polyvinyl chloride


Summary: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.

Top Publications

  1. Geilich B, Webster T. Reduced adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to ZnO/PVC nanocomposites. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:1177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) taken from a conventional endotracheal tube was embedded with varying concentrations of zinc oxide (..
  2. Kolobow T, Cressoni M, Epp M, Corti I, Cadringher P, Zanella A. Comparison of a novel lycra endotracheal tube cuff to standard polyvinyl chloride cuff and polyurethane cuff for fluid leak prevention. Respir Care. 2011;56:1095-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, we tested 6 of each of the new prototype Lycra cuff, the Mallinkrodt Hi-Lo ETT (polyvinyl chloride cuff), and the Kimberly-Clark Microcuff ETT (polyurethane cuff), for leakage, in an acrylic mock trachea (..
  3. Zhao G, Ye L, Huang Y, Yang D, Li L, Xu G, et al. In vitro model of bacterial biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride biomaterial. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2011;61:371-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to establish an in vitro model of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material, and to investigate bacterial biofilm formation and its structure using the combined approach of confocal ..
  4. Kawakami T, Isama K, Matsuoka A. Analysis of phthalic acid diesters, monoester, and other plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride household products in Japan. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2011;46:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..DEHA), 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate (TMPDIB)], and mono 2-ethylhexyl phthalate(MEHP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) household products that children often places in their mouths and/or contact with their skin (41 ..
  5. Shu Y, Chen X, Wang J. Ionic liquid-polyvinyl chloride ionomer for highly selective isolation of basic proteins. Talanta. 2010;81:637-42 pubmed publisher
    Hydrophilic ionic liquid-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hybrids were prepared by immobilizing N-methylimidazole (N-mim) to PVC chains in toluene...
  6. Hsieh H, Chen P, Wong R, Du C, Chang Y, Wang J, et al. Mortality from liver cancer and leukaemia among polyvinyl chloride workers in Taiwan: an updated study. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and the temporal mortality trends of these cancers in workers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing factories in Taiwan, with follow-up of the cohort extended by 15 years, from 1980 to ..
  7. Jaakkola J, Knight T. The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:845-53 pubmed publisher
    Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence has not been reviewed systematically...
  8. Walter R, Lin P, Edwards M, Richardson R. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems. Water Res. 2011;45:2607-15 pubmed publisher
    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines...
  9. Kanazi G, El Khatib M, Nasr V, Kaddoum R, Al Alami A, Baraka A, et al. A comparison of a silicone wire-reinforced tube with the Parker and polyvinyl chloride tubes for tracheal intubation through an intubating laryngeal mask airway in patients with normal airways undergoing general anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:994-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the silicone wire-reinforced tube is expensive, alternatives, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and posterior beveled Parker tubes, are worth considering...

More Information


  1. Witjes J, Del Popolo G, Marberger M, Jonsson O, Kaps H, Chapple C. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel group study comparing polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride-free catheter materials. J Urol. 2009;182:2794-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study we compared a polyvinyl chloride catheter with a new polyvinyl chloride-free catheter with the same hydrophilic coating, and determined whether patient perception of ease and comfort of clean intermittent catheterization was ..
  2. Fristachi A, Xu Y, Rice G, Impellitteri C, Carlson Lynch H, Little J. Using probabilistic modeling to evaluate human exposure to organotin in drinking water transported by polyvinyl chloride pipe. Risk Anal. 2009;29:1615-28 pubmed publisher
    The leaching of organotin (OT) heat stabilizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes used in residential drinking water systems may affect the quality of drinking water...
  3. Seil J, Rubien N, Webster T, Tarquinio K. Comparison of quantification methods illustrates reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa activity on nanorough polyvinyl chloride. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2011;98:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After creating nanorough polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were then grown on sample surfaces during a 24-h culture...
