orchitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.

Top Publications

  1. Philip J, Selvan D, Desmond A. Mumps orchitis in the non-immune postpubertal male: a resurgent threat to male fertility?. BJU Int. 2006;97:138-41 pubmed
    To report clinical findings associated with an increased incidence of mumps orchitis in Liverpool, UK, as in the last 2 years there has been a four-fold increase in the number of notified viral mumps cases in the UK.
  2. Sah S, Bhadani P, Regmi R, Tewari A, Raj G. Fine needle aspiration cytology of tubercular epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis. Acta Cytol. 2006;50:243-9 pubmed
    To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and ancillary studies in the diagnosis of tubercular epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis.
  3. Queipo Ortuño M, Colmenero J, Munoz N, Baeza G, Clavijo E, Morata P. Rapid diagnosis of Brucella epididymo-orchitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in urine samples. J Urol. 2006;176:2290-3 pubmed
    We studied the diagnostic yield of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in urine samples for the rapid diagnosis of brucella epididymo-orchitis compared to that of conventional microbiological techniques.
  4. Colmenero J, Muñoz Roca N, Bermudez P, Plata A, Villalobos A, Reguera J. Clinical findings, diagnostic approach, and outcome of Brucella melitensis epididymo-orchitis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:367-72 pubmed
    We have studied 912 patients with brucellosis. Of these, 631 (69.2%) were male and 48 had epididymo-orchitis, giving an incidence of epididymo-orchitis of 7.6%. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 52.5 +/- 70 days...
  5. Bhushan S, Hossain H, Lu Y, Geisler A, Tchatalbachev S, Mikulski Z, et al. Uropathogenic E. coli induce different immune response in testicular and peritoneal macrophages: implications for testicular immune privilege. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28452 pubmed publisher
    ..UPEC-dependent NFAT activation was confirmed in both cultured TM and in TM in an in vivo UPEC infectious rat orchitis model...
  6. Rival C, Theas M, Suescun M, Jacobo P, Guazzone V, van Rooijen N, et al. Functional and phenotypic characteristics of testicular macrophages in experimental autoimmune orchitis. J Pathol. 2008;215:108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of organ-specific autoimmunity and testicular inflammation...
  7. Lloyd G, Case J, De Frias D, Brannigan R. Trichomonas vaginalis orchitis with associated severe oligoasthenoteratospermia and hypogonadism. J Urol. 2003;170:924 pubmed
  8. Theas M, Rival C, Jarazo Dietrich S, Jacobo P, Guazzone V, Lustig L. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha released by testicular macrophages induces apoptosis of germ cells in autoimmune orchitis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1865-72 pubmed publisher
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of chronic inflammation and infertility useful for studying testicular immune and germ cell (GC) interactions...
  9. Suescun M, Rival C, Theas M, Calandra R, Lustig L. Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of autoimmune orchitis in rats. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:2114-21 pubmed
    We studied the testicular macrophages of rats with experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) and analyzed whether the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is involved in germ cell apoptosis and in Leydig cell steroidogenesis...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Jacobo P, Guazzone V, Jarazo Dietrich S, Theas M, Lustig L. Differential changes in CD4+ and CD8+ effector and regulatory T lymphocyte subsets in the testis of rats undergoing autoimmune orchitis. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;81:44-54 pubmed publisher
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a useful model to study organ-specific autoimmunity and chronic testicular inflammation...
  2. Terayama H, Naito M, Qu N, Hirai S, Kitaoka M, Ogawa Y, et al. Intratesticular expression of mRNAs of both interferon ? and tumor necrosis factor ? is significantly increased in experimental autoimmune orchitis in mice. J Reprod Dev. 2011;57:296-302 pubmed
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is one of the models of immunological male infertility. Murine EAO is CD4+T cell-dependent and classically induced by immunization with a testicular homogenate and adjuvants...
  3. Kuerban M, Naito M, Hirai S, Terayama H, Qu N, Musha M, et al. Involvement of Fas/Fas-L and Bax/Bcl-2 systems in germ cell death following immunization with syngeneic testicular germ cells in mice. J Androl. 2012;33:824-31 pubmed
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is characterized by T cell-dependent lymphocytic inflammation and seminiferous tubule damage, which can result in the death of germ cells...
