Summary: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.

Top Publications

  1. Chen C, Huang M, Chen Y, Chern S, Wu P, Su J, et al. Cri-du-chat (5p-) syndrome presenting with cerebellar hypoplasia and hypospadias: prenatal diagnosis and aCGH characterization using uncultured amniocytes. Gene. 2013;524:407-11 pubmed publisher
    ..1?pter) using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with cerebellar hypoplasia, hypospadias and facial dysmorphisms in the fetus...
  2. Hsieh M, Alonzo D, Gonzales E, Jones E, Cisek L, Roth D. Ex-premature infant boys with hypospadias are similar in size to age-matched, ex-premature infant boys without hypospadias. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:543-7 pubmed publisher
    Studies have postulated that hypospadias, prematurity, and low birth weight are linked by defects in androgen signaling...
  3. Thorup J, McLachlan R, Cortes D, Nation T, Balic A, Southwell B, et al. What is new in cryptorchidism and hypospadias--a critical review on the testicular dysgenesis hypothesis. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:2074-86 pubmed publisher
    It has been hypothesized that poor semen quality, testis cancer, undescended testis, and hypospadias are symptoms of one underlying entity--the testicular dysgenesis syndrome--leading to increasing male fertility impairment...
  4. Snodgrass W, Macedo A, Hoebeke P, Mouriquand P. Hypospadias dilemmas: a round table. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:145-57 pubmed publisher
  5. Akin Y, Ercan O, Telatar B, Tarhan F, Comert S. Hypospadias in Istanbul: incidence and risk factors. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:754-760 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present prospective study was to determine the incidence of hypospadias in newborns in one of the busiest teaching hospitals of Istanbul, and to investigate the risk factors.
  6. Kalfa N, Paris F, Soyer Gobillard M, Daures J, Sultan C. Prevalence of hypospadias in grandsons of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy: a multigenerational national cohort study. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2574-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort study in collaboration with a French association of DES-exposed women studied 529 families and showed that a significant proportion of boys born to DES daughters exhibited hypospadias with no other molecular defects identified.
  7. Castellan M, Miguel C, Gosalbez R, Rafael G, Devendra J, Joshi D, et al. Ventral corporal body grafting for correcting severe penile curvature associated with single or two-stage hypospadias repair. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:289-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed our experience with 1 ply SIS for ventral corporal body grafting in cases of severe ventral penile curvature associated with proximal hypospadias in children.
  8. Prat D, Natasha A, Polak A, Koulikov D, Prat O, Zilberman M, et al. Surgical outcome of different types of primary hypospadias repair during three decades in a single center. Urology. 2012;79:1350-3 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the surgical outcome of different techniques of primary hypospadias repair in a single department.
  9. Choi H, Kim J, Im Y, Lee S, Kim Y. The association between some endocrine disruptors and hypospadias in biological samples. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:2173-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a birth defect found in boys in which the urinary tract opening is not at the tip of the penis...

More Information


  1. Tan Y, Patel N, Scarlett A, Clibbon J, Kulkarni M, Mathur A. Bracka's staged repair of proximal hypospadias--revisiting a versatile technique. J Pediatr Urol. 2012;8:108, 108e1 pubmed publisher
    Proximal hypospadias is associated with poorly defined urethral plate and often with chordee. A two-staged Bracka's repair is reproducible and has been used routinely in our practice...
  2. Mouriquand P, Gorduza D, Noché M, Targnion A. Long-term outcome of hypospadias surgery: current dilemmas. Curr Opin Urol. 2011;21:465-9 pubmed publisher
    To list the main questions and dilemmas raised by hypospadias management and its long-term evaluation.
  3. Montag S, Palmer L. Abnormalities of penile curvature: chordee and penile torsion. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:1470-8 pubmed publisher
    Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position...
  4. Snodgrass W, Cost N, Nakonezny P, Bush N. Analysis of risk factors for glans dehiscence after tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair. J Urol. 2011;185:1845-9 pubmed publisher
    We determined the incidence of glans dehiscence and the associated risk factors after tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair.
  5. Qin C, Wang W, Wang S, Cao Q, Wang Z, Li P, et al. A modified method for the treatment of urethral fistula after hypospadias repair. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:900-2 pubmed publisher
    Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is a common complication of hypospadias surgery for severe hypospadias. We report our experience in the management of UCF following hypospadias surgery with a prepuce-degloving method (PDM)...
  6. Castagnetti M, Zhapa E, Rigamonti W. Primary severe hypospadias: comparison of reoperation rates and parental perception of urinary symptoms and cosmetic outcomes among 4 repairs. J Urol. 2013;189:1508-13 pubmed publisher
    We compared complication rates, urinary symptoms and cosmetic outcomes as perceived by parents of patients undergoing 1 of 4 repairs for proximal hypospadias associated with ventral curvature.