  4. Huang L, Lee C, Hsu P, Shih T. The association between semen quality in workers and the concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in polyvinyl chloride pellet plant air. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:90-4 pubmed publisher
    To investigate potential associations between semen quality in workers and the concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in personal air collected from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plants.
  5. Xia S, Li J, He S, Xie K, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al. The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms in a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:6601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms was investigated using a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. The low and high loadings were set at 0.33 and 0.52 gCOD/(gVSSd), respectively...
  6. Larsson M, Hagerhed Engman L, Kolarik B, James P, Lundin F, Janson S, et al. PVC--as flooring material--and its association with incident asthma in a Swedish child cohort study. Indoor Air. 2010;20:494-501 pubmed publisher
    ..This emphasizes the need for prospective studies that focus on the importance of prenatal and neonatal exposure to phthalates in the development of asthma and allergy in children. ..
  7. Rose R, Priston M, Rigby Jones A, Sneyd J. The effect of temperature on di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leaching from PVC infusion sets exposed to lipid emulsions. Anaesthesia. 2012;67:514-20 pubmed publisher
    ..kg(-1) day(-1) if lipid based infusates are used for sedation or intravenous feeding of infants or neonates. ..
  8. Carlstedt F, Jönsson B, Bornehag C. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air. 2013;23:32-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)...
  9. Kregiel D, Berlowska J, Mizerska U, Fortuniak W, Chojnowski J, Ambroziak W. Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer in inhibiting adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;29:1197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Polyvinyl chloride and silicone elastomer surfaces were activated and modified with reactive organo-silanes by coupling or co-..
  10. Mahmoodpoor A, Peyrovi far A, Hamishehkar H, Bakhtyiari Z, Mirinezhad M, Hamidi M, et al. Comparison of prophylactic effects of polyurethane cylindrical or tapered cuff and polyvinyl chloride cuff endotracheal tubes on ventilator-associated pneumonia. Acta Med Iran. 2013;51:461-6 pubmed
    ..So we conducted a study to compare the prophylactic effects of polyurethane-cylindrical or tapered cuff and polyvinyl chloride cuff endotracheal tubes (ETT) on ventilator-associated pneumonia...
  11. Pundir C, Chauhan N, Bhambi M. Activation of polyvinyl chloride sheet surface for covalent immobilization of oxalate oxidase and its evaluation as inert support in urinary oxalate determination. Anal Biochem. 2008;374:272-7 pubmed
    b>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets are a promising material for enzyme immobilization owing to the PVC's properties such as being chemically inert, corrosion free, weather resistant, tough, lightweight, and maintenance free and having a high ..
  12. Hardell L, Ohlson C, Fredrikson M. Occupational exposure to polyvinyl chloride as a risk factor for testicular cancer evaluated in a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1997;73:828-30 pubmed
    ..An increased odds ratio (OR) was found for exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) yielding an OR of 6.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-32)...
  13. Balazs D, Triandafillu K, Wood P, Chevolot Y, Van Delden C, Harms H, et al. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion on PVC endotracheal tubes by RF-oxygen glow discharge, sodium hydroxide and silver nitrate treatments. Biomaterials. 2004;25:2139-51 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that surface modifications that incorporate silver ions would be extremely effective at reducing bacterial colonization to medical devices...
  14. Vapnek J, Maynard F, Kim J. A prospective randomized trial of the LoFric hydrophilic coated catheter versus conventional plastic catheter for clean intermittent catheterization. J Urol. 2003;169:994-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it may be preferable for some patients, especially those with a history of difficult catheterization, urethral trauma or a high rate of urinary tract infection. ..
  15. Wong R, Chen P, Du C, Wang J, Cheng T. An increased standardised mortality ratio for liver cancer among polyvinyl chloride workers in Taiwan. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:405-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) corresponding to different causes of death in workers from polyvinyl chloride polymerisation factories in Taiwan...