  4. Pérez C, Sobarzo C, Jacobo P, Pellizzari E, Cigorraga S, Denduchis B, et al. Loss of occludin expression and impairment of blood-testis barrier permeability in rats with autoimmune orchitis: effect of interleukin 6 on Sertoli cell tight junctions. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:122 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is characterized by interstitial lymphomononuclear cell infiltration and severe damage of seminiferous ..
  5. Teuscher C, Gasser D, Woodward S, Hickey W. Experimental allergic orchitis in mice. VI. Recombinations within the H-2S/H-2D interval define the map position of the H-2-associated locus controlling disease susceptibility. Immunogenetics. 1990;32:337-44 pubmed
    Susceptibility to autoimmune orchitis is associated with an immune response (Ir) gene (now designated Orch-1) which was preliminarily shown to reside at or near the H-2D subregion of the major histocompatibility complex in the mouse (H-2)...
  6. Teuscher C. Experimental allergic orchitis in mice. II. Association of disease susceptibility with the locus controlling Bordetella pertussis-induced sensitivity to histamine. Immunogenetics. 1985;22:417-25 pubmed
    Susceptibility to the induction of murine autoimmune orchitis was found to be associated with the locus controlling Bordetella pertussis-induced sensitivity to the vasoactive amine, histamine...
  7. Migita K, Miyashita T, Mizuno A, Jiuchi Y, Ito M, Matsuo M, et al. IgG4-related epididymo-orchitis associated with bladder cancer: possible involvement of BAFF/BAFF-R interaction in IgG4-related urogenital disease. Mod Rheumatol. 2014;24:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..diagnosed with IgG4-RD had not been reported, making this the first reported case of IgG4-related epididymo-orchitis. These findings suggest that the immune mechanism underlying ectopic lymphoneogenesis in IgG4-RD may involve ..
  8. Naito M, Terayama H, Hirai S, Qu N, Kawata S, Itoh M. Histopathology of the tubuli recti at the start of experimental autoimmune orchitis in mice. Med Mol Morphol. 2009;42:230-5 pubmed publisher
    We previously established an experimental model of autoimmune orchitis (EAO) by means of immunization with testicular germ cells (TGC) alone in mice and confirmed that the disease can be transferred to mice that had received CD4+ but not ..
  9. Davis N, McGuire B, Mahon J, Smyth A, O Malley K, Fitzpatrick J. The increasing incidence of mumps orchitis: a comprehensive review. BJU Int. 2010;105:1060-5 pubmed publisher
    There has been a recent increase in mumps orchitis among pubertal and postpubertal males...
  10. Naito M, Itoh M. Patterns of infiltration of lymphocytes into the testis under normal and pathological conditions in mice. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;59:55-61 pubmed
    ..Although the physiological function of these penetrating lymphocytes remains unknown, we suppose that this micro-status provides a chance for evocation of autoimmune inflammation of the TR, R and E in some pathological conditions...
  11. Theas M, Rival C, Dietrich S, Guazzone V, Lustig L. Death receptor and mitochondrial pathways are involved in germ cell apoptosis in an experimental model of autoimmune orchitis. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:1734-42 pubmed
    Studies on experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) have helped to elucidate immunological mechanisms involved in testicular damage...
  12. Muttarak M, Lojanapiwat B, Chaiwun B, Wudhikarn S. Preoperative diagnosis of bilateral tuberculous epididymo-orchitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma. Australas Radiol. 2002;46:183-5 pubmed
    We report a case of bilateral tuberculous epididymo-orchitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma in which the diagnosis was made by ultrasonography prior to surgery...
  13. Tung K, Teuscher C. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease in the testis and ovary. Hum Reprod Update. 1995;1:35-50 pubmed
    ..The inflammatory CD4 (Th1) T cell mechanism has been established to be a critical pathway for autoimmune orchitis and autoimmune oophoritis; tumour necrosis factor has been shown to be required for amplification of the ..
