cryptorchidism

Summary

Summary: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.

Top Publications

  1. Agoulnik A, Huang Z, Ferguson L. Spermatogenesis in cryptorchidism. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;825:127-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism or undescended testis is the most frequent congenital abnormality in newborn boys. The process of testicular descent to the scrotum is controlled by hormones produced in Leydig cells, insulin-like3, and androgens...
  2. Harris R, Finlayson C, Weiss J, Fisher L, Hurley L, Barrett T, et al. A missense mutation in LRR8 of RXFP2 is associated with cryptorchidism. Mamm Genome. 2010;21:442-9 pubmed publisher
    Using genome-wide mutagenesis with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), a mouse mutant with cryptorchidism was identified...
  3. Massart F, Saggese G. Morphogenetic targets and genetics of undescended testis. Sex Dev. 2010;4:326-35 pubmed publisher
    Although important advances in testicular physiology have been achieved, the aetiology of human cryptorchidism remains mostly unknown...
  4. Bay K, Main K, Toppari J, Skakkebæk N. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu. Nat Rev Urol. 2011;8:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cryptorchidism is a common congenital malformation, which is seen in 2-9% of newborn boys, and confers an increased risk of ..
  5. Kubota H, Sasaki S, Kubota Y, Umemoto Y, Yanai Y, Tozawa K, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 protects germ cells against spermatogenesis disturbance in experimental cryptorchidism model mice. J Androl. 2011;32:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..induced in impaired testes, and we also investigated the possible role of COX in the testes using experimental cryptorchidism model mice...
  6. Jensen M, Olsen L, Thulstrup A, Bonde J, Olsen J, Henriksen T. Age at cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy in Denmark: a population based study of 508,964 boys born from 1995 to 2009. J Urol. 2011;186:1595-600 pubmed publisher
    Early treatment for cryptorchidism may be necessary to preserve fertility. International guidelines now recommend that congenital cryptorchidism be treated with orchiopexy before age 1 year...
  7. Qin X, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Ueoka K, Massart F, Spinelli C, et al. Association of variants in genes involved in environmental chemical metabolism and risk of cryptorchidism and hypospadias. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:434-41 pubmed publisher
    ..ARNT, ARNT2, NR1I2, RXRA, RXRB, RXRG, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1) and risk of cryptorchidism (CO) and hypospadias (HS) in 334 Japanese (JPN) males (141 controls, 95 CO and 98 HS) and 187 Italian (ITA) ..
  8. Qin X, Sone H, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Ueoka K, Muroya K, et al. Individual variation of the genetic response to bisphenol a in human foreskin fibroblast cells derived from cryptorchidism and hypospadias patients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52756 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, individual variation in the genetic response to low-dose bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated in human foreskin fibroblast cells (hFFCs) derived from child cryptorchidism (CO) and hypospadias (HS) patients.
  9. Lip S, Murchison L, Cullis P, Govan L, Carachi R. A meta-analysis of the risk of boys with isolated cryptorchidism developing testicular cancer in later life. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98:20-6 pubmed publisher
    Significant variability exists for the relative risk (RR) of testicular malignancy in isolated cryptorchidism.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Aksglaede L, Christiansen P, Sørensen K, Boas M, Linneberg A, Main K, et al. Serum concentrations of Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) in 95 patients with Klinefelter syndrome with or without cryptorchidism. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..AMH is a testis-specific marker of diagnostic value in infants with ambiguous genitalia or with bilateral cryptorchidism. However, little is known about AMH in boys and adult men with normal or abnormal gonadal function...
  2. Jensen M, Rebordosa C, Thulstrup A, Toft G, Sørensen H, Bonde J, et al. Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism. Epidemiology. 2010;21:779-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism.
  3. Adams S, Hastert T, Huang Y, Starr J. No association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk of hypospadias or cryptorchidism in male newborns. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:241-8 pubmed publisher
    Hypospadias and cryptorchidism, two relatively common male genital anomalies, may be caused by altered maternal hormone levels, blood glucose levels, or nutritional deficiencies...
