spermatic cord torsion

Summary

Summary: The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.

Top Publications

  1. Beheshtian A, Salmasi A, Payabvash S, Kiumehr S, Ghazinezami B, Rahimpour S, et al. Protective effects of sildenafil administration on testicular torsion/detorsion damage in rats. World J Urol. 2008;26:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the effectiveness of sildenafil administration during ischemic period in a rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)...
  2. Wei S, Yan Z, Zhou J. Protective effect of rutin on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:1419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the effect of rutin, a well-known antioxidant, on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  3. Somuncu S, Cakmak M, Erdogan S, Caglayan O, Akman H, Kaya M. Protective effects of trapidil in ischemia-reperfusion injury due to testicular torsion and detorsion: an experimental study. Int J Urol. 2006;13:601-5 pubmed
    ..We aimed to detect the preventive effects of trapidil in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury due to testicular torsion and detorsion...
  4. Baglaj M, Carachi R. Neonatal bilateral testicular torsion: a plea for emergency exploration. J Urol. 2007;177:2296-9 pubmed
    ..We performed a retrospective analysis of our experience in the management of bilateral perinatal torsion as well as a collective review of the medical literature...
  5. Turner T, Bang H, Lysiak J. Experimental testicular torsion: reperfusion blood flow and subsequent testicular venous plasma testosterone concentrations. Urology. 2005;65:390-4 pubmed
  6. Romero F, Gomes R, Lorenzini F, Erdmann T, Tambara Filho R. Ipsilateral testicular necrosis and atrophy after 1,080-degree torsion of the spermatic cord in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2009;24:118-23 pubmed
    ..To assess the incidence of testicular necrosis/atrophy immediately after 1 to 4 hours of 1,080-degree torsion of the spermatic cord, and 60 days after detorsion of the spermatic cord...
  7. Bentley D, Ricchiuti D, Nasrallah P, McMahon D. Spermatic cord torsion with preserved testis perfusion: initial anatomical observations. J Urol. 2004;172:2373-6 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that patients with specific anatomical configurations maintain testicular blood flow for prolonged periods, and, therefore, will have flow on ultrasound despite concurrent torsion...
  8. Sakellaris G, Sifakis S, Hatzidaki E, Daskalojannaki M, Giannacopoulou C, Charissis G. Early exploration in perinatal torsion of the spermatic cord: a case report. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15:207-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case that was treated by immediate surgical intervention...
  9. Cao P, Xue J, Jia R, Xu L, Li W, Qian M, et al. [Effects of endothelial progenitor cells on spermatogenic functions in testicular detorsion in rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;91:2135-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on the spermatogenic functions in testicular detorsion...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yang S, Shih H, Chow Y, Tsai P, Wang T, Wang P, et al. The protective role of heme oxygenase-1 induction on testicular tissues after testicular torsion and detorsion. J Urol. 2007;177:1928-33 pubmed
    ..Testicular torsion-detorsion has been identified as an ischemia-reperfusion type of injury. We elucidated the protective role of heme oxygenase-1 super induction on testicular torsion-detorsion injury...
  2. Cuervo J, Grillo A, Vecchiarelli C, Osio C, Prudent L. Perinatal testicular torsion: a unique strategy. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:699-703 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the data obtained from patients with PTT and propose principles of management based on clinical, surgical, and histologic findings...
  3. Yazihan N, Ataoglu H, Koku N, Erdemli E, Sargin A. Protective role of erythropoietin during testicular torsion of the rats. World J Urol. 2007;25:531-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that testicular I/R causes an increase in germ cell apoptosis both in the ipsilateral and contralateral testes. Erythropoietin has antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects following testicular torsion...
  4. Yerkes E, Robertson F, Gitlin J, Kaefer M, Cain M, Rink R. Management of perinatal torsion: today, tomorrow or never?. J Urol. 2005;174:1579-82; discussion 1582-3 pubmed
    ..Risk of general anesthesia must be weighed against the risk of anorchia. We describe our collective experience with bilateral perinatal torsion, solidifying our recommendation for early exploration in all cases of perinatal torsion...
  5. Unsal A, Devrim E, Guven C, Eroglu M, Durak I, Bozoklu A, et al. Propofol attenuates reperfusion injury after testicular torsion and detorsion. World J Urol. 2004;22:461-5 pubmed
    ..Preference of propofol for anaesthesia during the detorsion procedure may attenuate such reperfusion injury...
  6. Turner T, Bang H, Lysiak J. The molecular pathology of experimental testicular torsion suggests adjunct therapy to surgical repair. J Urol. 2004;172:2574-8 pubmed
    ..Evidence from animal models is used to discover pathways that might be amenable to manipulation by therapeutic regimens...