  16. Wong R, Du C, Wang J, Chan C, Luo J, Cheng T. XRCC1 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms as susceptibility factors of plasma mutant p53 protein and anti-p53 antibody expression in vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:475-82 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that susceptible XRCC1 and CYP2E1 genotypes may modulate the mutation of the p53 gene among VCM-exposed workers. ..
  17. Sugita T, Hirayama K, Nino R, Ishibashi T, Yamada T. [Contents of phthalate in polyvinyl chloride toys]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2001;42:48-55 pubmed
    ..The highest content was found in a pacifier toy. DEHP was present in 20 of 68 samples and the content ranged from 2.0 mg/g to 380 mg/g. The mean content was 162 mg/g. It was found in 60% of domestic toys. ..
  18. Asséré A, Oulahal N, Carpentier B. Comparative evaluation of methods for counting surviving biofilm cells adhering to a polyvinyl chloride surface exposed to chlorine or drying. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1692-702 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare techniques for assessing biofilm populations previously subjected, or not, to inimical treatment by chlorine or drying...
  19. Ohlson C, Hardell L. Testicular cancer and occupational exposures with a focus on xenoestrogens in polyvinyl chloride plastics. Chemosphere. 2000;40:1277-82 pubmed
    ..six-fold increase in the risk for seminoma, one type of testicular cancer, among plastic workers exposed to polyvinyl chloride (PVC). No overrisks were observed for other plastics than PVC...
  20. Järnström H, Saarela K, Kalliokoski P, Pasanen A. Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures. Environ Int. 2008;34:420-7 pubmed
  21. Tuomainen A, Stark H, Seuri M, Hirvonen M, Linnainmaa M, Sieppi A, et al. Experimental PVC material challenge in subjects with occupational PVC exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1409-13 pubmed
    b>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials have been linked to asthma in several epidemiologic studies, but the possible causal factors remain unknown. We challenged 10 subjects experimentally to degraded PVC products under controlled conditions...
  22. Kaabachi O, Jemli B, Barguellil F, Boudabous A, Gargouri S, Amor A. [Comparative study of adherence of five Candida species to polyvinyl chloride]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2001;59:271-6 pubmed
    ..albicans. There is a relationship between the adherence of Candida species and their abilities to colonize the biomaterial. The species, which are more adherent, are those, which are more virulent. ..
  23. Xu H, Dinsdale D, Nemery B, Hoet P. Role of residual additives in the cytotoxicity and cytokine release caused by polyvinyl chloride particles in pulmonary cell cultures. Toxicol Sci. 2003;72:92-102 pubmed
    Occupational exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dust has been linked to pulmonary disease...
  24. Mastrangelo G, Fedeli U, Fadda E, Milan G, Turato A, Pavanello S. Lung cancer risk in workers exposed to poly(vinyl chloride) dust: a nested case-referent study. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:423-8 pubmed
  25. Block C. The effect of Perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against spores of Clostridium difficile and Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces. J Hosp Infect. 2004;57:144-8 pubmed
    ..These agents were evaluated against a water control, in a surface test on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor covering, materials commonly found in the hospital environment...
  26. Kuiper M, Wullings B, Akkermans A, Beumer R, van der Kooij D. Intracellular proliferation of Legionella pneumophila in Hartmannella vermiformis in aquatic biofilms grown on plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6826-33 pubmed
    ..pneumophila in protozoa in aquatic biofilms developing at high concentrations on plasticized polyvinyl chloride in a batch system with autoclaved tap water...
  27. Hardell L, Malmqvist N, Ohlson C, Westberg H, Eriksson M. Testicular cancer and occupational exposure to polyvinyl chloride plastics: a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2004;109:425-9 pubmed
    Exposure to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics as a risk factor for testicular cancer was investigated. In total, 981 cases who were 20-75 years old and had reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry during 1993-1997 were included...
