varicocele

Summary

Summary: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.

Top Publications

  1. Haydardedeoglu B, Turunc T, Kilicdag E, Gul U, Bagis T. The effect of prior varicocelectomy in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes: a retrospective pilot study. Urology. 2010;75:83-6 pubmed publisher
    ..examine our retrospective data on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to determine whether a history of varicocele repair in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) undergoing an ICSI cycle was optimizing or not.
  2. Robinson S, Hampton L, Koo H. Treatment strategy for the adolescent varicocele. Urol Clin North Am. 2010;37:269-78 pubmed publisher
    A varicocele is a dilatation of the testicular vein and the pampiniform venous plexus within the spermatic cord. Although rare in pediatric populations, the prevalence of varicoceles markedly increases with pubertal development...
  3. Libman J, Segal R, Baazeem A, Boman J, Zini A. Microanatomy of the left and right spermatic cords at subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy: comparative study of primary and redo repairs. Urology. 2010;75:1324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine and compare the left and right spermatic cord arterial and lymphatic anatomy identified at primary and redo microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy...
  4. Tekcan M, Koksal I, Tasatargil A, Kutlu O, Gungör E, Celik Ozenci C. Potential role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in the pathogenesis of experimental left varicocele. J Androl. 2012;33:122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..the poly(adenosine diphosphate[ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pathway is activated by experimental left varicocele. Rats underwent partial ligation of the left renal vein to induce experimental varicocele, and left testes were ..
  5. Lee S, Lee J, Kim K, Ha U. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic varicocele ligation in men with palpable varicocele: a randomized, clinical study. Surg Endosc. 2012;26:1056-62 pubmed publisher
    ..designed to compare the outcomes of two different surgical techniques: conventional transperitoneal laparoscopic varicocele ligation (CTL-VL), and laparoendoscopic single-site varicocele ligation (LESS-VL), using transumbilical home-..
  6. Abdel Meguid T. Predictors of sperm recovery and azoospermia relapse in men with nonobstructive azoospermia after varicocele repair. J Urol. 2012;187:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we determined the recoverability and sustainability of motile sperm in semen of men with nonobstructive azoospermia after varicocelectomy as related to different variables...
  7. Fang Y, Zhao L, Yan F, Xia X, Xu D, Cui X. Escin improves sperm quality in male patients with varicocele-associated infertility. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:192-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of escin to improve sperm quality in Chinese male patients with varicocele-associated infertility.
  8. Mansour Ghanaie M, Asgari S, Dadrass N, Allahkhah A, Iran Pour E, Safarinejad M. Effects of varicocele repair on spontaneous first trimester miscarriage: a randomized clinical trial. Urol J. 2012;9:505-13 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effects of varicocelectomy on semen parameters, pregnancy rates, and live birth in couples with first term recurrent miscarriage...
  9. Lee J, Lu L, Cheng W, Jeng S. Dysregulated apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway in the internal spermatic vein of patients with varicocele. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:612-8 pubmed
    Apoptosis plays a critical role in various physiological processes. Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility in adults...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Romeo C, Santoro G. Varicocele and infertility: why a prevention?. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32:559-61 pubmed publisher
    The varicocele is the abnormal dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus, resulting from an altered venous drainage, and it is considered one of the main causes of male infertility...
  2. Iaccarino V, Venetucci P. Interventional radiology of male varicocele: current status. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2012;35:1263-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact...
  3. Moskovtsev S, Lecker I, Mullen J, Jarvi K, Willis J, White J, et al. Cause-specific treatment in patients with high sperm DNA damage resulted in significant DNA improvement. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2009;55:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvement was observed in 7/9 (78%) of patients after surgical varicocele repair between the initial and post-treatment DFI results (44.7%+/-12.8 vs. 28.4%+/-9.5, p < .03)...
