Staphylococcus aureus to contact-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4815-26 pubmed
    ..neoformans. Thus, TPI on S. aureus adheres to the capsule of C. neoformans by recognizing the structure of mannotriose units in the backbone of GXM; we suggest that this contact is required for killing of C. neoformans. ..