  7. van der Toorn F, de Jong T, de Gier R, Callewaert P, van der Horst E, Steffens M, et al. Introducing the HOPE (Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation)-score: a validation study of an objective scoring system for evaluating cosmetic appearance in hypospadias patients. J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9:1006-16 pubmed publisher
    To determine the reliability and internal validity of the Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation (HOPE)-score, a newly developed scoring system assessing the cosmetic outcome in hypospadias.
  8. Nordenvall A, Frisén L, Nordenstrom A, Lichtenstein P, Nordenskjold A. Population based nationwide study of hypospadias in Sweden, 1973 to 2009: incidence and risk factors. J Urol. 2014;191:783-9 pubmed publisher
    We studied the incidence of hypospadias in Sweden during a 40-year period to determine if changes were associated with known risk factors.
  9. Carmichael S, Herring A, Sjodin A, Jones R, Needham L, Ma C, et al. Hypospadias and halogenated organic pollutant levels in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples. Chemosphere. 2010;80:641-6 pubmed publisher
    Environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine function may contribute to hypospadias etiology.
  10. Jørgensen N, Rajpert De Meyts E, Main K, Skakkebaek N. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome comprises some but not all cases of hypospadias and impaired spermatogenesis. Int J Androl. 2010;33:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..it suggested that impaired development of foetal testes could lead to increased risks of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, decreased spermatogenesis or testis cancer...
  11. Fossum M, Nordenskjold A. Tissue-engineered transplants for the treatment of severe hypospadias. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;73:148-52 pubmed publisher
    The surgical treatment of severe hypospadias can be very challenging. In selected cases with severe lack of tissue, cultured autologous urothelial cells can be used to create a transplanted neourethra...
  12. Chul Kim S, Kyoung Kwon S, Pyo Hong Y. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:715-8 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence...
  13. Kojima Y, Kohri K, Hayashi Y. Genetic pathway of external genitalia formation and molecular etiology of hypospadias. J Pediatr Urol. 2010;6:346-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital disorders in males...
  14. Fisch H, Hyun G, Hensle T. Rising hypospadias rates: disproving a myth. J Pediatr Urol. 2010;6:37-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities occurring in males...
  15. Scarpa M, Castagnetti M, Berrettini A, Rigamonti W, Musi L. Urinary function after Snodgrass repair of distal hypospadias: comparison with the Mathieu repair. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:519-22 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate urinary function in patients with distal hypospadias undergoing repair by the tubularized incised-plate urethroplasty (TIP or Snodgrass), compare the results with those in patients treated by the Mathieu technique, and show ..
  16. Springer A, Reck C, Huber C, Horcher E. Online hypospadias support group data analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:520-4 pubmed publisher
    Although hypospadias is the most common malformation of the penis, this condition is virtually unknown to the general population. This lack of information may lead to psychological distress to both parents and patients...
  17. Iszatt N, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Nelson P, Elliott P, Toledano M. Water consumption and use, trihalomethane exposure, and the risk of hypospadias. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e389-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly that affects up to 70 in 10 000 males. Ingestion of drinking-water-disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethanes (THMs) has been associated with hypospadias in a small sample...
  18. van der Zanden L, van Rooij I, Feitz W, Knight J, Donders A, Renkema K, et al. Common variants in DGKK are strongly associated with risk of hypospadias. Nat Genet. 2011;43:48-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia...
  19. Snodgrass W, Bush N, Cost N. Tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair for distal hypospadias. J Pediatr Urol. 2010;6:408-13 pubmed publisher
    We report surgical technique and outcomes in consecutive patients with primary distal hypospadias.
  20. Sujijantararat P, Chaiyaprasithi B. Comparative outcome between transverse island flap onlay and tubularized incised plate for primary hypospadias repair. Asian J Surg. 2009;32:229-33 pubmed publisher
    To compare the outcome of transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay with tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in primary hypospadias repair.
  21. Kalfa N, Philibert P, Baskin L, Sultan C. Hypospadias: interactions between environment and genetics. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;335:89-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations. It is considered to be a mild form of the 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD), but its precise etiology remains to be elucidated...
  22. Sata F, Kurahashi N, Ban S, Moriya K, Tanaka K, Ishizuka M, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of 17 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 and the risk of hypospadias. J Sex Med. 2010;7:2729-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a common congenital anomaly caused by incomplete fusion of urethral folds. Development of the urethra and external genital system in the male fetus is an androgen-dependent process...
  23. Qin X, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Ueoka K, Muroya K, Miyado M, et al. Identification of novel low-dose bisphenol a targets in human foreskin fibroblast cells derived from hypospadias patients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36711 pubmed publisher
    ..basis of the effect of BPA on human reproductive health, a genome-wide screen was performed using human foreskin fibroblast cells (hFFCs) derived from child hypospadias (HS) patients to identify novel targets of low-dose BPA exposure.