  4. Diegidio P, Jhaveri J, Ghannam S, Pinkhasov R, Shabsigh R, Fisch H. Review of current varicocelectomy techniques and their outcomes. BJU Int. 2011;108:1157-72 pubmed publisher
  5. Sadek A, Almohamdy A, Zaki A, Aref M, Ibrahim S, Mostafa T. Sperm chromatin condensation in infertile men with varicocele before and after surgical repair. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1705-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess sperm chromatin integrity in infertile men with varicocele before and after surgical repair.
  6. Fisch H, Hyun G. Varicocele repair for low testosterone. Curr Opin Urol. 2012;22:495-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies were not included in the most recent previous review of this topic and strengthen considerably the evidence base supporting the claim that varicocele repair can reliably restore below-normal testosterone levels.
  7. Gat Y, Gornish M, Chakraborty J, Perlow A, Levinger U, Pasqualotto F. Azoospermia and maturation arrest: malfunction of valves in erect poster of humans leads to hypoxia in sperm production site. Andrologia. 2010;42:389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It is considered a condition of irreversible or absolute infertility. Varicocele, which represents impairment in the testicular venous drainage system, has been shown to be a bilateral disease...
  8. Musalam A, Eid R, Al Assiri M, Hussein M. Morphological changes in varicocele veins: ultrastructural study. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2010;34:260-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele consists of dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus and the internal spermatic veins. It is present in 15% of male population and is a common cause of male infertility.
  9. Masson P, Brannigan R. The varicocele. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41:129-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Varicocele correction is a more cost-effective therapeutic modality than both intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro ..
  10. Chang F, Sun G, Cheng Y, Chen I, Chien H, Wu G. Effects of varicocele upon the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Andrologia. 2010;42:225-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele-associated apoptosis has been recognised as a cause of male infertility...
  11. Abd Elmoaty M, Saleh R, Sharma R, Agarwal A. Increased levels of oxidants and reduced antioxidants in semen of infertile men with varicocele. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1531-4 pubmed publisher
    ..dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbic acid) are seen in semen of infertile men with varicocele. Seminal oxidative stress (OS) seen in men with varicocele is associated with sperm motility and grade of ..
  12. Resorlu B, Kara C, Sahin E, Unsal A. The significance of age on success of surgery for patients with varicocele. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42:351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to assess the impact of patient age on sperm characteristics, and hormonal levels following varicocelectomy...
  13. Korets R, Woldu S, Nees S, Spencer B, Glassberg K. Testicular symmetry and adolescent varicocele--does it need followup?. J Urol. 2011;186:1614-8 pubmed publisher
    Appropriate management for adolescent varicocele with testicular symmetry is rarely discussed...
  14. Mostafa T, Anis T, El Nashar A, Imam H, Osman I. Seminal plasma reactive oxygen species-antioxidants relationship with varicocele grade. Andrologia. 2012;44:66-9 pubmed publisher
    This work aimed to assess seminal plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS)-antioxidants relationship with varicocele grade in infertile men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT)...
  15. Kim J, Shin J, Yoon H, Ko G, Gwon D, Kim E, et al. Persistent or recurrent varicocoele after failed varicocoelectomy: outcome in patients treated using percutaneous transcatheter embolization. Clin Radiol. 2012;67:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the efficacy of percutaneous transcatheter embolization in the management of patients with spermatic varicocoeles persisting or recurring after surgery...
  16. Kim H, Song P, Moon K. Microsurgical ligation for painful varicocele: effectiveness and predictors of pain resolution. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53:145-50 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effectiveness of microsurgical ligation for painful varicocele and predictive factors of pain resolution.
  17. Paick J, Park K, Kim S, Park J, Kim J, Kim M, et al. [Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and connective tissue growth factor accompanied by fibrosis in the rat testis of varicocele]. Actas Urol Esp. 2012;36:282-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and fibrosis in the testis of rats with surgically induced varicocele.
  18. Del Giudice P, Lima S, Cenedeze M, Pacheco Silva A, Bertolla R, Cedenho A. Expression of the Fas-ligand gene in ejaculated sperm from adolescents with and without varicocele. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2010;27:103-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess FasL mRNA levels in ejaculated sperm from adolescent patients with and without varicocele.