  14. Nistal M, Gonzalez Peramato P, Serrano A, Regadera J. Xanthogranulomatous funiculitis and orchiepididymitis: report of 2 cases with immunohistochemical study and literature review. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:911-4 pubmed
    ..Clinically, our patients presented with spermatic cord enlargement (case 1) and chronic orchitis that did not respond to treatment with antibiotics (case 2)...
  15. Noubade R, Milligan G, Zachary J, Blankenhorn E, del Rio R, Rincon M, et al. Histamine receptor H1 is required for TCR-mediated p38 MAPK activation and optimal IFN-gamma production in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3507-18 pubmed
    ..is a susceptibility gene in both experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), 2 classical T cell-mediated models of organ-specific autoimmune disease...
  16. Itoh M, Terayama H, Naito M, Ogawa Y, Tainosho S. Tissue microcircumstances for leukocytic infiltration into the testis and epididymis in mice. J Reprod Immunol. 2005;67:57-67 pubmed
    ..sharp contrast, subcutaneous injection of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells (TGC) alone induces autoimmune orchitis with no involvement of the epididymitis in mice...
  17. Pelletier R, Yoon S, Akpovi C, Silvas E, Vitale M. Defects in the regulatory clearance mechanisms favor the breakdown of self-tolerance during spontaneous autoimmune orchitis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R743-62 pubmed publisher
    We identified aberrations leading to spontaneous autoimmune orchitis (AIO) in mink, a seasonal breeder and natural model for autoimmunity...
  18. Kaneko T, Itoh M, Nakamura Y, Iimura A, Hayashi S, Takahashi K, et al. Proinflammatory effects of exogenously administered IL-10 in experimental autoimmune orchitis. Cytokine. 2003;22:50-3 pubmed
    ..of exogenously administered recombinant murine interleukin (IL)-10 on the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in C3H/He mice...
  19. Schuppe H, Meinhardt A, Allam J, Bergmann M, Weidner W, Haidl G. Chronic orchitis: a neglected cause of male infertility?. Andrologia. 2008;40:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to their impact on male reproductive function, orchitis and epididymo-orchitis due to local or systemic infection as well as noninfectious aetiological factors are of ..
  20. Clifford V, Wadsley J, Jenner B, Buttery J. Mumps vaccine associated orchitis: Evidence supporting a potential immune-mediated mechanism. Vaccine. 2010;28:2671-3 pubmed publisher
    We report 3 cases of orchitis following vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine, two with an onset within 3 days following vaccination...
  21. Teuscher C, Hickey W, Grafer C, Tung K. A common immunoregulatory locus controls susceptibility to actively induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and experimental allergic orchitis in BALB/c mice. J Immunol. 1998;160:2751-6 pubmed
    ..susceptibility to actively induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental allergic orchitis (EAO) exists among various BALB/c substrains...
  22. Perez C, Sobarzo C, Jacobo P, Jarazo Dietrich S, Theas M, Denduchis B, et al. Impaired expression and distribution of adherens and gap junction proteins in the seminiferous tubules of rats undergoing autoimmune orchitis. Int J Androl. 2011;34:e566-77 pubmed publisher
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is characterized by an interstitial lymphomononuclear cell infiltration and a severe lesion of seminiferous tubules (ST) with germ cells that undergo apoptosis and sloughing...
  23. Kao H, Wu C, Chen C, Sun G, Lee S, Peng Y. Malignant tumor of testis imitating epididymo-orchitis. Arch Androl. 2005;51:407-11 pubmed
    ..All the findings including color duplex ultrasonography (US) and scintigraphy were considered as right epididymo-orchitis. Unfortunately, the patient presented with metastatic lymphadenopathy of the neck from mixed germ cell tumor of ..
  24. Naito M, Hirai S, Terayama H, Qu N, Kuerban M, Musha M, et al. Postinflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis induced by immunization with syngeneic testicular germ cells alone in mice. Med Mol Morphol. 2012;45:35-44 pubmed publisher
    We previously established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), which can be induced by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells on days 0 and 14 in mice without using any ..
  25. Fijak M, Iosub R, Schneider E, Linder M, Respondek K, Klug J, et al. Identification of immunodominant autoantigens in rat autoimmune orchitis. J Pathol. 2005;207:127-38 pubmed
    ..Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in the rat serves as a model for the investigation of inflammatory testicular impairment...