  7. John C, Kooner G, Mathew D, Ahmed S, Kenny S. Neonatal testicular torsion--a lost cause?. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:502-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixteen babies had contralateral orchidopexy. Doppler ultrasound scans were reported as normal in 2 of 13 babies who had scans. No testes were salvaged following surgery...
  8. Payabvash S, Kiumehr S, Tavangar S, Dehpour A. Ethyl pyruvate reduces germ cell-specific apoptosis and oxidative stress in rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) against testis tissue damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion...
  9. Ahmed S, Kaplan G, DeCambre M. Perinatal testicular torsion: preoperative radiological findings and the argument for urgent surgical exploration. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1563-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases illustrate that contralateral perinatal torsion may be present even when physical exam findings suggest unilateral involvement...
  10. Bozlu M, Acar D, Cayan S, Aktas S, Tunckiran A. Protective effect of trapidil on long-term histologic damage in a rat model of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. World J Urol. 2009;27:117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, it has been used successfully to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organ systems. We evaluated the effect of trapidil on the long-term histologic damage in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  11. Akcora B, Altu─č M, Balci A, Hakverdi S, Yonden Z, Akbas A, et al. Gradual detorsion of torsioned rat testis attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate effect of gradual detorsion on testicular ischemia reperfusion injury...
  12. Aktas B, Bulut S, Bulut S, Baykam M, Ozden C, Senes M, et al. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on testicular damage in experimental testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on testicular damage in a rat testicular ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model...
  13. Pampal A, Ozen I, Ekingen G, Demirogullari B, Helvacioglu F, Take G. The morphological evaluation of ipsilateral and contralateral vasa deferentia in a rat model of unilateral spermatic cord torsion. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:287-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermatic cord torsion is a surgical emergency that requires early intervention to protect the effected testicle...
  14. Cubillos J, Palmer J, Friedman S, Freyle J, Lowe F, Palmer L. Familial testicular torsion. J Urol. 2011;185:2469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We present what is to our knowledge the largest series of familial torsion, including the first 3 generation case and a review of the literature...
  15. Kanter M. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;91:708-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that further preclinical research into the utility of EGb 761 may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on testes injury after I/R in rats...
  16. Kaye J, Levitt S, Friedman S, Franco I, Gitlin J, Palmer L. Neonatal torsion: a 14-year experience and proposed algorithm for management. J Urol. 2008;179:2377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed a large series of such cases and stratified neonatal torsion based on time of presentation to determine the potential for testicular salvage. To our knowledge this is the largest series of its kind in the literature...
  17. Yang S, Shih H, Chow Y, Tsai P, Huang C. Hemin induced heme oxygenase-1 over expression involves nuclear factor-E2 related factor-2, nuclear factor-kappaB and extracellular regulated kinase: an experimental study in a testicular torsion-detorsion rodent model. J Urol. 2008;179:2456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we elucidated which of these enzymes is involved in hemin induced heme oxygenase-1 over expression in testicular tissues after torsion-detorsion injury...
  18. Gokce G, Karboga H, Yildiz E, Ayan S, Gultekin Y. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on apoptotic changes in contralateral testis following unilateral testicular torsion. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40:989-95 pubmed publisher
  19. Nezami B, Rahimpour S, Gholipour T, Payabvash S, Rahimian R, Tavangar S, et al. Protective effects of immunophilin ligands on testicular torsion/detorsion damage in rats. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose was to investigate the role of immunophilin ligands in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced germ cell apoptosis in the rat...
  20. Sukhotnik I, Voskoboinik K, Lurie M, Bejar Y, Coran A, Mogilner J. Involvement of the bax and bcl-2 system in the induction of germ cell apoptosis is correlated with the time of reperfusion after testicular ischemia in a rat model. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1466-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Erol B, Tokgoz H, Hanci V, Bektas S, Akduman B, Yencilek F, et al. Vardenafil reduces testicular damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2009;25:374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of 1 mg/kg vardenafil during testicular torsion decreased ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage. Our results indicate that the reduction in oxidative stress by vardenafil may play a major role in its cytoprotective effects...
  22. Lysiak J, Zheng S, Woodson R, Turner T. Caspase-9-dependent pathway to murine germ cell apoptosis: mediation by oxidative stress, BAX, and caspase 2. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;328:411-9 pubmed
  23. Ringdahl E, Teague L. Testicular torsion. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74:1739-43 pubmed
    ..Surgical treatment of torsion of the appendix testis is not mandatory but hastens recovery...