  4. Tang K, Zheng J, Xing J. Molecular analysis of SNP12 in estrogen receptor ? gene in hypospadiac or cryptorchid patients from Northwestern China. Urol Int. 2011;87:359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism 12 (SNP12) in the estrogen receptor ? (ESR1) gene in hypospadiac or cryptorchid patients from Northwestern China...
  5. Biers S, Malone P. A critical appraisal of the evidence for improved fertility indices in undescended testes after gonadotrophin-releasing hormone therapy and orchidopexy. J Pediatr Urol. 2010;6:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the evidence is sufficiently strong to recommend a change in clinical practice...
  6. Virtanen H, Koskenniemi J, Sundqvist E, Main K, Kiviranta H, Tuomisto J, et al. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta. Int J Androl. 2012;35:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, one previous case-control study has reported an association between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels...
  7. Kamisawa H, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Imura M, Hayashi Y, Kohri K. Attenuation of spermatogonial stem cell activity in cryptorchid testes. J Urol. 2012;187:1047-52 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the mechanism of infertility caused by cryptorchidism we focused on early stage spermatogenesis and spermatogonial stem cell activity in undifferentiated spermatogonia in cryptorchid testes.
  8. Snijder C, Kortenkamp A, Steegers E, Jaddoe V, Hofman A, Hass U, et al. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy and the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia in the offspring: the Generation R Study. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:1191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the influence of maternal exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy on the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia in their offspring.
  9. Rantakokko P, Main K, Wohlfart Veje C, Kiviranta H, Airaksinen R, Vartiainen T, et al. Association of placenta organotin concentrations with congenital cryptorchidism and reproductive hormone levels in 280 newborn boys from Denmark and Finland. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:1647-60 pubmed publisher
    Is the placental burden of organotin compounds (OTCs) associated with congenital cryptorchidism in infant offspring from Finland and Denmark?
  10. Brucker Davis F, Ferrari P, Boda Buccino M, Wagner Mahler K, Pacini P, Gal J, et al. Cord blood thyroid tests in boys born with and without cryptorchidism: correlations with birth parameters and in utero xenobiotics exposure. Thyroid. 2011;21:1133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether some of those contaminants also have an impact on fetal thyroid function or pathways, and, thus, potentially on neuropsychological development, is still debated...
  11. Laitinen E, Tommiska J, Virtanen H, Oehlandt H, Koivu R, Vaaralahti K, et al. Isolated cryptorchidism: no evidence for involvement of genes underlying isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;341:35-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and, by causing incomplete intrauterine activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, may lead to cryptorchidism. To investigate the role of defects in these genes in the etiology of isolated cryptorchidism, we screened ..
  12. Liu F, Huang H, Xu Z, Qian X, Qiu W. Germ cell removal after induction of cryptorchidism in adult rats. Tissue Cell. 2012;44:281-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism is associated with male infertility due to germ cell loss in response to elevated temperature...
  13. Philibert P, Boizet Bonhoure B, Bashamboo A, Paris F, Aritake K, Urade Y, et al. Unilateral cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Ptgds. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:278-82 pubmed publisher
    The pathophysiology of cryptorchidism, abnormal testicular descent, remains poorly understood...
  14. Krysiak Baltyn K, Toppari J, Skakkebaek N, Jensen T, Virtanen H, Schramm K, et al. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures. Int J Androl. 2012;35:294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the association between complex chemical exposures of humans and congenital cryptorchidism, the most common malformation of the male genitalia, we measured 121 environmental chemicals with suspected or ..
  15. Kristensen D, Lesne L, Le Fol V, Desdoits Lethimonier C, Dejucq Rainsford N, Leffers H, et al. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis. Int J Androl. 2012;35:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These pharmaceutical compounds have been associated with congenital cryptorchidism in humans, the best-known risk factor for low semen quality and testicular germ cell cancer...
  16. Thorup J, McLachlan R, Cortes D, Nation T, Balic A, Southwell B, et al. What is new in cryptorchidism and hypospadias--a critical review on the testicular dysgenesis hypothesis. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:2074-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In more than 95% of the cases, hypospadias is not associated with cryptorchidism, suggesting major differences in pathogenesis...