  26. Jacobo P, Pérez C, Theas M, Guazzone V, Lustig L. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing Th1 and Th17 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune orchitis. Reproduction. 2011;141:249-58 pubmed publisher
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a useful model to study chronic testicular inflammation and infertility. EAO is characterized by severe damage of seminiferous tubules with germ cells that undergo apoptosis and sloughing...
  27. Ternavasio de la Vega H, Boronat M, Ojeda A, García Delgado Y, Angel Moreno A, Carranza Rodriguez C, et al. Mumps orchitis in the post-vaccine era (1967-2009): a single-center series of 67 patients and review of clinical outcome and trends. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010;89:96-116 pubmed publisher
    ..In that period, our institution attended 67 cases of serologically confirmed acute mumps orchitis, the most serious complication of mumps infection in young postpubertal males...
  28. Harving S, Asmussen L, Roosen J, Hermann G. Granulomatous epididymo-orchitis, a rare complication of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for urothelial cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43:331-3 pubmed publisher
    Only a few cases of tuberculous epididymo-orchitis after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy have been published...
  29. Metukuri M, Reddy C, Reddy P, Reddanna P. Bacterial LPS-mediated acute inflammation-induced spermatogenic failure in rats: role of stress response proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inflammation. 2010;33:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study shows the involvement of stress response proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction in LPS-induced germ cell death in male rats...
  30. von Schnakenburg C, Hinrichs B, Fuchs J, Kardorff R. Post-transplant epididymitis and orchitis following Listeria monocytogenes septicaemia. Pediatr Transplant. 2000;4:156-8 pubmed
    We report the occurrence of epididymitis and orchitis 1 week after the onset of Listeriosis in an 11-month-old boy receiving an orthotopic liver transplantation for biliary atresia...
  31. Memish Z, Venkatesh S. Brucellar epididymo-orchitis in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study of 26 cases and review of the literature. BJU Int. 2001;88:72-6 pubmed
    To review the clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment of patients with acute brucellar epididymo-orchitis reporting to a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, and to compare these with other cases reported previously.
  32. Snoek M, Jansen M, Olavesen M, Campbell R, Teuscher C, van Vugt H. Three Hsp70 genes are located in the C4-H-2D region: possible candidates for the Orch-1 locus. Genomics. 1993;15:350-6 pubmed
    ..Susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis, which is controlled by the Orch-1 locus, is one example...
  33. Tarantino L, Giorgio A, de Stefano G, Farella N. Echo color Doppler findings in postpubertal mumps epididymo-orchitis. J Ultrasound Med. 2001;20:1189-95 pubmed
    To describe echo color Doppler features of mumps epididymo-orchitis in postpubertal boys and men.
  34. Muttarak M, Peh W. Case 91: Tuberculous Epididymo-orchitis. Radiology. 2006;238:748-51 pubmed
  35. Sachdev R, Roy S, Jain S. Tubercular epididymo-orchitis masquerading as testicular malignancy: an interesting case. Acta Cytol. 2008;52:511-2 pubmed
  36. Ludwig M, Velcovsky H, Weidner W. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis and prostatitis: a case report. Andrologia. 2008;40:81-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of choice is primarily medical, consisting of a combination of three or four anti-TB drugs, sometimes combined with surgery...
  37. Salako A, Olasode B, Eziyi A, Osasan S. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis in an adult Nigerian. Int J Urol. 2006;13:186-8 pubmed
    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis (XGO) is a rare benign disease of the testis which has not been previously documented in tropical Africa. We report a case of a 24-year-old Nigerian man who presented with a painless left hemiscrotal swelling...
  38. Garbyal R, Gupta P, Kumar S. Diagnosis of isolated tuberculous orchitis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:698-700 pubmed
    An isolated tuberculous Orchitis without epididymal involvement is rare. This case report describes an extra pulmonary tuberculosis with exclusively testicular presentation...
  39. Falkensammer C, Gozzi C, Hager M, Maier H, Bartsch G, Holtl L, et al. Late occurrence of bilateral tuberculous-like epididymo-orchitis after intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma. Urology. 2005;65:175 pubmed
    We report a case of bilateral tuberculous-like epididymo-orchitis occurring 3 years after intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy in an 83-year-old patient with proven superficial bladder carcinoma...