  19. Tinelli A, Prudenzano R, Torsello M, Malvasi A, De Nunzio G, De Mitri I, et al. Suprapubic percutaneous sclero-embolization of symptomatic female pelvic varicocele under local anesthesia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012;16:111-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of supra-pubic percutaneous sclero-embolization (SE) in the treatment of symptomatic female pelvic varicocele (FPV), performed under local anesthesia.
  20. Lotti F, Corona G, Mancini M, Biagini C, Colpi G, Innocenti S, et al. The association between varicocele, premature ejaculation and prostatitis symptoms: possible mechanisms. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2878-87 pubmed publisher
    No study has ever systematically evaluated the impact of varicocele on sexual function.
  21. Abdel Maguid A, Othman I. Microsurgical and nonmagnified subinguinal varicocelectomy for infertile men: a comparative study. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2600-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare semen parameters, pregnancy, recurrence, and complication rates after microsurgical and nonmagnified subinguinal varicocelectomy for infertile men...
  22. Chen S. Factors predicting symptomatic relief by varicocelectomy in patients with normospermia and painful varicocele nonresponsive to conservative treatment. Urology. 2012;80:585-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the factors predicting symptomatic relief by varicocelectomy in patients with normospermia and painful varicocele nonresponsive to conservative treatment.
  23. Serra R, Buffone G, Costanzo G, Montemurro R, Perri P, Damiano R, et al. Varicocele in younger as risk factor for inguinal hernia and for chronic venous disease in older: preliminary results of a prospective cohort study. Ann Vasc Surg. 2013;27:329-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele, inguinal hernia, and chronic venous insufficiency are often associated. Varicocele has its maximum prevalence in younger age, whereas hernia and chronic venous disease appear later...
  24. Lee J, Lai C, Yang W, Lee T. Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and metallothionein in varicocele and varicose veins. Phlebology. 2012;27:409-15 pubmed publisher
    The increased blood stasis and venous volume pressure causing tissue hypoxia are observed in both varicocele and varicose veins. Metallothionein (MT), a metal-binding protein, protects against cell apoptosis under hypoxic stress...
  25. Rodriguez Pena M, Alescio L, Russell A, Lourenco da Cunha J, Alzu G, Bardoneschi E. Predictors of improved seminal parameters and fertility after varicocele repair in young adults. Andrologia. 2009;41:277-81 pubmed publisher
    The aim of our study was to determine hormonal or biochemical markers in patients with clinically palpable left varicocele but without a history of infertility, with especial emphasis on nitric oxide, related with improved seminal ..
  26. Wang Y, Zhang R, Lin Y, Zhang R, Zhang W. Relationship between varicocele and sperm DNA damage and the effect of varicocele repair: a meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;25:307-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele, a cause of male infertility, occurs in nearly 40% of infertile males. It has been postulated that varicoceles may cause sperm DNA damage...
  27. Diamond D, Gargollo P, Caldamone A. Current management principles for adolescent varicocele. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:1294-8 pubmed publisher
    The authors review the current approach to management of the adolescent varicocele which has evolved over the past two decades...
  28. Li L, Zeng X, Li Y. Digital subtraction angiography-guided percutaneous transcatheter foam sclerotherapy of varicocele: a novel tracking technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:978-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-nine men with varicocele underwent transcatheter foam sclerotherapy...
  29. Dabaja A, Wosnitzer M, Goldstein M. Varicocele and hypogonadism. Curr Urol Rep. 2013;14:309-14 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence suggests that varicocele, long associated with male infertility, is also a risk factor for low testosterone levels...
  30. Acar H, Kilinc M, Guven S, Yurdakul T, Celik R. Comparison of semen profile and frequency of chromosome aneuploidies in sperm nuclei of patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. Andrologia. 2009;41:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..frequency, we investigated semen profile and aneuploidy frequency of selected chromosomes in patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy...
