prostatitis

Summary

Summary: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.

Top Publications

  1. Samplaski M, Li J, Shoskes D. Inclusion of erectile domain to UPOINT phenotype does not improve correlation with symptom severity in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Urology. 2011;78:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The UPOINT system classifies men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome into 6 domains...
  2. Mazzoli S. Biofilms in chronic bacterial prostatitis (NIH-II) and in prostatic calcifications. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In Italy, there is a high incidence of prostatitis (13.3%), also accompanied by prostatic calcifications...
  3. Krieger J, Dobrindt U, Riley D, Oswald E. Acute Escherichia coli prostatitis in previously health young men: bacterial virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and clinical outcomes. Urology. 2011;77:1420-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate clinical outcomes, bacterial virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from young men presenting with acute bacterial prostatitis.
  4. Nagel K, Schouten M, Hambrock T, Litjens G, Hoeks C, ten Haken B, et al. Differentiation of prostatitis and prostate cancer by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MR-guided biopsy at 3 T. Radiology. 2013;267:164-72 pubmed publisher
    To determine if prostatitis and prostate cancer (PCa) can be distinguished by using apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) on magnetic resonance (MR) images, with specimens obtained at MR-guided biopsy as the standard of reference.
  5. Brede C, Shoskes D. The etiology and management of acute prostatitis. Nat Rev Urol. 2011;8:207-12 pubmed publisher
    Acute bacterial prostatitis is a common and clinically important genitourinary disorder. Patient populations who are at especially high risk of acute prostatitis include those with diabetes, cirrhosis, and suppressed immune systems...
  6. Mi H, Gao Y, Yan Y, Wu Y, Tan A, Yang X, et al. Research of correlation between the amount of leukocyte in EPS and NIH-CPSI: result from 1242 men in Fangchenggang Area in Guangxi Province. Urology. 2012;79:403-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the correlation between the leukocyte in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) and National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) in a large Chinese male population.
  7. Watanabe T, Inoue M, Sasaki K, Araki M, Uehara S, Monden K, et al. Nerve growth factor level in the prostatic fluid of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is correlated with symptom severity and response to treatment. BJU Int. 2011;108:248-51 pubmed publisher
    To explore whether levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) are correlated with symptom severity in chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS).
  8. Eryildirim B, Aktas A, Kuyumcuoglu U, Faydaci G, Tarhan F, Ozgul A. The effectiveness of sildenafil citrate in patients with erectile dysfunction and lower urinary system symptoms and the significance of asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Int J Impot Res. 2010;22:349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated whether or not the presence of asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis had an effect on the alteration in the symptom scores. A total of 36 male patients were included in the study...
  9. Zhang Z, Schluesener H. HDAC inhibitor MS-275 attenuates the inflammatory reaction in rat experimental autoimmune prostatitis. Prostate. 2012;72:90-9 pubmed publisher
    Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of male sex accessory glands and is characterized by a cellular and humoral prostate-specific autoimmune response...