  17. Kokorowski P, Routh J, Graham D, Nelson C. Variations in timing of surgery among boys who underwent orchidopexy for cryptorchidism. Pediatrics. 2010;126:e576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to examine trends in surgical timing and to determine what factors are associated with age at surgery...
  18. Kurpisz M, Havryluk A, Nakonechnyj A, Chopyak V, Kamieniczna M. Cryptorchidism and long-term consequences. Reprod Biol. 2010;10:19-35 pubmed
    b>Cryptorchidism has been on the rise for several decades and can be observed with frequency of 1-2% of males within the first year of age...
  19. Jensen M, Snerum T, Olsen L, Thulstrup A, Bonde J, Olsen J, et al. Accuracy of cryptorchidism diagnoses and corrective surgical treatment registration in the Danish National Patient Registry. J Urol. 2012;188:1324-9 pubmed publisher
    In recent years several Danish studies of the etiology, time trends and long-term health consequences of cryptorchidism have relied on diagnoses and surgical treatments registered in the National Patient Registry...
  20. Huang Z, Rivas B, Agoulnik A. Insulin-like 3 signaling is important for testicular descent but dispensable for spermatogenesis and germ cell survival in adult mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Insl3 or Rxfp2 genes in mice caused cryptorchidism resulting from a failure of gubernaculum development...
  21. Zakaria M, Azab S, El Baz M, Fawaz L, Bahagat A. Cryptorchidism in Egyptian neonates. J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9:815-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital malformations in newborn males, but its etiology remains largely unknown...
  22. Kaftanovskaya E, Huang Z, Barbara A, De Gendt K, Verhoeven G, Gorlov I, et al. Cryptorchidism in mice with an androgen receptor ablation in gubernaculum testis. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:598-607 pubmed publisher
    ..The GU-ARKO males had normal testosterone levels but developed cryptorchidism with the testes located in a suprascrotal position...
  23. Cannistraci C, Ogorevc J, Zorc M, Ravasi T, Dovc P, Kunej T. Pivotal role of the muscle-contraction pathway in cryptorchidism and evidence for genomic connections with cardiomyopathy pathways in RASopathies. BMC Med Genomics. 2013;6:5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism is the most frequent congenital disorder in male children; however the genetic causes of cryptorchidism remain poorly investigated...
  24. Mizuno K, Kojima Y, Kurokawa S, Kamisawa H, Kohri K, Hayashi Y. Altered expression and localization of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the testes of a cryptorchid rat model. Urology. 2011;77:251.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the involvement of estrogen in spermatogenesis, we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) in the cryptorchid testes in model rats exposed to flutamide during the fetal stage...
  25. Chung J, Lee C, Kang D, Kim J, Cho W, Cho B, et al. Parental perception of optimal surgical age for correction of cryptorchidism: a multicenter surveillance study. Urology. 2011;78:1162-6 pubmed publisher
    To perform a multicenter survey to determine how many parents understood the optimal time for surgical correction of cryptorchidism in children.
  26. Hutson J, Balic A, Nation T, Southwell B. Cryptorchidism. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2010;19:215-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism is a very common anomaly of the male genitalia, affecting 2%-4% of male infants and is more common in premature infants. There are two separate stages of testicular descent...
  27. Wagner Mahler K, Kurzenne J, Delattre I, Berard E, Mas J, Bornebush L, et al. Prospective study on the prevalence and associated risk factors of cryptorchidism in 6246 newborn boys from Nice area, France. Int J Androl. 2011;34:e499-510 pubmed publisher
    To assess the incidence and risk factors of cryptorchidism in Nice area. A 3-year prospective study was conducted at two maternity wards involving neonatal screening of boys born ?34weeks of amenorrhoea...
  28. Tasian G, Copp H. Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011;127:119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultrasound is frequently obtained during the presurgical evaluation of boys with nonpalpable undescended testes, but its clinical utility is uncertain...