  40. Naito M, Sakamoto Y, Terayama H, Hirai S, Ning Q, Aota Y, et al. Effect of unilateral testicular rupture on histopathology and germ cell delayed-type hypersensitivity in C3H/He and A/J mice. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;81:55-61 pubmed publisher
    Contralateral orchitis induced by unilateral testicular injury has been reported as sympathetic orchitis in men and experimental animals...
  41. Assimacopoulos A, Johnston B, Clabots C, Johnson J. Post-prostate biopsy infection with Escherichia coli ST131 leading to epididymo-orchitis and meningitis caused by Gram-negative bacilli. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:4157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..prostate biopsy for a rising prostate-specific antigen level developed postbiopsy necrotizing epididymo-orchitis (requiring orchiectomy) and then Gram-negative meningitis, despite fluoroquinolone administration for ..
  42. Demar M, Ferroni A, Dupont B, Eliaszewicz M, Bouree P. Suppurative epididymo-orchitis and chronic prostatitis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei: a case report and review. J Travel Med. 2005;12:108-12 pubmed
  43. Fijak M, Bhushan S, Meinhardt A. Immunoprivileged sites: the testis. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;677:459-70 pubmed publisher
  44. Jacobo P, Guazzone V, Theas M, Lustig L. Testicular autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10:201-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Autoimmune orchitis is a model of chronic inflammation useful for elucidating pathogenic mechanisms involved in testicular damage...
  45. Goldacre M, Wotton C, Seagroatt V, Yeates D. Immune-related disease before and after vasectomy: an epidemiological database study. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1273-8 pubmed
    ..We aimed to determine whether men with immune-related diseases were more or less likely than others to have a vasectomy and then to determine whether vasectomy is associated with the subsequent development of immune-related diseases...
  46. Guazzone V, Rival C, Denduchis B, Lustig L. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in experimental autoimmune orchitis. J Reprod Immunol. 2003;60:143-57 pubmed
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is characterized by an interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrate and a severe lesion of seminiferous tubules with germ cells that undergo apoptosis and sloughing...
  47. Qu N, Terayama H, Naito M, Ogawa Y, Hirai S, Kitaoka M, et al. Caput epididymitis but not orchitis was induced by vasectomy in a murine model of experimental autoimmune orchitis. Reproduction. 2008;135:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..autoantigens of both round and elongating spermatids, resulting in the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO)...
  48. Trojian T, Lishnak T, Heiman D. Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79:583-7 pubmed
    Epididymitis and orchitis are commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Men between 14 and 35 years of age are most often affected, and Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common pathogens in this age group...
  49. Raveenthiran V, Sam C. Epididymo-orchitis complicating anorectal malformations: collective review of 41 cases. J Urol. 2011;186:1467-72 pubmed publisher
    Epididymo-orchitis is a devastating complication of imperforate anus. Without proper treatment the condition may result in infertility...
  50. Tung K, Primakoff P, Woolman Gamer L, Myles D. Mechanism of infertility in male guinea pigs immunized with sperm PH-20. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:1133-41 pubmed
    ..A second effect was the induction of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), representing the first report of EAO induced by a purified testis/sperm molecule of known functions...
  51. Rival C, Theas M, Guazzone V, Lustig L. Interleukin-6 and IL-6 receptor cell expression in testis of rats with autoimmune orchitis. J Reprod Immunol. 2006;70:43-58 pubmed
    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is an organ-specific model of autoimmunity characterized by an interstitial lymphomononuclear cell infiltrate as well as sloughing and apoptosis of germ cells...
  52. Naito M, Terayama H, Hirai S, Qu N, Lustig L, Itoh M. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility. Med Mol Morphol. 2012;45:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells ..
  53. Meeker N, Hickey W, Korngold R, Hansen W, Sudweeks J, Wardell B, et al. Multiple loci govern the bone marrow-derived immunoregulatory mechanism controlling dominant resistance to autoimmune orchitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:5684-8 pubmed
    ..better understand the nature and mechanisms of action of these genes, we utilized the murine model of autoimmune orchitis as a prototype...