  24. Hsieh M, Eisenberg M, Hittelman A, Wilson J, Tasian G, Baskin L. Caucasian male infants and boys with hypospadias exhibit reduced anogenital distance. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:1577-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Human studies have correlated shorter AGD with exposure to putative endocrine disruptors in the environment but have not examined AGD in hypospadiac boys. We measured AGD in boys with hypospadias and those with normal genitals.
  25. Carmichael S, Shaw G, Lammer E. Environmental and genetic contributors to hypospadias: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:499-510 pubmed publisher
    This review evaluates current knowledge related to trends in the prevalence of hypospadias, the association of hypospadias with endocrine-disrupting exposures, and the potential contribution of genetic susceptibility to its etiology...
  26. Macedo A, Rondon A, Ortiz V. Hypospadias. Curr Opin Urol. 2012;22:447-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies in men...
  27. Qiao L, Rodriguez E, Weiss D, Ferretti M, Risbridger G, Cunha G, et al. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta is decreased in hypospadias. J Urol. 2012;187:1427-33 pubmed publisher
    Estrogenic endocrine disruptors acting via estrogen receptors ? and ? have been implicated in the etiology of hypospadias. However, the expression and distribution of estrogen receptors ? and ? in normal and hypospadiac human foreskins ..
  28. Kalfa N, Cassorla F, Audran F, Oulad Abdennabi I, Philibert P, Beroud C, et al. Polymorphisms of MAMLD1 gene in hypospadias. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Almost 10% of patients with both severe and non-severe hypospadias exhibit mutations of MAMLD1...
  29. Vottero A, Minari R, Viani I, Tassi F, Bonatti F, Neri T, et al. Evidence for epigenetic abnormalities of the androgen receptor gene in foreskin from children with hypospadias. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1953-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a malformation of the penis due to an incomplete development of the male urethra, the exact etiology of which in the majority of cases remains unknown.
  30. Barbagli G, Perovic S, Djinovic R, Sansalone S, Lazzeri M. Retrospective descriptive analysis of 1,176 patients with failed hypospadias repair. J Urol. 2010;183:207-11 pubmed publisher
    To our knowledge epidemiological data on the incidence of failed hypospadias repair and the number of patients seeking further surgical treatment remain unknown...
  31. Kraft K, Shukla A, Canning D. Proximal hypospadias. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:894-906 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position...
  32. Ishii T, Hayashi M, Suwanai A, Amano N, Hasegawa T. The effect of intramuscular testosterone enanthate treatment on stretched penile length in prepubertal boys with hypospadias. Urology. 2010;76:97-100 pubmed publisher
    To define the responses of stretched penile length (PL) to intramuscular testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in prepubertal boys with hypospadias.
  33. Rignell Hydbom A, Lindh C, Dillner J, Jonsson B, Rylander L. A nested case-control study of intrauterine exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of hypospadias. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44767 pubmed publisher
    ..to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent ..
  34. Nezami B, Mahboubi A, Tanhaeivash R, Tourchi A, Kajbafzadeh A. Hypospadias repair and glans augmentation using a modified Mathieu technique. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:299-303 pubmed publisher
    To describe a modification in Mathieu (perimeatal-based flap urethroplasty) technique that incorporates glans augmentation into the procedure and is applicable for hypospadias patients with small glans and shallow urethral grooves.
  35. Castagnetti M, El Ghoneimi A. Surgical management of primary severe hypospadias in children: systematic 20-year review. J Urol. 2010;184:1469-74 pubmed publisher
    We systematically reviewed the literature published during the last 20 years on the treatment of primary proximal hypospadias associated with severe ventral curvature.
  36. Adamovic T, Nordenskjold A. The CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene modifies the risk for hypospadias in Caucasians. BMC Med Genet. 2012;13:109 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a birth defect of the urethra in males, and a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD)...
  37. Zheng D, Wang H, Lu M, Chen Q, Chen Y, Ren X, et al. A comparative study of the use of a transverse preputial island flap (the Duckett technique) to treat primary and secondary hypospadias in older Chinese patients with severe chordee. World J Urol. 2013;31:965-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the outcome between the primary and secondary hypospadias with severe chordee in older patients by the transverse preputial island flap (TPIF).
  38. Jensen M, Wilcox A, Olsen J, Bonde J, Thulstrup A, Ramlau Hansen C, et al. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in a cohort of 934,538 Danish boys: the role of birth weight, gestational age, body dimensions, and fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..and low birth weight are strong predictors of the urogenital anomalies cryptorchidism (undescended testis) and hypospadias. Understanding these associations may lead to important etiologic clues...