  24. Samnakay N, Tudehope D, Walker R. Spin on perinatal testicular torsion. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006;42:734-6 pubmed
    ..A good understanding of the issues unique to perinatal torsion will facilitate appropriate counseling of parents of affected neonates...
  25. Arena F, Nicotina P, Romeo C, Zimbaro G, Arena S, Zuccarello B, et al. Prenatal testicular torsion: ultrasonographic features, management and histopathological findings. Int J Urol. 2006;13:135-41 pubmed
    ..To highlight the ultrasonographic features of prenatal torsion of the testis in utero (IUTT) at presentation, the neonatal management and the histological findings postorchiectomy or biopsy...
  26. Silva A, Ortiz V, Silva R, Tognini J. [Effect of allopurinol on rat testicles morphology, submitted to ischaemia for spermatic cord torsion followed by reperfusion]. Acta Cir Bras. 2005;20:468-72 pubmed
    ..In this investigation has been studied the effect of the allopurinol on the reperfusion injury phenomenon in testicles of rats...
  27. Lysiak J, Nguyen Q, Turner T. Fluctuations in rat testicular interstitial oxygen tensions are linked to testicular vasomotion: persistence after repair of torsion. Biol Reprod. 2000;63:1383-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time a correlation between testicular vasomotion and interstitial PO(2) cycling, and this correlation persists after the repair of testicular torsion...
  28. Turner T, Tung K, Tomomasa H, Wilson L. Acute testicular ischemia results in germ cell-specific apoptosis in the rat. Biol Reprod. 1997;57:1267-74 pubmed
    ..These events were contemporaneous with the first appearance of apoptosis and consistent with the hypothesis that post-torsion, germ cell-specific apoptosis is induced by reactive oxygen species...
  29. Yazawa H, Sasagawa I, Suzuki Y, Nakada T. Glucocorticoid hormone can suppress apoptosis of rat testicular germ cells induced by testicular ischemia. Fertil Steril. 2001;75:980-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone, a potent synthetic glucocorticoid hormone, on apoptosis of testicular germ cells and vascular neutrophil adhesion after repair of testicular torsion in rats...
  30. Ricci P, Cantisani V, Drudi F, Carbone I, Coniglio M, Bosco S, et al. Prenatal testicular torsion: sonographic appearance in the newborn infant. Eur Radiol. 2001;11:2589-92 pubmed
    The prenatal diagnosis of spermatic cord torsion is often really difficult and the diagnosis is usually retrospective. Herein, we report a case of a male newborn baby who presented at delivery with an enlarged, swollen and tender scrotum...
  31. Mouritsen E, Boelskifte J, Rasmussen K. Bilateral torsion of the testicles in a newborn. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2002;266:118 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of bilateral torsion of the testes in a full term neonate...
  32. Traubici J, Daneman A, Navarro O, Mohanta A, Garcia C. Original report. Testicular torsion in neonates and infants: sonographic features in 30 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;180:1143-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of sonographic findings in testicular torsion in a large series of neonates and infants. These patterns and their evolution have, to our knowledge, not been described previously...
  33. Sorensen M, Galansky S, Striegl A, Mevorach R, Koyle M. Perinatal extravaginal torsion of the testis in the first month of life is a salvageable event. Urology. 2003;62:132-4 pubmed
    ..To determine the effectiveness of immediate surgical exploration in salvaging perinatal testicular torsion...
  34. van der Sluijs J, den Hollander J, Lequin M, Nijman R, Robben S. Prenatal testicular torsion: diagnosis and natural course. An ultrasonographic study. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:250-5 pubmed
    ..In newborns with a scrotal mass, these ultrasonographic findings should suggest this diagnosis and delay in immediate surgery and/or oncological work-up may be appropriate...
  35. Visser A, Heyns C. Testicular function after torsion of the spermatic cord. BJU Int. 2003;92:200-3 pubmed
  36. Lysiak J, Turner S, Turner T. Molecular pathway of germ cell apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion of the rat testis. Biol Reprod. 2000;63:1465-72 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that germ cell apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion of the rat testis is initiated through the mitochondria-associated molecule Bax as well as Fas-FasL interactions...
  37. Belman A, Rushton H. Is the vanished testis always a scrotal event?. BJU Int. 2001;87:480-3 pubmed
    ..To determine if perinatal testicular torsion resulting in a vanished testis is an event that primarily occurs in the scrotum...