More Information

Publications62

  1. van Vuuren S, Heyns C, Zarrabi A. Significance of histological prostatitis in patients with urinary retention and underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma of the prostate. BJU Int. 2012;109:1194-7 pubmed publisher
    To compare the clinical features of patients having urinary retention and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with those having adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ACP) and to evaluate the significance of histological prostatitis.
  2. Schiller D, Parikh A. Identification, pharmacologic considerations, and management of prostatitis. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2011;9:37-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostatitis is a collection of signs and symptoms that occur as a result of inflammation or swelling of the prostate gland...
  3. Cho D, Choi J, Kim Y, Joo K, Kim S, Kim J, et al. Heart rate variability in assessment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Urology. 2011;78:1369-72 pubmed publisher
    To determine and compare autonomic dysfunction in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).
  4. Anothaisintawee T, Attia J, Nickel J, Thammakraisorn S, Numthavaj P, McEvoy M, et al. Management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011;305:78-86 pubmed publisher
    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is common, but trial evidence is conflicting and therapeutic options are controversial.
  5. Parsons C. The role of a leaky epithelium and potassium in the generation of bladder symptoms in interstitial cystitis/overactive bladder, urethral syndrome, prostatitis and gynaecological chronic pelvic pain. BJU Int. 2011;107:370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of IC but rather are misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, urethral syndrome, overactive bladder, chronic prostatitis, urethritis, or a type of gynecologic pelvic pain (such as endometriosis, vulvodynia, or some type of vaginitis)..
  6. Xie C, Tang X, Xu W, Diao R, Cai Z, Chan H. A host defense mechanism involving CFTR-mediated bicarbonate secretion in bacterial prostatitis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15255 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostatitis is associated with a characteristic increase in prostatic fluid pH; however, the underlying mechanism and its physiological significance have not been elucidated.
  7. Zhao Z, Zhang J, He J, Zeng G. Clinical utility of the UPOINT phenotype system in Chinese males with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS): a prospective study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52044 pubmed publisher
    ..We also investigated the addition of an ED domain in regard to symptom correlation...
  8. Sfanos K, De Marzo A. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence. Histopathology. 2012;60:199-215 pubmed publisher
  9. Zhao F, Yue M, Yang H, Wang T, Wu J, Li S. Validation and comparison of EuroQol and short form 6D in chronic prostatitis patients. Value Health. 2010;13:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to our knowledge, no such HRQoL instrument has been validated or used in chronic prostatitis. We therefore aimed to assess and compare the psychometric properties of EuroQol (EQ-5D) and Short Form 6D (SF-..
  10. Sharp V, Takacs E, Powell C. Prostatitis: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82:397-406 pubmed
    b>Prostatitis ranges from a straightforward clinical entity in its acute form to a complex, debilitating condition when chronic. It is often a source of frustration for the treating physician and patient...
  11. Shen X, Ming A, Li X, Zhou Z, Song B. Nanobacteria: a possible etiology for type III prostatitis. J Urol. 2010;184:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed pathological changes in nanobacteria infected prostates in Sprague-Dawley(R) rats and investigated the possible etiological relationships of nanobacteria and type III prostatitis.
  12. Zhao F, Yue M, Yang H, Wang T, Wu J, Li S. Health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Qual Life Res. 2010;19:1273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and factors associated with HRQoL in Chinese patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) using two generic preference-based HRQoL instruments, EQ-5D (plus EQ-VAS)..
  13. Suskind A, Berry S, Ewing B, Elliott M, Suttorp M, Clemens J. The prevalence and overlap of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: results of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology male study. J Urol. 2013;189:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..validated case definitions to identify interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men...
  14. Khalili M, Mutton L, Gurel B, Hicks J, De Marzo A, Bieberich C. Loss of Nkx3.1 expression in bacterial prostatitis: a potential link between inflammation and neoplasia. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effect of inflammation on Nxk3.1 accumulation, bacterial prostatitis was induced by intraurethral inoculation of a uropathogenic E. coli strain in mice. Nkx3...
  15. Weinstock L, Geng B, Brandes S. Chronic prostatitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: effect of rifaximin. Can J Urol. 2011;18:5826-30 pubmed
    This pilot study determined the efficacy of rifaximin, a gut-directed antibiotic, in reducing chronic prostatitis (CP) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with CP type III...
  16. Lee S, Lee B. Use of acupuncture as a treatment method for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Curr Urol Rep. 2011;12:288-96 pubmed publisher
    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common category of clinical prostatitis...
  17. Suzuki T, Takeuchi M, Naiki T, Kawai N, Kohri K, Hara M, et al. MRI findings of granulomatous prostatitis developing after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy. Clin Radiol. 2013;68:595-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of granulomatous prostatitis (GP) developing after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.
  18. Zhao F, Yue M, Yang H, Wang T, Wu J, Li S. Willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: is one threshold enough for decision-making?: results from a study in patients with chronic prostatitis. Med Care. 2011;49:267-72 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) ratio with the stated preference data and compare the results obtained between chronic prostatitis (CP) patients and general population (GP).
  19. Thumbikat P, Shahrara S, Sobkoviak R, Done J, Pope R, Schaeffer A. Prostate secretions from men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome inhibit proinflammatory mediators. J Urol. 2010;184:1536-42 pubmed publisher