  29. Chul Kim S, Kyoung Kwon S, Pyo Hong Y. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:715-8 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence...
  30. Zhao X, Du Z, Rothschild M. An association study of 20 candidate genes with cryptorchidism in Siberian Husky dogs. J Anim Breed Genet. 2010;127:327-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism (CO) as a common developmental defect in purebred dogs causes health concerns of reduced fertility and increases risk of testicular malignancies...
  31. Lo Giacco D, Ars E, Bassas L, Galan J, Rajmil O, Ruiz P, et al. ESR1 promoter polymorphism is not associated with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:369-71, 371.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In a case-control study, we were unable to demonstrate any association between (TA)n and nonsyndromic cryptorchidism in Italian and Spanish study populations.
  32. Chen J, Fok K, Chen H, Zhang X, Xu W, Chan H. Cryptorchidism-induced CFTR down-regulation results in disruption of testicular tight junctions through up-regulation of NF-?B/COX-2/PGE2. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2585-97 pubmed publisher
    ..conductance regulator (CFTR) down-regulation in Sertoli cells in cryptorchid testis disrupt testicular tight junctions (TJs) through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) pathway?..
  33. Kaftanovskaya E, Feng S, Huang Z, Tan Y, Barbara A, Kaur S, et al. Suppression of insulin-like3 receptor reveals the role of ?-catenin and Notch signaling in gubernaculum development. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:170-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Insl3 or its receptor, Rxfp2, in mice causes cryptorchidism. We produced Cre/loxP regulated shRNA transgenic mice targeting RXFP2 expression...
  34. Jensen M, Wilcox A, Olsen J, Bonde J, Thulstrup A, Ramlau Hansen C, et al. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in a cohort of 934,538 Danish boys: the role of birth weight, gestational age, body dimensions, and fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:917-25 pubmed publisher
    Early delivery and low birth weight are strong predictors of the urogenital anomalies cryptorchidism (undescended testis) and hypospadias. Understanding these associations may lead to important etiologic clues...
  35. Toppari J, Virtanen H, Main K, Skakkebaek N. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias as a sign of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS): environmental connection. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:910-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism and hypospadias are common genital birth defects that affect 2-9% and 0.2-1% of male newborns, respectively...
  36. Lee P, Houk C. Cryptorchidism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013;20:210-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism remains a major cause of male infertility and can be associated with germ cell tumors...
  37. Iwatsuki S, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Kamisawa H, Umemoto Y, Sasaki S, et al. Endocrine assessment of prepubertal boys with a history of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias: a pilot study. J Urol. 2011;185:2444-50 pubmed publisher
    Four disorders, including poor semen quality, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, are thought to represent testicular dysgenesis syndrome and have been hypothesized to share a common etiology...
  38. Virtanen H, Adamsson A. Cryptorchidism and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;355:208-20 pubmed publisher
    Prospective clinical studies have suggested that the rate of congenital cryptorchidism has increased since the 1950s. It has been hypothesized that this may be related to environmental factors...
  39. Kurpisz M, Nakonechnyy A, Niepieklo Miniewska W, Havrylyuk A, Kamieniczna M, Nowakowska B, et al. Weak association of anti-sperm antibodies and strong association of familial cryptorchidism/infertility with HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms in prepubertal Ukrainian boys. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:129 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism is a frequent syndrome occurring in 1-2% of males within the first year of age...
  40. Pathirana I, Tanaka K, Kawate N, Tsuji M, Kida K, Hatoya S, et al. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' region of the estrogen receptor 1 gene in normal and cryptorchid Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:405-10 pubmed
    ..the canine estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene (ESR1) and the association of them with different phenotypes of cryptorchidism (CO) in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas...
  41. Seven M, Yosunkaya E, Yilmaz S, Karaca E, Guven G, Yuksel A. A new syndrome presenting with dysmorphic facies, oculocutaneous albinism, glaucoma, cryptorchidism and mental retardation. Genet Couns. 2011;22:25-34 pubmed
    We report a case with a new syndrome that presents with glaucoma, cryptorchidism, oculocutaneous albinism, ataxia, hypotonia, autistic behaviour besides various major and minor craniofacial dysmorphic, skeletal, and neuroimaging findings, ..