  39. Qiao L, Tasian G, Zhang H, Cao M, Ferretti M, Cunha G, et al. Androgen receptor is overexpressed in boys with severe hypospadias, and ZEB1 regulates androgen receptor expression in human foreskin cells. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:393-8 pubmed publisher
    ZEB1 is overexpressed in patients with severe hypospadias. We examined the interaction between ZEB1 and the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro and the expression of AR in boys with hypospadias.
  40. Iwatsuki S, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Kamisawa H, Umemoto Y, Sasaki S, et al. Endocrine assessment of prepubertal boys with a history of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias: a pilot study. J Urol. 2011;185:2444-50 pubmed publisher
    Four disorders, including poor semen quality, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, are thought to represent testicular dysgenesis syndrome and have been hypothesized to share a common etiology...
  41. van der Zanden L, van Rooij I, Feitz W, Vermeulen S, Kiemeney L, Knoers N, et al. Genetics of hypospadias: are single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SRD5A2, ESR1, ESR2, and ATF3 really associated with the malformation?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2384-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia with a multifactorial etiology. Little is known about the genes involved in hypospadias...
  42. Lumen N, Hoebeke P, Deschepper E, Van Laecke E, De Caestecker K, Oosterlinck W. Urethroplasty for failed hypospadias repair: a matched cohort analysis. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:170-3 pubmed publisher
    To determine the outcome of urethroplasty for failed hypospadias repair and to compare this with a matched cohort of patients treated with urethroplasty for other reasons.
  43. Yinon Y, Kingdom J, Proctor L, Kelly E, Salle J, Wherrett D, et al. Hypospadias in males with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental insufficiency: the placental role in the embryogenesis of male external genitalia. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the association between early onset intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency and hypospadias in males...
  44. Springer A, Subramaniam R. Split dorsal dartos flap transposed ventrally as a bed for preputial skin graft in primary staged hypospadias repair. Urology. 2012;79:939-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2-stage repair is a commonly used technique in proximal hypospadias or in hypospadias with severe chordee, or in cases with urethral plate of poor or dubious quality.
  45. van der Zanden L, van Rooij I, Feitz W, Franke B, Knoers N, Roeleveld N. Aetiology of hypospadias: a systematic review of genes and environment. Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18:260-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. Most cases have an unknown aetiology, which is probably a mix of monogenic and multifactorial forms, implicating both genes and environmental factors...
  46. van der Zanden L, Galesloot T, Feitz W, Brouwers M, Shi M, Knoers N, et al. Exploration of gene-environment interactions, maternal effects and parent of origin effects in the etiology of hypospadias. J Urol. 2012;188:2354-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia...
  47. Singh B, Solanki F, Kapoor R, Dassi V, Kaswan H, Agrawal V, et al. Factors predicting success in hypospadias repair using preputial flap with limited pedicle mobilization (Asopa procedure). Urology. 2010;76:92-6 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the objective factors determining success in hypospadias repair by the Asopa technique of limited preputial pedicle mobilization.
  48. Tan H, Nah S, Budianto I, Sehat S, Tamba R. The use of octyl cyanoacrylate (superglue) in hypospadias repair including its use as a fixator for urethral stents. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:2294-7 pubmed publisher
    Octyl cyanoacrylate has been used for many years for simple skin closure, but its use in hypospadias repair and as a urethral stent fixator has not been previously reported. We report our experience.
  49. Toppari J, Virtanen H, Main K, Skakkebaek N. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias as a sign of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS): environmental connection. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:910-9 pubmed publisher
    Cryptorchidism and hypospadias are common genital birth defects that affect 2-9% and 0.2-1% of male newborns, respectively...
  50. Bouvattier C. [How and when to evaluate hypospadias?]. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20 Suppl 1:S5-S10 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypospadias is a frequent congenital malformation, which severity is connected to the spongiosum divergence...
  51. Muruganandham K, Ansari M, Dubey D, Mandhani A, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, et al. Urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair: outcome of three types of closure techniques. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:305-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the outcomes of three surgical techniques for the closure of urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) after hypospadias repair.
  52. Allali S, Muller J, Brauner R, Lourenco D, Boudjenah R, Karageorgou V, et al. Mutation analysis of NR5A1 encoding steroidogenic factor 1 in 77 patients with 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD) including hypospadias. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24117 pubmed publisher
    Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias.
  53. Macedo A, Liguori R, Ottoni S, Garrone G, Damazio E, Mattos R, et al. Long-term results with a one-stage complex primary hypospadias repair strategy (the three-in-one technique). J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:299-304 pubmed publisher
    Complex primary hypospadias repair that warrants urethral plate division is treated mostly in two steps, not necessarily in two surgeries...