    In the past numerous chemokines have been noted in the expressed prostatic secretions of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome...
  20. Farmer M, Chanda M, Parks E, Baliki M, Apkarian A, Schaeffer A. Brain functional and anatomical changes in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. J Urol. 2011;186:117-24 pubmed publisher
    Research into the pathophysiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome has primarily focused on markers of peripheral dysfunction...
  21. Chen C, Chang P, Lin W, Huang Y, Ho D. Evidences of the inflammasome pathway in chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome in an animal model. Prostate. 2013;73:391-7 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of non-bacterial chronic prostatitis (CP/CPPS) has long been investigated but remains unclear...
  22. Quick M, Mukherjee S, Rudick C, Done J, Schaeffer A, Thumbikat P. CCL2 and CCL3 are essential mediators of pelvic pain in experimental autoimmune prostatitis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R580-9 pubmed publisher
    Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) is a murine model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) in men, a syndrome characterized by chronic pelvic pain...
  23. Pontari M, Giusto L. New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Curr Opin Urol. 2013;23:565-9 pubmed publisher
    To describe new developments in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS).
  24. Shoskes D, Prots D, Karns J, Horhn J, Shoskes A. Greater endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome--a possible link to cardiovascular disease. J Urol. 2011;186:907-10 pubmed publisher
    Men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome have higher self-reported rates of cardiac disease than controls. Peripheral arterial tone abnormalities correlate with cardiac disease and mortality...
  25. Vicari E, Calogero A, Condorelli R, Vicari L, La Vignera S. Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome. Int J Androl. 2012;35:183-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we reported an increased prevalence of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) in patients with prostatitis syndromes (PS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) compared with patients with PS alone...
  26. Bour L, Schull A, Delongchamps N, Beuvon F, Muradyan N, Legmann P, et al. Multiparametric MRI features of granulomatous prostatitis and tubercular prostate abscess. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2013;94:84-90 pubmed publisher
    The authors report the diffusion and contrast-enhanced MRI appearance of five cases of granulomatous prostatitis (GP), non-specific (two cases) and infectious post-Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy (three cases, with a tubercular ..
  27. Lan T, Wang Y, Chen Y, Qin W, Zhang J, Wang Z, et al. Influence of environmental factors on prevalence, symptoms, and pathologic process of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in northwest China. Urology. 2011;78:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare the prevalence, symptoms, and pathologic changes related to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) with significant prostatitis-like symptoms between 2 altitude areas in northwest China.
  28. De Nunzio C, Kramer G, Marberger M, Montironi R, Nelson W, Schröder F, et al. The controversial relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: the role of inflammation. Eur Urol. 2011;60:106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data suggest that prostatic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of both conditions...
  29. Haverkamp J, Charbonneau B, Crist S, Meyerholz D, Cohen M, Snyder P, et al. An inducible model of abacterial prostatitis induces antigen specific inflammatory and proliferative changes in the murine prostate. Prostate. 2011;71:1139-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostatitis is a poorly understood disease and increasing evidence suggests inflammation is involved in other prostatic diseases including prostate cancer.
  30. Magri V, Perletti G, Bartoletti R, Cai T, Emelyanova I, Mehik A, et al. Critical issues in chronic prostatitis. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2010;82:75-82 pubmed
    ..an impressive amount of clinical research data has shed new light on pathogenesis and management of the chronic prostatitis syndrome...
  31. Magri V, Montanari E, Skerk V, Markotic A, Marras E, Restelli A, et al. Fluoroquinolone-macrolide combination therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis: retrospective analysis of pathogen eradication rates, inflammatory findings and sexual dysfunction. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..the safety and efficacy of fluoroquinolone-macrolide combination therapy in category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP)...
  32. Shoskes D, Nickel J. Quercetin for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Urol Clin North Am. 2011;38:279-84 pubmed publisher
    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition with a heterogeneous origin that responds best to multimodal therapy...
  33. Mahal B, Cohen J, Allsop S, Moore J, Bhai S, Inverso G, et al. The role of phenotyping in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Curr Urol Rep. 2011;12:297-303 pubmed publisher
    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain syndrome identified by the presence of noninfectious pelvic or perineal pain lasting longer than 3 months...
  34. Posadzki P, Zhang J, Lee M, Ernst E. Acupuncture for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a systematic review. J Androl. 2012;33:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment option for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Eight databases were searched from their inception to October 2010...
  35. Lipsky B, Byren I, Hoey C. Treatment of bacterial prostatitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1641-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Prostatitis is characterized by voiding symptoms and genitourinary pain and is sometimes associated with sexual dysfunction...
  36. Magri V, Wagenlehner F, Perletti G, Schneider S, Marras E, Naber K, et al. Use of the UPOINT chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome classification in European patient cohorts: sexual function domain improves correlations. J Urol. 2010;184:2339-45 pubmed publisher
    Patients with chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome are difficult to treat due to the unknown etiology and complex clinical presentation...