  31. García Peiró A, Oliver Bonet M, Navarro J, Abad C, Amengual M, López Fernández C, et al. Differential clustering of sperm subpopulations in infertile males with clinical varicocele and carriers of rearranged genomes. J Androl. 2012;33:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..with asthenoteratozoospermia, 10 carriers of chromosomal reorganizations, and 10 infertile males with clinical varicocele. Results showed a significant increase of the DDS subpopulation (P < ...
  32. Fayez A, El Shantaly K, Abbas M, Hauser S, Muller S, Fathy A. Comparison of inguinal approach, scrotal sclerotherapy and subinguinal antegrade sclerotherapy in varicocele treatment: a randomized prospective study. Urol Int. 2010;85:200-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrocele occurred only in the group which received the Ivanissevich technique (5.5%). Tauber's technique is simple; however, it has the disadvantage of multiple branching of small veins...
  33. Mariotti A, Di Carlo L, Orlando G, Corradini M, Di Donato L, Pompa P, et al. Scrotal thermoregulatory model and assessment of the impairment of scrotal temperature control in varicocele. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011;39:664-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele is defined as the pathological dilatation of the pampiniform plexus and scrotal veins with venous blood reflux. Varicocele may impair scrotal thermoregulation and spermatogenesis, even when present in asymptomatic forms...
  34. Lacerda J, Del Giudice P, da Silva B, Nichi M, Fariello R, Fraietta R, et al. Adolescent varicocele: improved sperm function after varicocelectomy. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:994-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the effect of varicocelectomy on sperm function (DNA integrity and mitochondrial activity) and levels of lipid peroxidation in seminal plasma of adolescents...
  35. Park H, Lee S, Park N. Predictors of pain resolution after varicocelectomy for painful varicocele. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:754-8 pubmed publisher
    Varicocelectomy is a management option for patients with painful varicocele. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of varicocelectomy for painful varicocele and examined the factors that might be predictive of outcome...
  36. Guido C, Perrotta I, Panza S, Middea E, Avena P, Santoro M, et al. Human sperm physiology: estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and estrogen receptor beta (ER?) influence sperm metabolism and may be involved in the pathophysiology of varicocele-associated male infertility. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:3403-12 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms by which varicocele affects fertility remain undetermined. Estrogens play a key role in the human male reproduction and human sperm expresses the estrogen receptors (ERs) and aromatase...
  37. Storm D, Hogan M, Jayanthi V. Initial experience with percutaneous selective embolization: A truly minimally invasive treatment of the adolescent varicocele with no risk of hydrocele development. J Pediatr Urol. 2010;6:567-71 pubmed publisher
    Postoperative hydrocele development is a frustrating complication of varicocele surgical repair. To avoid this complication, we began to offer percutaneous embolization as a treatment option...
  38. Liguori G, Ollandini G, Pomara G, Amodeo A, Bertolotto M, Mazzon G, et al. Role of renospermatic basal reflow and age on semen quality improvement after sclerotization of varicocele. Urology. 2010;75:1074-8 pubmed publisher
    ..at color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) evaluation and the improvement in seminal quality after sclerotization of varicocele, and the role of patients' age...
  39. Stahl P, Schlegel P. Standardization and documentation of varicocele evaluation. Curr Opin Urol. 2011;21:500-5 pubmed publisher
    Our present understanding of the clinical impact of varicocele on male fertility and the efficacy of varicocele treatment is limited by the absence of an objective, reproducible, and standardized diagnostic evaluation...
  40. Cuda S, Musser J, Belnap C, Thibault G. Incidence and clinical significance of arterial injury in varicocele repair. BJU Int. 2011;107:1635-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to histologically determine the rate of arterial injury in varicocele ligation surgery and to determine the clinical significance of these arterial injuries.
  41. Kang D, Lee J, Chung J, Jo J, Lee S, Ham W, et al. Laparoendoscopic single site varicocele ligation: comparison of testicular artery and lymphatic preservation versus complete testicular vessel ligation. J Urol. 2013;189:243-9 pubmed publisher
    We compared postoperative outcomes in patients treated with laparoendoscopic single site varicocele ligation with or without testicular artery and lymphatic preservation.