  42. Ashley R, Barthold J, Kolon T. Cryptorchidism: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Urol Clin North Am. 2010;37:183-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Cryptorchidism is a common genital anomaly diagnosed at birth or during childhood...
  43. Andersson A, Jørgensen N, Frydelund Larsen L, Rajpert De Meyts E, Skakkebaek N. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men: a study of 357 idiopathic infertile men and 318 proven fertile controls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:3161-7 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the parallel impairment of spermatogenesis and Leydig cells may reflect a congenital dysfunction of both compartments caused by a testicular dysgenesis during fetal/infant development...
  44. Leung M, Chao N, Wong B, Chung K, Kwok W, Liu K. Laparoscopic mobilization of testicular vessels: an adjunctive step in orchidopexy for impalpable and redo undescended testis in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21:767-9 pubmed
    ..The size is normal in 17 testes, whereas 1 testis is smaller than the contralateral one. LMTV is a safe and efficient adjunctive step in orchidopexy for impalpable and redo undescended testes...
  45. Wenzler D, Bloom D, Park J. What is the rate of spontaneous testicular descent in infants with cryptorchidism?. J Urol. 2004;171:849-51 pubmed
    It has been speculated that late spontaneous testicular descent occurs in more than 70% of newborns with cryptorchidism. Based on this belief, the decision for orchiopexy is often deferred during infancy...
  46. Wada Y, Okada M, Fukami M, Sasagawa I, Ogata T. Association of cryptorchidism with Gly146Ala polymorphism in the gene for steroidogenic factor-1. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:787-90 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the Gly146Ala polymorphism may be a susceptibility factor for the development of cryptorchidism (CO).
  47. Wang Y, Barthold J, Kanetsky P, Casalunovo T, Pearson E, Manson J. Allelic variants in HOX genes in cryptorchidism. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:269-75 pubmed
    b>Cryptorchidism is one of the most common congenital anomalies and is associated with increased risk for infertility and testicular cancer later in life...
  48. Thorup J, Haugen S, Kollin C, Lindahl S, LAckgren G, Nordenskjold A, et al. Surgical treatment of undescended testes. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:631-7 pubmed
    ..Success of orchiopexy for inguinal testes has been >95% and for abdominal testes >85-90% in most series...
  49. Pierik F, Deddens J, Burdorf A, de Muinck Keizer Schrama S, Jong F, Weber R. The hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis in boys during the first six months of life: a comparison of cryptorchidism and hypospadias cases with controls. Int J Androl. 2009;32:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it is unclear whether these hormone levels are aberrant in boys with cryptorchidism or hypospadias, and therefore predictive for future fertility...
  50. Banasik M, Hardy M, Stedeford T. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and cryptorchidism: confounding or cause and effect?. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:A194; author reply A194-5 pubmed publisher
  51. Favorito L, Hidalgo A, Pazos H, Costa W, Sampaio F. Stereological and morphometric analysis of collagen and seminiferous tubules in testes of patients with cryptorchidism submitted or not to treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin. Int Braz J Urol. 2005;31:562-6; discussion 567-8 pubmed
    Quantify the distribution of collagen and analyze the seminiferous tubules diameter in the testis of patients with cryptorchidism, to verify if the previous use of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) affects these structures.
  52. Main K, Kiviranta H, Virtanen H, Sundqvist E, Tuomisto J, Tuomisto J, et al. Flame retardants in placenta and breast milk and cryptorchidism in newborn boys. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1519-26 pubmed
    ..Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used in Western countries...
  53. Johnson K, McCahan S, Si X, Campion L, Herrmann R, Barthold J. The orl rat with inherited cryptorchidism has increased susceptibility to the testicular effects of in utero dibutyl phthalate exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..DBP) exposure was compared between two strains of Long-Evans (LE) rats, the orl substrain with inherited cryptorchidism and an outbred (wt) strain...