  37. Bostanci Y, Kazzazi A, Momtahen S, Laze J, Djavan B. Correlation between benign prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation. Curr Opin Urol. 2013;23:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to evaluate the available evidence on the role of prostatic inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
  38. Shoskes D. The challenge of erectile dysfunction in the man with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Curr Urol Rep. 2012;13:263-7 pubmed publisher
    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), also known as NIH category III prostatitis, is common and has significant impact on quality of life through pain and lower urinary tract symptoms...
  39. Thakkinstian A, Attia J, Anothaisintawee T, Nickel J. ?-blockers, antibiotics and anti-inflammatories have a role in the management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. BJU Int. 2012;110:1014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical trials evaluating antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and ?-blockers for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome have shown only modest or even no benefits for patients compared with placebo, yet ..
  40. Chung S, Lin H. Association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and anxiety disorder: a population-based study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64630 pubmed publisher
    This case-control study utilized a population-based dataset to examine the association of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) with prior anxiety disorder (AD) by comparing the risk of prior AD between subjects with ..
  41. Letkiewicz S, Miedzybrodzki R, Kłak M, Jończyk E, Weber Dabrowska B, Gorski A. The perspectives of the application of phage therapy in chronic bacterial prostatitis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;60:99-112 pubmed publisher
    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is a long-lasting and crippling disease that strongly impacts the patient's quality of life. The diagnosis of CBP is difficult and the treatment regimens are not always successful...
  42. Billis A. Prostatic atrophy. Clinicopathological significance. Int Braz J Urol. 2010;36:401-9 pubmed
    ..An intriguing finding that needs further studies is a possible association of extent of atrophy to serum PSA elevation...
  43. Gui Zhong L, Libo M, Guanglin H, Jianwei W. The correlation of extent and grade of inflammation with serum PSA levels in patients with IV prostatitis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2011;43:295-301 pubmed publisher
    The inflammation was categorized more profoundly, using the standardized histopathological classification system for chronic prostatitis of NIH, to determine the influence of prostatic inflammation on serum PSA levels.
  44. Lee J, Moon H, Lee T, Hwang H, Ahn M, Ryu J. PCR for diagnosis of male Trichomonas vaginalis infection with chronic prostatitis and urethritis. Korean J Parasitol. 2012;50:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..usefulness of PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among male patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis and urethritis...
  45. Lee C, Ha U, Yim S, Lee H, Sohn D, Han C, et al. Does finasteride have a preventive effect on chronic bacterial prostatitis? Pilot study using an animal model. Urol Int. 2011;86:204-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the preventive effect of finasteride on chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, ciprofloxacin, finasteride, and ciprofloxacin/finasteride.
  46. Cai T, Mazzoli S, Meacci F, Boddi V, Mondaini N, Malossini G, et al. Epidemiological features and resistance pattern in uropathogens isolated from chronic bacterial prostatitis. J Microbiol. 2011;49:448-54 pubmed publisher
    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is, usually, caused by uropathogens, especially gram-negative bacilli, although infection is sometimes due to Gram-positive and atypical microorganisms...
  47. Chung S, Keller J, Lin H. A case-control study on the association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 2012;110:726-30 pubmed publisher
    ..a number of studies have reported a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Several studies have reported that the prevalence of ED ranges from 15...
  48. Pontari M, Krieger J, Litwin M, White P, Anderson R, McNaughton Collins M, et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1586-93 pubmed publisher
    Evidence suggests that the urogenital pain of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) may be neuropathic.
  49. Kim S, Ha U, Lee H, Sohn D, Lee S, Kim H, et al. Do Escherichia coli extract and cranberry exert preventive effects on chronic bacterial prostatitis? Pilot study using an animal model. J Infect Chemother. 2011;17:322-6 pubmed publisher
    Traditional first-line treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is administration of empirical antibiotics. However, the efficacy rate is low and long-term antibiotic therapy can result in adverse events and bacterial resistance...
  50. Liang C, Hao Z, Li H, Wang Z, Xing J, Hu W, et al. Prevalence of premature ejaculation and its correlation with chronic prostatitis in Chinese men. Urology. 2010;76:962-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in Chinese men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome and studied its correlation to chronic prostatitis.
  51. Shoskes D, Nickel J, Kattan M. Phenotypically directed multimodal therapy for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a prospective study using UPOINT. Urology. 2010;75:1249-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we treated patients with multimodal therapy based on the UPOINT phenotype and measured response after at least 6 months...
  52. Vicari E, La Vignera S, Arcoria D, Condorelli R, Vicari L, Castiglione R, et al. High frequency of chronic bacterial and non-inflammatory prostatitis in infertile patients with prostatitis syndrome plus irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18647 pubmed publisher
    Although prostatitis syndrome (PS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common disorders, information on the prevalence of IBS in infertile patients with PS is relatively scanty...
  53. Morgia G, Mucciardi G, Gali A, Madonia M, Marchese F, Di Benedetto A, et al. Treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome category IIIA with Serenoa repens plus selenium and lycopene (Profluss) versus S. repens alone: an Italian randomized multicenter-controlled study. Urol Int. 2010;84:400-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens + selenium and lycopene (Profluss) versus S. repens alone for the treatment of category IIIa chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).