  28. Gourlay T, Samartzis I, Stefanou D, Taylor K. Inflammatory response of rat and human neutrophils exposed to di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phthalate-plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Artif Organs. 2003;27:256-60 pubmed
    ..of in vitro studies were designed to determine whether di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and DEHP itself initiated an inflammatory response in both human and rat blood...
  29. Wong R, Wang J, Hsieh L, Cheng T. XRCC1, CYP2E1 and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms and sister chromatid exchange frequency alterations amongst vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:433-40 pubmed
    ..genotypes affected sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in occupationally VCM-exposed workers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing plants...
  30. Hsiao T, Wang J, Yang P, Yang P, Cheng T. Liver fibrosis in asymptomatic polyvinyl chloride workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:962-6 pubmed
    ..5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-25.4) when compared with workers who did not have history of high exposure jobs. We concluded that there was an increased risk of developing liver fibrosis in PVC workers who had high exposure to VCM. ..
  31. Smith D, Bauer S, Nicolau D. Stability of meropenem in polyvinyl chloride bags and an elastomeric infusion device. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004;61:1682-5 pubmed
    The stability of meropenem in i.v. solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and an elastomeric infusion device at concentrations commonly used in home care was studied...
  32. Gennaro V, Ceppi M, Crosignani P, Montanaro F. Reanalysis of updated mortality among vinyl and polyvinyl chloride workers: Confirmation of historical evidence and new findings. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:21 pubmed publisher
    The production of vinyl chloride (VC) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) involves the use of various chemicals, some known to be toxic and potentially or definitely carcinogenic...
  33. Al Malack M. Migration of lead from unplasticized polyvinyl chloride pipes. J Hazard Mater. 2001;82:263-74 pubmed
    ..migration of lead, tin and other metal stabilizers, such as calcium, cadmium, and barium from unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes were investigated using locally manufactured pipes...
  34. Huh W, Masuji Y, Tada J, Arata J, Kaniwa M. Allergic contact dermatitis from a pyridine derivative in polyvinyl chloride leather. Am J Contact Dermat. 2001;12:35-7 pubmed
    ..a case of severe contact dermatitis caused by a pyridine derivative used as an antifungal agent in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) leather of a chair. An open patch test was performed with each ingredient of the PVC leather...
  35. Inoue K, Kondo S, Yoshie Y, Kato K, Yoshimura Y, Horie M, et al. Migration of 4-nonylphenol from polyvinyl chloride food packaging films into food simulants and foods. Food Addit Contam. 2001;18:157-64 pubmed
    Migration of 4-nonylphenol (NP) from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films for food packaging into food simulants and foods has been studied in domestic applications such as wrapping of food and reheating in a microwave oven...
  36. Tuomainen A, Seuri M, Sieppi A. Indoor air quality and health problems associated with damp floor coverings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004;77:222-6 pubmed
    ..asthma among employees working in an office building and an indoor air problem related to the degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor coverings in the building...
  37. Munoz X, Cruz M, Albanell M, Morell F. [Occupational asthma in food packers]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2003;39:324-6 pubmed
    ..While polyvinyl chloride (PVC) appeared to be the causal agent in this case, the possible role of other etiological agents is also ..
  38. Ghaedi M, Niknam K, Shokrollahi A, Niknam E, Ghaedi H, Soylak M. A solid phase extraction procedure for Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions on 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d] imidazole loaded on Triton X-100-coated polyvinyl chloride. J Hazard Mater. 2008;158:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of Fe(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d] imidazole (PHBI) loaded on Triton X-100-coated polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The influences of the analytical parameters including pH and sample volume were investigated...
  39. Bornehag C, Sundell J, Hagerhed Engman L, Sigsggard T, Janson S, Aberg N. 'Dampness' at home and its association with airway, nose, and skin symptoms among 10,851 preschool children in Sweden: a cross-sectional study. Indoor Air. 2005;15 Suppl 10:48-55 pubmed
    ..The study have showed that moisture-related problems in buildings are a risk factor for asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children. The recommendation to the general public is to remediate damp buildings. ..