  42. Ficarra V, Crestani A, Novara G, Mirone V. Varicocele repair for infertility: what is the evidence?. Curr Opin Urol. 2012;22:489-94 pubmed publisher
    Considering the persistent controversy concerning the impact of varicocele repair on fertility, we decided to perform an update of the review of the literature with the aim to evaluate whether the most recent research in this field gives ..
  43. Baazeem A, Belzile E, Ciampi A, Dohle G, Jarvi K, Salonia A, et al. Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair. Eur Urol. 2011;60:796-808 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele is a common condition, found in many men who present for infertility evaluation.
  44. Arena S, Minutoli L, Arena F, Nicotina P, Romeo C, Squadrito F, et al. Polydeoxyribonucleotide administration improves the intra-testicular vascularization in rat experimental varicocele. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:165-8 pubmed publisher
    To study the effect of PDRN on angiogenesis in a model of varicocele in rats.
  45. Mehta A, Goldstein M. Varicocele repair for nonobstructive azoospermia. Curr Opin Urol. 2012;22:507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role of varicocelectomy in the management of patients with varicoceles and nonobstructive azoospermia and to review predictors of successful outcomes...
  46. Jang H, Kim S, Yuk S, Han D, Ha U, Hong S, et al. Effects of anthocyanin extracted from black soybean seed coat on spermatogenesis in a rat varicocele-induced model. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2012;24:649-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele is the most common cause of primary male infertility and is associated with oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anthocyanin on a rat model of varicocele...
  47. Chen S, Chen L. Predictive factors of successful varicocelectomy in infertile patients. Urol Int. 2011;86:320-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the predictive factors of successful varicocelectomy in infertile patients...
  48. Shiraishi K, Matsuyama H, Takihara H. Pathophysiology of varicocele in male infertility in the era of assisted reproductive technology. Int J Urol. 2012;19:538-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Varicocele is the most common and treatable cause of male infertility. Studies of a rat experimental left varicocele model and human testicular biopsy samples have shown the involvement of various factors in its pathophysiology...
  49. Dada R, Shamsi M, Venkatesh S, Gupta N, Kumar R. Attenuation of oxidative stress & DNA damage in varicocelectomy: implications in infertility management. Indian J Med Res. 2010;132:728-30 pubmed
    ..Oxidative stress and consequent DNA damage are the major cause of decline in semen quality in men with varicocele. A preliminary study was conducted on 11 men with clinical varicocele who also had high levels of reactive ..
  50. Abbasi M, Alizadeh R, Abolhassani F, Amidi F, Ragerdi K, Fazelipour S, et al. Effect of aminoguanidine in sperm DNA fragmentation in varicocelized rats: role of nitric oxide. Reprod Sci. 2011;18:545-50 pubmed publisher
    The sperm of infertile men with varicocele exhibit markedly high DNA damage that appears to be related to high oxidative stress (OS)...
  51. Park S, Kim T, Lee W, Park H, Lee S, Park N. Umbilical laparoendoscopic single site surgery versus inguinal varicocelectomy for bilateral varicocele: a comparative study. Int J Urol. 2011;18:250-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the LESS procedure showed less postoperative pain and cosmetic benefits with similar seminal outcomes. Thus, LESS for patients undergoing bilateral varicocelectomy represents a promising surgical approach...
  52. Luo D, Yang G, Liu J, Yang Y, Dong Q. Effects of varicocele on testosterone, apoptosis and expression of StAR mRNA in rat Leydig cells. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:287-91 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of varicocele on the morphology and function of Leydig cells in the rat testis...
  53. Arena S, Arena F, Maisano D, Di Benedetto V, Romeo C, Nicotina P. Aquaporin-9 immunohistochemistry in varicocele testes as a consequence of hypoxia in the sperm production site. Andrologia. 2011;43:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present investigation was aimed at immunolocalising human AQP-9 in both normal and varicocele testes...