  38. Greenstein A, Schreiber L, Matzkin H. The effect of methylene blue on histological damage after spermatic cord torsion in a rat model. BJU Int. 2001;88:90-2 pubmed
    To investigate, in a rat model, whether methylene blue (a free-radical scavenger) is effective in alleviating the histological testicular damage caused by reperfusion after spermatic cord torsion.
  39. Shiraishi K, Naito K, Yoshida K. Nitric oxide promotes germ cell necrosis in the delayed phase after experimental testicular torsion of rat. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:514-21 pubmed
    ..Inducible NOS inhibition combined with calpain inhibition may improve impaired spermatogenesis after testicular torsion...
  40. Lysiak J, Nguyen Q, Turner T. Peptide and nonpeptide reactive oxygen scavengers provide partial rescue of the testis after torsion. J Androl. 2002;23:400-9 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which ROS modulates neutrophil adhesion to venules is presently under investigation, as are additional therapeutic regimens to block oxidative stress...
  41. Filho D, Torres M, Bordin A, Crezcynski Pasa T, Boveris A. Spermatic cord torsion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mol Aspects Med. 2004;25:199-210 pubmed
    ..more investigations on the molecular mechanisms and the antioxidant status in testis are necessary to ascertain the contribution of ROS to the tissue damage produced by spermatic cord torsion in experimental animals and humans.
  42. Powell J, Elshtein R, Forest D, Palladino M. Stimulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein in the adult rat testis following ischemic injury occurs without an increase in HIF-1alpha messenger RNA expression. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:995-1002 pubmed
    ..HIF-1alpha protein was also elevated by experimental torsion and reperfusion compared with normoxic controls. These results support the hypothesis that HIF-1 may play a role in the cellular response to hypoxia in the ischemic testis...
  43. Lee S, Cha C. Asynchronous bilateral torsion of the spermatic cord in the newborn: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2002;17:712-4 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, the present case is the 6th case of asynchronous bilateral torsion of the spermatic cord in the English literature, and the first case in Korea...
  44. Belman A, Rushton H. Is an empty left hemiscrotum and hypertrophied right descended testis predictive of perinatal torsion?. J Urol. 2003;170:1674-5; discussion 1675-6 pubmed
    ..We determine whether the finding of a nonpalpable left testis and hypertrophied(2 cc or greater) right testis is predictive of an atrophic (perinatal torsion) left testis...
  45. Wren T. Penile and testicular disorders. Nurs Clin North Am. 2004;39:319-26 pubmed
    ..Penile and testicle disorders provide researchers and clinicians with many opportunities for research and practice that can improve the condition of men's health...
  46. Amini B, Patel C, Lewin M, Kim T, Fisher R. Diagnostic nuclear medicine in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:91-101 pubmed publisher
  47. Luk S, Fung K. Twists and turns in the body: an imaging spectrum. Hong Kong Med J. 2010;16:390-6 pubmed
    ..Prompt and accurate diagnosis is important to avoid the life-threatening complications of torsion and volvulus. Therefore, it is helpful to be familiar with the features of torsion and volvulus...
  48. Molokwu C, Somani B, Goodman C. Outcomes of scrotal exploration for acute scrotal pain suspicious of testicular torsion: a consecutive case series of 173 patients. BJU Int. 2011;107:990-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the surgical outcome of all scrotal explorations performed on patients presenting with acute scrotal pain suspicious of testicular torsion...
  49. Cost N, Bush N, Barber T, Huang R, Baker L. Pediatric testicular torsion: demographics of national orchiopexy versus orchiectomy rates. J Urol. 2011;185:2459-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we examined the Pediatric Health Information System database for torsion outcomes and demographics at American pediatric hospitals...
  50. Blumberg J, White B, Khati N, Andrawis R. Intermittent testicular torsion in a 58-year-old man. J Urol. 2004;172:1886 pubmed
  51. Kumar R, Mahajan J, Rao K. Perforated appendix in hernial sac mimicking torsion of undescended testis in a neonate. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:e9-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an unusual case of inguinal hernia containing a perforated appendix that was clinically mimicking testicular torsion of the undescended testis...
  52. Zhao L, Lautz T, Meeks J, Maizels M. Pediatric testicular torsion epidemiology using a national database: incidence, risk of orchiectomy and possible measures toward improving the quality of care. J Urol. 2011;186:2009-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the modern incidence of testicular torsion as well as the current rates of orchiectomy and attempted testicular salvage, and identified the risk factors for testicular loss...
  53. Makela E, Lahdes Vasama T, Rajakorpi H, Wikstrom S. A 19-year review of paediatric patients with acute scrotum. Scand J Surg. 2007;96:62-6 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to compare incidence, symptoms and signs of spermatic cord torsion to those of other conditions causing acute scrotum.