  40. Earls A, Axford I, Braybrook J. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of the migration of phthalate plasticisers from polyvinyl chloride toys and childcare articles. J Chromatogr A. 2003;983:237-46 pubmed
    ..Two laboratory-based linear horizontal agitation methods for determining a range of phthalate esters from soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys are presented in compliance with EU legislation...
  41. Pascall M, Zabik M, Zabik M, Hernandez R. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from an aqueous medium by polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene films. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:164-9 pubmed
    ..biphenyl (PCB) congeners (from tri to deca chlorinated) by three food-packaging plastic films [polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene] from an aqueous solution was investigated...
  42. Parodi S, Gennaro V, Ceppi M, Cocco P. Comparison bias and dilution effect in occupational cohort studies. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2007;13:143-52 pubmed
    ..In the two cohorts, higher risks in exposed workers emerged only after adjusting for DE and CB. Cohort studies without an internal referent group may provide unreliable results. ..
  43. Gennaro V, Ceppi M, Montanaro F. [Reanalysis of mortality in a petrochemical plant producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride]. Epidemiol Prev. 2003;27:221-5 pubmed
  44. Gennaro V. [The power of numbers]. Epidemiol Prev. 2005;29:133-4 pubmed
  45. Hill H, Oliver C, Lippert L, Greenwalt T, Hess J. The effects of polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin blood bags on red blood cells stored in a new additive solution. Vox Sang. 2001;81:161-6 pubmed
    Red blood cells (RBCs) must be stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags plasticized with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate or a similar plasticizer to achieve their full storage life with conventional storage solutions...
  46. Dombrowsky M, Kirschner A, Sommer R. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities. Water Sci Technol. 2013;68:929-33 pubmed publisher
    ..was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R...
  47. Chapman J, Regan F. Sebacic and succinic acid derived plasticised PVC for the inhibition of biofouling in its initial stages. J Appl Biomater Biomech. 2011;9:176-84 pubmed publisher
  48. Estivill D, Arias A, Torres Lana A, Carrillo Munoz A, Arevalo M. Biofilm formation by five species of Candida on three clinical materials. J Microbiol Methods. 2011;86:238-42 pubmed publisher
  49. Farhadi K, Bahram M, Shokatynia D, Salehiyan F. Optimization of polymeric triiodide membrane electrode based on clozapine-triiodide ion-pair using experimental design. Talanta. 2008;76:320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed electrode was successfully used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of triiodide ions and ascorbic acid. ..
  50. Gowen A, O Donnell C, Esquerre C, Downey G. Influence of polymer packaging films on hyperspectral imaging data in the visible-near-infrared (450-950 nm) wavelength range. Appl Spectrosc. 2010;64:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This research examines the effects of polymer packaging films (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) on spectral and spatial features of HSI data in order to ..
  51. Corea Téllez K, Bustamante Montes P, García Fábila M, Hernández Valero M, Vázquez Moreno F. Estimated risks of water and saliva contamination by phthalate diffusion from plasticized polyvinyl chloride. J Environ Health. 2008;71:34-9, 45 pubmed
    Phthalates are additives commonly used to convert hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins into flexible and workable plastics employed in the production of chewable rubber toys and other soft-plastic products...
  52. Xu L, Lee H. Sulfonated polyvinyl chloride fibers for cation-exchange microextraction. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:6549-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fiber was derivatized by concentrated sulfuric acid to yield sulfonated PVC (PVC-SO3H). The PVC-SO3H fiber had dual properties as a sorbent, based on cation-exchange and hydrophobicity...
  53. Guo X, Chen X, Hu W. Studies on cleaning the polyvinylchloride ultrafiltration membrane fouled by sodium alginate. Environ Technol. 2009;30:431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..During chemical cleaning, the flux recovery rates were over 100%, which were assumed to be the results of membrane surface modification caused by NaOH cleaning. ..